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The Gangnam WGWAG Playboy Chronicles (II)

In this series, I am going to give random snippets of said G...
nyuug
  09/08/16
BEEP BEEP BEEP
***AUTISM ALERT***
  09/08/16
surprisingly credited analysis.
nyuug
  09/08/16
Wikipedia Search EditWatch this pageRead in another languag...
The Sheer Entitled Caucasity
  05/28/18
Wikipedia Search EditWatch this pageRead in another languag...
The Sheer Entitled Caucasity
  05/28/18
this is normal and healthy.
american space force
  09/08/16
getting laid has never been about how hot you are, how much ...
nyuug
  09/08/16
lisped the guy who was a virgin throughout high school and c...
\'\"\'\"\"\'\"
  09/08/16
lost my v-card to a white girl senior year when i was still ...
nyuug
  09/08/16
she was a prostitute though. LJL
\'\"\'\"\"\'\"
  09/08/16
Ouch.
8========D~~~
  09/08/16
if you are an asian man, your first girl should be a white g...
nyuug
  09/08/16
she was an escort LJL
\'\"\'\"\"\'\"
  09/08/16
white prostitute*
The DJT USSF INTERGALACTIC JUGGERNAUT
  09/08/16
What excuse did you give your mommy for why you needed the $...
my dog faces more systemic racism than I do
  09/08/16
Wikipedia Search EditWatch this pageRead in another languag...
The Sheer Entitled Caucasity
  05/28/18
Wikipedia Search EditWatch this pageRead in another languag...
The Sheer Entitled Caucasity
  05/28/18
Interesting
playing with fire
  09/08/16
feel free to ask me any questions about my app game
nyuug
  09/08/16
what apps do you use?
\'\"\'\"\"\'\"
  09/08/16
i use a mix of korean and non-korean ones
nyuug
  09/08/16
Wikipedia Search EditWatch this pageRead in another languag...
The Sheer Entitled Caucasity
  05/28/18
"Now, pay close attention. 1. Ask where she lives, a...
The DJT USSF INTERGALACTIC JUGGERNAUT
  09/08/16
...
my dog faces more systemic racism than I do
  09/08/16
...
lsd
  09/08/16
Lol
...,.,.,.....,,,
  09/08/16
...
\'\"\'\"\"\'\"
  09/08/16
...
there's a wocket in my pocket
  09/08/16
casanowag
Pumonymous
  02/06/17
...
north atlantid
  11/29/19
i am xoxo's #1 sex-threader and have been since i came back ...
nyuug
  11/29/19
Saved for posterity
\'\'\"\'\"\"\"\'\'\'\'
  09/08/16
what app did you use for the 18 year old American girl?
\'\"\'\"\"\'\"
  09/08/16
i use about 6-7 different apps. not going to name which ones...
nyuug
  09/08/16
Yea, that might out you!
The DJT USSF INTERGALACTIC JUGGERNAUT
  09/08/16
it very well may might. so non-disclosure is the safest opti...
nyuug
  09/08/16
Yep, the name of a dating app will definitely do more to out...
.,.,...,.,,..,:,,:,...,:;:,...,:,.,:....:.,:.::,
  09/08/16
LOLOLOLOLOL
The DJT USSF INTERGALACTIC JUGGERNAUT
  09/08/16
...
american space force
  09/08/16
...
\'\"\'\"\"\'\"
  09/09/16
lol 6-7 apps. you won';t answer this question because you ar...
\'\"\'\"\"\'\"
  09/08/16
You will never receive an answer on this. Not ever.
.,.,...,.,,..,:,,:,...,:;:,...,:,.,:....:.,:.::,
  09/08/16
odd case. this is the biggest red flag to me
\'\"\'\"\"\'\"
  09/08/16
"We met online you aspie lol. :)"
.,.,...,.,,..,:,,:,...,:;:,...,:,.,:....:.,:.::,
  09/08/16
Extremely beta to ask when she's free rather than asking for...
;;;..;....;......,,,
  09/08/16
You can do it this way too. The problem with this method is ...
nyuug
  09/08/16
pretty good but we're waiting for the episode where you disc...
lsd
  09/08/16
C++. so incredulous.
nyuug
  09/08/16
Wikipedia Search EditWatch this pageRead in another languag...
The Sheer Entitled Caucasity
  05/28/18
*popcorns*
Earl's lower back in fight of its life
  09/08/16
*self deports*
The DJT USSF INTERGALACTIC JUGGERNAUT
  09/08/16
(ugly kike with small dick and big titties)
Earl's lower back in fight of its life
  09/08/16
(NOWAG virgin rejected by all 176 million women in N.America...
The DJT USSF INTERGALACTIC JUGGERNAUT
  09/08/16
Lol at you two faggots
american space force
  09/08/16
kikes gonna kike
Earl's lower back in fight of its life
  09/08/16
(actual bowlcut clitdick)
The DJT USSF INTERGALACTIC JUGGERNAUT
  09/08/16
lol
the gorgon
  09/09/16
BUMP for this stupid fuck: http://www.xoxohth.com/threa...
nyuug
  09/23/16
Wikipedia Search EditWatch this pageRead in another languag...
The Sheer Entitled Caucasity
  05/28/18
bump for 30 pizzas http://www.autoadmit.com/thread.php?th...
nyuug
  10/03/16
Wikipedia Search EditWatch this pageRead in another languag...
The Sheer Entitled Caucasity
  05/28/18
...
exeunt (SCAMMED dtp)
  10/14/16
lol
Oh, you travel?
  10/14/16
...
nyuug
  12/01/16
Wikipedia Search EditWatch this pageRead in another languag...
The Sheer Entitled Caucasity
  05/28/18
bump for: http://www.autoadmit.com/thread.php?thread_id=3...
nyuug
  02/06/17
Wikipedia Search EditWatch this pageRead in another languag...
The Sheer Entitled Caucasity
  05/28/18
Wikipedia Search EditWatch this pageRead in another languag...
The Sheer Entitled Caucasity
  05/28/18
pumo bump
nyuug
  08/14/17
Wikipedia Search EditWatch this pageRead in another languag...
The Sheer Entitled Caucasity
  05/28/18
socatoa bump.
nyuug
  09/29/17
Wikipedia Search EditWatch this pageRead in another languag...
The Sheer Entitled Caucasity
  05/28/18
DTP bump. http://xoxohth.com/thread.php?thread_id=3932537...
nyuug
  03/28/18
Wikipedia Search EditWatch this pageRead in another languag...
The Sheer Entitled Caucasity
  05/28/18
bump for this stupid fuck: http://xoxohth.com/thread.php?...
nyuug
  05/28/18
Wikipedia Search EditWatch this pageRead in another languag...
The Sheer Entitled Caucasity
  05/28/18
bump for this stupid fuck: http://xoxohth.com/thread.php?...
nyuug
  09/14/18
...
nyuug
  11/26/18
...
nyuug
  11/27/18
...
nyuug
  11/29/18
180 brother
"'''"''"
  11/29/18
tyty
nyuug
  11/29/18
...
nyuug
  01/21/19
...
nyuug
  06/13/19
bump for this stupid fuck: http://www.xoxohth.com/thread....
nyuug
  07/11/19
bump for this dummy http://xoxohth.com/thread.php?thread_...
nyuug
  07/18/19
...
nyuug
  11/29/19
bump for this dummy http://www.xoxohth.com/thread.php?thr...
nyuug
  01/14/20


Poast new message in this thread



Reply Favorite

Date: September 8th, 2016 9:47 PM
Author: nyuug (18 yr old American girl ridin dat Yellow Monster Gangnam Style)

In this series, I am going to give random snippets of said Gangnam WGWAG Playboy lifestyle.

****APP MASTERMAN****

The smartphone has changed the pussy game for those of us who know how to exploit it.

Traditional dating was always limited by one factor: time. Apps have essentially eliminated this element, allowing for an infinite number of new girls. One way you can view online dating vis a vis regular dating is house poker games vs online poker.

During any given house game, you can go through maybe a couple dozen hands depending on the number of players, pace, etc. In online poker, you can 12 table, track players, etc - essentially you can play an unlimited number of hands.

Now, when you are playing online poker, you have certain algorithms that you follow in order to manage such high volume and still win overall, despite massive swings at times. Online dating is exactly the same, and the key is to know how to filter DTF girls from non-DTF girls.

So how does it work? Simple. Just follow these guidelines:

As a general rule, get her number upon initial contact or no more than 10 minutes after initial contact. Kakao ID is an acceptable substitute, depending on the circumstance.

After getting the #, load her Kakao profile by refreshing immediately after adding her # and establish contact on Kakao. If at any point after getting her #, you suspect that she is fake, ask to voice confirm.

Now, pay close attention.

1. Ask where she lives.

This is important because logistics are important. You can gauge how long a trip from her place to yours will take and, to some degree, her priority relative to your other prospects.

2. Tell her that you have an apartment in (Gangnam).

This conveys status, amongst other things. This lets her gauge distance as well.

3. Ask her when she is free during the week.

Find a date that works for the both of you. Red flag is if she is not available sometime in the next 7 days. This usually means she is meeting other guys and keeping you on the backburner.

4. After confirming the date, tell her to meet at your neighborhood.

This is probably the most important step: if a girl is not willing to come to your neighborhood, she is playing games and the probability of you fucking is near zero.

Essentially, if a girl agrees to come to YOU, it means you are fucking. Plain and simple. Girls will travel for guys they want to fuck.

5. If a girl says she does not want to meet you at your neighborhood you have two choices: walk, or up the ante.

There may be a million reasons why you feel pursuing a particular girl is not worth it. If so, let her go and move on.

But if you feel she is worth pursuing up the ante. Say, "Okay. Since you do not want to come to my neighborhood, I will go ahead and pick you up and we can cab it back to my neighborhood."

If she says no, then you know she was bullshitting from the start. If she says yes, then congratulations. Bite the bullet and pay the cab fare back to your place.

There are a number of other filters but this is the most essential.

Online dating and apps have truly changed the name of the game.

(http://www.autoadmit.com/thread.php?thread_id=3345436&forum_id=2#31364715)



Reply Favorite

Date: September 8th, 2016 9:54 PM
Author: ***AUTISM ALERT***

BEEP BEEP BEEP

(http://www.autoadmit.com/thread.php?thread_id=3345436&forum_id=2#31364779)



Reply Favorite

Date: September 8th, 2016 10:42 PM
Author: nyuug (18 yr old American girl ridin dat Yellow Monster Gangnam Style)

surprisingly credited analysis.

(http://www.autoadmit.com/thread.php?thread_id=3345436&forum_id=2#31365253)



Reply Favorite

Date: May 28th, 2018 11:43 PM
Author: The Sheer Entitled Caucasity

Wikipedia Search

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Conscription in South Korea

Conscription in South Korea has existed since 1957 and requires male citizens between the ages of 18 and 35 to perform about two years of compulsory military service.[1][2] Women are not required to perform military service, but may voluntarily enlist.[3]

Establishment Edit

The basis for military conscription in South Korea is the Constitution of the Republic of Korea, which was promulgated on July 17, 1948. The constitution states in Article 39, "All citizens shall have the duty of national defense under the conditions as prescribed by Act."[4][5] The Military Service Act of 1949, which was implemented in 1957, specified that compulsory military service is required for men ages 18 or older.[6][2] Conscription is managed by the Military Manpower Administration, which was created in 1948.[7]

Requirements Edit

Enlistment and physical exam Edit

By law, when a Korean man turns 18 years old, he is enlisted for "first citizen service," meaning he is liable for military duty, but is not yet required to serve.[6][8] When he turns 19 years old (or, in some instances, 20 years old), he is required to undergo a physical exam to determine whether he is suitable for military service. The table below shows the physical exam's possible grades and their outcomes, according to the Military Service Act.[9]

Grade Description Outcome

1, 2, 3, 4 "Those whose physical and psychological constitution is healthy enough to perform active or supplemental service." "To be enlisted for active duty service, supplemental service or the second citizen service, based on their qualifications, such as educational background and age."

5 "Those incapable of entering active or supplemental service, but capable of entering the second citizen service." "To be enlisted for the second citizen service."

6 "Those incapable of performing military service due to any disease or mental or physical incompetence." "To be exempted from military service."

7 "Those unable to be graded...due to any disease or mental or physical incompetence." "To undergo a follow-up physical examination" within two years.

Service types and length Edit

The length of compulsory military service in South Korea varies based on military branch.[10] Active duty soldiers serve 21 months in the Army or Marine Corps, 23 months in the Navy, and 24 months in the Air Force.[11] After conscripts finish their military service, they are automatically placed on the reserve roster and are obligated to attend a few days of annual military training for 6 years.[citation needed]

Non-active duty personnel, or "supplemental service" personnel serve for various lengths: 24 months for social work personnel or international cooperation service personnel; 34 months for arts and sports personnel or industrial technical personnel; and 36 months for public health doctors, lawyers, veterinarians, or expert researchers.[12]

South Korea currently has among the longest military service periods in the world, ranked behind Israel, Singapore, and North Korea.[citation needed] In 2010, there was growing public pressure to either shorten the length of conscription or to switch to voluntary military service, and calls from experts for a gradual phasing out of conscription rather than complete abolition.[13] However, in December 2010, after taking into consideration of the 2010 ROKS Cheonan sinking and Bombardment of Yeonpyeong incidents, the South Korean government said it would not reduce service periods.[14]

Exemptions for Olympic medalists Edit

Current conscription regulations stipulate that athletes who win medals in the Olympic Games or gold medals in the Asian Games are granted exemptions from military service and are placed in Grade 4.[15] They are required to do four weeks of basic military training and engage in sports field for 34 months. After that, they are automatically placed on the reserve roster, and are obligated to attend a few days of annual military training for six years. In practice, after athletes finish their four weeks of basic military training, they are able to continue their own sports career during the 34 months of duty.[16]

Notable athletes who have been granted exemptions from military service are the bronze medal-winning football team at the 2012 Summer Olympics,[17][18] 2008 Olympic gold medalists badminton player Lee Yong-dae[19] and swimmer Park Tae-hwan[20][21] and 2014 Asian Games gold medalist tennis player Hyeon Chung.[22]

Compensation Edit

The following data is from 'Regulation on Public Servant Compensation', implemented on 1 January 2017.[23] Exchange rate as of 2 May 2018 (₩1077 to $1.00USD)

Private (이등병) Private first class (일등병) Corporal (상등병) Sergeant (병장)

₩163,000

$151.35 (approx) per month ₩176,400

$163.79 (approx) per month ₩195,000

$181.06 (approx) per month ₩216,000

$200.56 (approx) per month

Equipment Edit

The Ministry of National Defense has revealed that it has failed to provide sneakers to 7,411 recruits who joined the military from 22 May to 4 June 2012, after the budget was insufficient for need. The Defense ministry originally projected the cost of each pair of sneakers to be 11,000 KRW. However, the actual cost turned out to be 15,000 KRW.[24]

The office of National Assembly member Kim Kwang-jin of Democratic United Party revealed that cadets in Korea Military Academy were provided with sneakers worth 60,000 KRW and tennis shoes. Cadets in Korea Army Academy at Yeongcheon were provided with sneakers worth 64,250 KRW, in addition to running shoes and soccer shoes.[25]

Dual citizens Edit

For dual citizens, or those with multiple citizenships, male South Koreans must choose their citizenship by the time they turn 18, before March 31 of that year. If these males choose to revoke their South Korean citizenship, they will not be required to complete their mandatory military service. However, if they fail to choose their citizenship by their 18th year, they will be subjected to fulfill their mandatory military service.[26] If males choose to renounce their citizenship by their 18th year, they are ineligible to gain a Korean work visa (F series) until after they turn 40 years of age. It may still be possible to gain an E series visa.

Controversies Edit

The South Korean public is sensitive towards the country's mandatory military service, but also has a low tolerance towards those who attempt to dodge or receive special treatment, especially after scandals of wealthy families caught trying to avoid their national duty. Those found or accused of draft dodging and negligence of duty often face harsh penalties and public backlash. According to Ha Jae-keun, a South Korean pop columnist, "The mood against draft-dodgers and negligence of duty is so hostile that nowadays entertainers feel it's better to get it over and done with".[27][28]

Steve Yoo Edit

In 2002, right before Korean American pop singer Steve Yoo was due to be drafted for his military service, he gave up his Korean nationality and became a naturalized U.S. citizen. He was born in Seoul and migrated to the United States at the age of 13. The South Korean government considered it an act of desertion and deported him, banning him from entering the country permanently.[29]

Song Seung-heon Edit

In late 2004, it was revealed that actor Song Seung-heon had avoided his draft by taking medication to fail the military physical examination. Song had previously been exempted by claiming to have severe diabetes and high blood pressure, but that was found by the South Korean government to be false.[30] Amidst press coverage and public outcry, Song publicly apologized and agreed to immediately serve his two-year term in the military. Song was discharged on 15 November 2006 with the rank of Corporal.[31][32]

MC Mong Edit

On 11 April 2011, rapper MC Mong was cleared of intentionally pulling out healthy teeth to be exempted from military duty but was sentenced to a suspended jail term of 6 months, probation for one year, and 120 hours of community service, for deliberately delaying enlistment on false grounds.[33] The court acknowledged that there was a delay in his military enlistment; however, they were unable to determine whether he was guilty of extracting teeth for the purpose of avoiding his military draft. In September 2011, it was reported that Mong has been banned by Korean Broadcasting System (KBS) and Munhwa Broadcasting Corporation (MBC) from appearing in its TV shows, for draft dodging.[34]

Kim Mu-yeol Edit

In June 2012 Kim Mu-yeol came under growing public criticism over allegations he dodged his compulsory military service. In a report released by the Korean Board of Audit and Inspection (BAI), Kim was deemed fit to serve in active duty as a level two recruit after a March 2001 physical examination. However, throughout 2007 to 2009, Kim was granted postponement on the grounds that he was taking civil service examinations or had been admitted to a work training facility, neither of which took place. During this time he reportedly earned approximately ₩300 million from films, musicals and television work. In December 2009, he received his final notice for enlistment, having used up the 730 days allowed for postponement. He submitted a request to change his military status in January 2010 because of a knee injury, which was rejected. Finally, a valid exemption was granted on the grounds that he was a "low-income individual" and the sole provider for his family. BAI's contention was that Kim's income is substantially higher than the standard for disqualification due to poverty; thus, the Military Manpower Administration was negligent in their duties by granting the exemption.[35][36][37]

Kim's agency Prain TPC defended him, stating that Kim had been supporting his family by working as a security guard, construction worker and at a mobile phone factory since his late teens. When his father collapsed from a cerebral hemorrhage and was diagnosed with cancer in 2008, the treatments incurred a lot of debt for the family. Their worsening financial condition caused them to become totally dependent on Kim, resulting in his said filing for an exemption in 2010.[38] Given the publicity, a reinvestigation into the case was launched and Kim was asked by the production company to leave the film 11 A.M. (he was replaced by Choi Daniel).[39][40] On 4 October 2012, Kim released a statement that though there was no wrongdoing on his part, he had decided to voluntarily enter the army "to recover his honor damaged by the rumors."[41][42]

T.O.P Edit

T.O.P began his two-year mandatory military service on February 9, 2017 as a conscripted police officer, where he was set to be discharged on November 8, 2018 after completing the requirements.[43] However, it was announced in June that he would be prosecuted without detention for use of marijuana.[44] He was subsequently transferred to a different police division to await notice of prosecution, and was suspended from police duty pending verdict on his case.[45] A few days after the announcement, T.O.P was found unconscious in police barracks due to a suspected anti-anxiety medicine overdose of prescribed benzodiazepine,[46] and was hospitalized.[47] On June 8, T.O.P's mother confirmed that her son had opened his eyes and was recovering.[48]

On June 29, T.O.P faced his first trial for the marijuana usage charges at the Seoul Central District Court.[49] He pleaded guilty to the charges against him and admitted that he did smoke marijuana on two out of the four instances.[50] T.O.P received two years of probation, with a possibility of ten months' jail time if he violates any terms.[51] At the second court hearing the following month, T.O.P was sentenced to 10 months in prison suspended for two years for illegal marijuana use.[52] He acknowledged all guilty charges. After undergoing a disciplinary review by the police to decide if T.O.P could return as a conscripted policeman or will complete his service as a public service officer,[53] the Seoul Metropolitan Police Agency reviewed T.O.P's current condition and decided T.O.P is unfit to resume service in his previous position.[54][55] A request was made to Army headquarters for a new position for T.O.P to determine either to serve as a public service worker of a full-time reserve soldier to complete his mandatory service.[56][57] T.O.P was eventually assigned reservist status by the Ministry of National Defense and transferred from police department.[58] He will complete his mandatory service as a public service worker.[59] The time T.O.P had been dismissed from duty during his prosecution will not count towards his total service.[60][61]

Conscientious objection Edit

The right to conscientious objection is not recognised in South Korea.[62] Usually, over 400 people are imprisoned at any one time for refusing military service, for political or religious reasons. This is contrary to international human rights standards and the government of Korea have been repeatedly criticised for not allowing those whose conscience prevents them from joining the military to undertake some kind of substitute service, rather than imprisoning them.

See also Edit

Republic of Korea Armed Forces

Republic of Korea Army

Republic of Korea Marine Corps

Republic of Korea Navy

Republic of Korea Air Force

References Edit

^ "병역이행안내 - 개요(총괄)" [Military Service Implementation Guide - General Overview]. Military Manpower Organization (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-12-28.

^ a b Lee, Namhee (2007). The Making of Minjung: Democracy and the Politics of Representation in South Korea. Cornell University Press. p. 91. ISBN 0801445663.

^ "S. Korea to expand women's role in military". Yonhap News Agency. 2017-12-20. Retrieved 2017-12-28.

^ "Constitution of the Republic of Korea" (PDF). 1987. p. 12. Retrieved 2017-12-27.

^ Kim, Jongcheol (2012). "Constitutional Law". Introduction to Korean Law. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 78. ISBN 3642316891.

^ a b "Military Service Act, Article 8". Korean Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-29.

^ "History". Military Manpower Administration. Retrieved 2017-12-29.

^ "Military Service Act, Article 5". Korean Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-29.

^ "Military Service Act, Articles 10-14". Korean Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-29.

^ Lent, Jesse (2016-04-01). "'Descendants Of The Sun' Star Song Joong Ki Discusses His Time In The South Korean Army". Korea Portal. Retrieved 2017-12-30.

^ "Military Service Act, Article 18". Korea Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-30.

^ "Military Service Act, Articles 26-43". Korea Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-30.

^ "Conscription 'Should Be Phased Out Slowly'". Chosun Ilbo. 2010-07-06. Retrieved 2017-12-30.

^ Kim, Christine (2010-12-22). "Plan to cut compulsory military service scrapped". Korea JoongAng Daily. Retrieved 2017-12-30.

^ "제68조의11(예술ㆍ체육요원의 추천 등) [Article 68-11: Recommendation of arts and sports personnel, etc.]". 병역법 시행령 [Military Service Act Implementation Rules]. South Korea: Ministry of Government Legislation. 29 November 2016. Retrieved 6 April 2018. 법 제33조의7제1항 전단에서 "대통령령으로 정하는 예술·체육 분야의 특기를 가진 사람"이란 다음 각 호의 어느 하나에 해당하는 사람을 말한다. ... 4. 올림픽대회에서 3위 이상으로 입상한 사람(단체경기종목의 경우에는 실제로 출전한 선수만 해당한다) 5. 아시아경기대회에서 1위로 입상한 사람(단체경기종목의 경우에는 실제로 출전한 선수만 해당한다). [In Article 33, Paragraph 7, Subparagraph 2 of the Act, 'a person having special talents in arts and athletics fields, as defined by presidential order' refers to persons to whom are applicable any one of the provisions of the following subparagraphs. ... 4. A person who received a prize for ranked third or above at the Olympics (in the case of team events, only applicable to athletes who actually participated). 5. A person who received a prize for ranking first at the Asian Games (in the case of team events, only applicable to athletes who actually participated).]

^ "리우에서도 떠오른 축구대표팀 '병역특례'".

^ "Footballer to Be Spared Military Service Despite IOC Probe". Chosun Ilbo. 14 August 2012. Retrieved 2 October 2012.

^ "Medal instead of military service". The Hankyoreh. 11 August 2012. Retrieved 25 February 2013.

^ "들쭉날쭉 병역특례기준 '형평성' 논란…병무청 '누적점수제' 추진" (in Korean). Yonhap News Agency. September 30, 2016.

^ "Park Tae-hwan Enters Army Boot Camp". Chosun Ilbo. 5 October 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2012.

^ "Star Swimmer Says Army Boot Camp Helped Him Grow". Chosun Ilbo. 1 November 2012. Retrieved 4 April 2013.

^ "Hyeon Chung Participates In Korean Military Training - ATP World Tour - Tennis - ATP World Tour - Tennis".

^ 공무원보수규정 '별표 13' 군인의 봉급표(제5조 및 별표 1 관련) . Korea Ministry of Government Legislation (in Korean). Retrieved 28 April 2015.

^ 조, 기호 (18 July 2012). "운동화 한 켤레 못 주는 군(軍)!". Seoul Broadcasting System. Retrieved 4 August 2012.

^ "[보도자료] 예산 없다던 국방부, 사관생도에게는 고가 외국브랜드 운동화 지급". Retrieved 4 August 2012.[dead link]

^ "FAQs-Dual Citizens | U.S. Embassy & Consulate in Korea". U.S. Embassy & Consulate in Korea. Retrieved 2017-10-12.

^ "South Korean singer Rain reports for military service". BBC News. 11 October 2011. Retrieved 2011-10-14.

^ Park, Eun-jee (16 January 2013). "Military service mischief a losing battle". Joongang Daily. Archived from the original on 29 June 2013. Retrieved 4 April 2013.

^ Seo, Ji-eun "Steve Yoo isn’t coming back to Korea" Archived 6 January 2013 at the Wayback Machine. Joongang Daily. 20 October 2011. retrieved 2011-11-08

^ (in Korean) "최지우, '승헌이에게 말 걸어볼까?"[permanent dead link] SSTV. 30 June 2009. Retrieved 2011-11-06

^ "Song Seung-heon, Jang Hyeok Discharged from Military" HanCinema. 16 November 2011. Retrieved 2011-10-14

^ (in Korean) "Song Seung-heon discharged from the army"Yahoo News Korea, 2006-11-18. Archived 14 June 2011 at the Wayback Machine.

^ "Rapper Gets Suspended Jail Term for Draft Dodging" Chosun Ilbo. 12 April 2011. Retrieved 2011-10-14

^ "KBS, MBC release list of 36 banned entertainers" Dong-A Ilbo. 28 September 2011. 2011-10-14

^ Sunwoo, Carla (22 June 2012). "Actor Kim Moo-yul was poor enough to dodge military service". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 27 January 2013. Retrieved 6 October 2012.

^ Lee, In-kyung (21 June 2012). "Kim Moo Yul Involved in Military Scandal after Avoiding Duties". enewsWorld. Retrieved 2012-10-06.

^ "High-Paid Actor Exempted from Draft for Poverty". The Chosun Ilbo. 22 June 2012. Retrieved 2012-10-06.

^ Moon, Gwang-lip (25 June 2012). "Agent says Kim Moo-yul's family situation was 'nearly impossible'". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 11 August 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2012.

^ Sunwoo, Carla (10 July 2012). "Kim Moo-yul kicked off movie set". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 26 January 2013. Retrieved 6 October 2012.

^ Sunwoo, Carla (11 July 2012). "Choi Daniel to replace Kim Moo-yul". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 5 August 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2012.

^ Lee, Hye-ji (5 October 2012). "Kim Moo-yeol to Enter Army, Cleaning out Exemption Rumors". 10Asia. Retrieved 2012-11-18.

^ Sunwoo, Carla (11 October 2011). "Kim Moo-yul enlists after rumors". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 26 October 2012. Retrieved 18 November 2012.

^ "BIGBANG's T.O.P confirms military enlistment date". Yibada. November 22, 2016.

^ "The Full Story Behind T.O.P's Drug Scandal, And The Mysterious Trainee Woman". June 2, 2017. Retrieved June 8, 2017.

^ Jun, R. "BIGBANG's T.O.P To Be Dismissed From Duty For Duration of Prosecution". Soompi. Retrieved 8 June 2017.

^ "Medical expert comments on T.O.P's benzodiazepine overdose | allkpop.com". allkpop. Retrieved 2017-06-09.

^ "BIGBANG's T.O.P hospitalized for drug overdose". YonhapNews. June 6, 2017. Retrieved June 6, 2017.

^ "K-pop superstar T.O.P. in intensive care after overdose". BBC. June 8, 2017. Retrieved June 28, 2017.

^ Kim Jung-kyoon (June 30, 2017). "T.O.P admits to all charges at first hearing". Korea JoongAng Daily. Retrieved July 19, 2017.

^ "Big Bang's T.O.P pleads guilty to pot charges". The Jakarta Post. June 30, 2017. Retrieved 2017-07-19.

^ Park Hyeong-taek (June 29, 2017). "[SC현장] 탑, 대마초 4회 흡연 시인…"공소사실 모두 인정"" [[SC scene] Top, smoking four po ... "All the facts of the charges"]. Sports Chosun (in Korean). Retrieved July 19, 2017.

^ Riddhiman Mukhopadhyay (July 20, 2017). "Rapper T.O.P sentenced at final trial: Apologizes to fans for his actions". International Business Times. Retrieved July 21, 2017.

^ "(LEAD) BIGBANG's T.O.P. gets suspended sentence for marijuana use". Yonhap News Agency. July 20, 2017. Retrieved July 20, 2017.

^ "빅뱅 탑, 재복무심사에서 부적합 결론… 의경신분 박탈" [Big Bang tower is inadequate in re-examination ... Deprivation of state]. Sports Chosun (in Korean). July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.

^ "BIGBANG's T.O.P to lose police post after drug conviction". Yonhap News Agency. July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.

^ "탑, 의경 신분 박탈 '재복무 심사서 부적합 판정'" [Top, disqualification of state of rehabilitation]. Starin E-Daily (in Korean). July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.

^ "BigBang rapper T.O.P cannot continue serving military duty as a policeman". Starits Times. July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.

^ Lee Young-jae (August 28, 2017). "'대마초 흡연' 빅뱅 탑, 의경에서 사회복무 요원 됐다". Korea JoongAng Daily (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.

^ Kim Ji-heon (August 28, 2017). "'대마초' 빅뱅 탑, 오늘 의경 전역…사회복무요원으로 근무". Yonhap News Agency (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.

^ Kim Yoo-jin (August 28, 2017). "'대마초 논란' 탑, 보충역 통보받고 오늘 전역…사회복무요원으로 전환". Herald Economy (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.

^ Hae Kyung Heon (August 28, 2017). "대마초 집유판결 탑 결국 사회복무요원으로, 누리꾼 반응 '냉랭'". Sports Khan (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.

^ "Country report and updates: Korea, South - War Resisters' International". www.wri-irg.org.

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Conscription in South Korea

Conscription in South Korea has existed since 1957 and requires male citizens between the ages of 18 and 35 to perform about two years of compulsory military service.[1][2] Women are not required to perform military service, but may voluntarily enlist.[3]

Establishment Edit

The basis for military conscription in South Korea is the Constitution of the Republic of Korea, which was promulgated on July 17, 1948. The constitution states in Article 39, "All citizens shall have the duty of national defense under the conditions as prescribed by Act."[4][5] The Military Service Act of 1949, which was implemented in 1957, specified that compulsory military service is required for men ages 18 or older.[6][2] Conscription is managed by the Military Manpower Administration, which was created in 1948.[7]

Requirements Edit

Enlistment and physical exam Edit

By law, when a Korean man turns 18 years old, he is enlisted for "first citizen service," meaning he is liable for military duty, but is not yet required to serve.[6][8] When he turns 19 years old (or, in some instances, 20 years old), he is required to undergo a physical exam to determine whether he is suitable for military service. The table below shows the physical exam's possible grades and their outcomes, according to the Military Service Act.[9]

Grade Description Outcome

1, 2, 3, 4 "Those whose physical and psychological constitution is healthy enough to perform active or supplemental service." "To be enlisted for active duty service, supplemental service or the second citizen service, based on their qualifications, such as educational background and age."

5 "Those incapable of entering active or supplemental service, but capable of entering the second citizen service." "To be enlisted for the second citizen service."

6 "Those incapable of performing military service due to any disease or mental or physical incompetence." "To be exempted from military service."

7 "Those unable to be graded...due to any disease or mental or physical incompetence." "To undergo a follow-up physical examination" within two years.

Service types and length Edit

The length of compulsory military service in South Korea varies based on military branch.[10] Active duty soldiers serve 21 months in the Army or Marine Corps, 23 months in the Navy, and 24 months in the Air Force.[11] After conscripts finish their military service, they are automatically placed on the reserve roster and are obligated to attend a few days of annual military training for 6 years.[citation needed]

Non-active duty personnel, or "supplemental service" personnel serve for various lengths: 24 months for social work personnel or international cooperation service personnel; 34 months for arts and sports personnel or industrial technical personnel; and 36 months for public health doctors, lawyers, veterinarians, or expert researchers.[12]

South Korea currently has among the longest military service periods in the world, ranked behind Israel, Singapore, and North Korea.[citation needed] In 2010, there was growing public pressure to either shorten the length of conscription or to switch to voluntary military service, and calls from experts for a gradual phasing out of conscription rather than complete abolition.[13] However, in December 2010, after taking into consideration of the 2010 ROKS Cheonan sinking and Bombardment of Yeonpyeong incidents, the South Korean government said it would not reduce service periods.[14]

Exemptions for Olympic medalists Edit

Current conscription regulations stipulate that athletes who win medals in the Olympic Games or gold medals in the Asian Games are granted exemptions from military service and are placed in Grade 4.[15] They are required to do four weeks of basic military training and engage in sports field for 34 months. After that, they are automatically placed on the reserve roster, and are obligated to attend a few days of annual military training for six years. In practice, after athletes finish their four weeks of basic military training, they are able to continue their own sports career during the 34 months of duty.[16]

Notable athletes who have been granted exemptions from military service are the bronze medal-winning football team at the 2012 Summer Olympics,[17][18] 2008 Olympic gold medalists badminton player Lee Yong-dae[19] and swimmer Park Tae-hwan[20][21] and 2014 Asian Games gold medalist tennis player Hyeon Chung.[22]

Compensation Edit

The following data is from 'Regulation on Public Servant Compensation', implemented on 1 January 2017.[23] Exchange rate as of 2 May 2018 (₩1077 to $1.00USD)

Private (이등병) Private first class (일등병) Corporal (상등병) Sergeant (병장)

₩163,000

$151.35 (approx) per month ₩176,400

$163.79 (approx) per month ₩195,000

$181.06 (approx) per month ₩216,000

$200.56 (approx) per month

Equipment Edit

The Ministry of National Defense has revealed that it has failed to provide sneakers to 7,411 recruits who joined the military from 22 May to 4 June 2012, after the budget was insufficient for need. The Defense ministry originally projected the cost of each pair of sneakers to be 11,000 KRW. However, the actual cost turned out to be 15,000 KRW.[24]

The office of National Assembly member Kim Kwang-jin of Democratic United Party revealed that cadets in Korea Military Academy were provided with sneakers worth 60,000 KRW and tennis shoes. Cadets in Korea Army Academy at Yeongcheon were provided with sneakers worth 64,250 KRW, in addition to running shoes and soccer shoes.[25]

Dual citizens Edit

For dual citizens, or those with multiple citizenships, male South Koreans must choose their citizenship by the time they turn 18, before March 31 of that year. If these males choose to revoke their South Korean citizenship, they will not be required to complete their mandatory military service. However, if they fail to choose their citizenship by their 18th year, they will be subjected to fulfill their mandatory military service.[26] If males choose to renounce their citizenship by their 18th year, they are ineligible to gain a Korean work visa (F series) until after they turn 40 years of age. It may still be possible to gain an E series visa.

Controversies Edit

The South Korean public is sensitive towards the country's mandatory military service, but also has a low tolerance towards those who attempt to dodge or receive special treatment, especially after scandals of wealthy families caught trying to avoid their national duty. Those found or accused of draft dodging and negligence of duty often face harsh penalties and public backlash. According to Ha Jae-keun, a South Korean pop columnist, "The mood against draft-dodgers and negligence of duty is so hostile that nowadays entertainers feel it's better to get it over and done with".[27][28]

Steve Yoo Edit

In 2002, right before Korean American pop singer Steve Yoo was due to be drafted for his military service, he gave up his Korean nationality and became a naturalized U.S. citizen. He was born in Seoul and migrated to the United States at the age of 13. The South Korean government considered it an act of desertion and deported him, banning him from entering the country permanently.[29]

Song Seung-heon Edit

In late 2004, it was revealed that actor Song Seung-heon had avoided his draft by taking medication to fail the military physical examination. Song had previously been exempted by claiming to have severe diabetes and high blood pressure, but that was found by the South Korean government to be false.[30] Amidst press coverage and public outcry, Song publicly apologized and agreed to immediately serve his two-year term in the military. Song was discharged on 15 November 2006 with the rank of Corporal.[31][32]

MC Mong Edit

On 11 April 2011, rapper MC Mong was cleared of intentionally pulling out healthy teeth to be exempted from military duty but was sentenced to a suspended jail term of 6 months, probation for one year, and 120 hours of community service, for deliberately delaying enlistment on false grounds.[33] The court acknowledged that there was a delay in his military enlistment; however, they were unable to determine whether he was guilty of extracting teeth for the purpose of avoiding his military draft. In September 2011, it was reported that Mong has been banned by Korean Broadcasting System (KBS) and Munhwa Broadcasting Corporation (MBC) from appearing in its TV shows, for draft dodging.[34]

Kim Mu-yeol Edit

In June 2012 Kim Mu-yeol came under growing public criticism over allegations he dodged his compulsory military service. In a report released by the Korean Board of Audit and Inspection (BAI), Kim was deemed fit to serve in active duty as a level two recruit after a March 2001 physical examination. However, throughout 2007 to 2009, Kim was granted postponement on the grounds that he was taking civil service examinations or had been admitted to a work training facility, neither of which took place. During this time he reportedly earned approximately ₩300 million from films, musicals and television work. In December 2009, he received his final notice for enlistment, having used up the 730 days allowed for postponement. He submitted a request to change his military status in January 2010 because of a knee injury, which was rejected. Finally, a valid exemption was granted on the grounds that he was a "low-income individual" and the sole provider for his family. BAI's contention was that Kim's income is substantially higher than the standard for disqualification due to poverty; thus, the Military Manpower Administration was negligent in their duties by granting the exemption.[35][36][37]

Kim's agency Prain TPC defended him, stating that Kim had been supporting his family by working as a security guard, construction worker and at a mobile phone factory since his late teens. When his father collapsed from a cerebral hemorrhage and was diagnosed with cancer in 2008, the treatments incurred a lot of debt for the family. Their worsening financial condition caused them to become totally dependent on Kim, resulting in his said filing for an exemption in 2010.[38] Given the publicity, a reinvestigation into the case was launched and Kim was asked by the production company to leave the film 11 A.M. (he was replaced by Choi Daniel).[39][40] On 4 October 2012, Kim released a statement that though there was no wrongdoing on his part, he had decided to voluntarily enter the army "to recover his honor damaged by the rumors."[41][42]

T.O.P Edit

T.O.P began his two-year mandatory military service on February 9, 2017 as a conscripted police officer, where he was set to be discharged on November 8, 2018 after completing the requirements.[43] However, it was announced in June that he would be prosecuted without detention for use of marijuana.[44] He was subsequently transferred to a different police division to await notice of prosecution, and was suspended from police duty pending verdict on his case.[45] A few days after the announcement, T.O.P was found unconscious in police barracks due to a suspected anti-anxiety medicine overdose of prescribed benzodiazepine,[46] and was hospitalized.[47] On June 8, T.O.P's mother confirmed that her son had opened his eyes and was recovering.[48]

On June 29, T.O.P faced his first trial for the marijuana usage charges at the Seoul Central District Court.[49] He pleaded guilty to the charges against him and admitted that he did smoke marijuana on two out of the four instances.[50] T.O.P received two years of probation, with a possibility of ten months' jail time if he violates any terms.[51] At the second court hearing the following month, T.O.P was sentenced to 10 months in prison suspended for two years for illegal marijuana use.[52] He acknowledged all guilty charges. After undergoing a disciplinary review by the police to decide if T.O.P could return as a conscripted policeman or will complete his service as a public service officer,[53] the Seoul Metropolitan Police Agency reviewed T.O.P's current condition and decided T.O.P is unfit to resume service in his previous position.[54][55] A request was made to Army headquarters for a new position for T.O.P to determine either to serve as a public service worker of a full-time reserve soldier to complete his mandatory service.[56][57] T.O.P was eventually assigned reservist status by the Ministry of National Defense and transferred from police department.[58] He will complete his mandatory service as a public service worker.[59] The time T.O.P had been dismissed from duty during his prosecution will not count towards his total service.[60][61]

Conscientious objection Edit

The right to conscientious objection is not recognised in South Korea.[62] Usually, over 400 people are imprisoned at any one time for refusing military service, for political or religious reasons. This is contrary to international human rights standards and the government of Korea have been repeatedly criticised for not allowing those whose conscience prevents them from joining the military to undertake some kind of substitute service, rather than imprisoning them.

See also Edit

Republic of Korea Armed Forces

Republic of Korea Army

Republic of Korea Marine Corps

Republic of Korea Navy

Republic of Korea Air Force

References Edit

^ "병역이행안내 - 개요(총괄)" [Military Service Implementation Guide - General Overview]. Military Manpower Organization (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-12-28.

^ a b Lee, Namhee (2007). The Making of Minjung: Democracy and the Politics of Representation in South Korea. Cornell University Press. p. 91. ISBN 0801445663.

^ "S. Korea to expand women's role in military". Yonhap News Agency. 2017-12-20. Retrieved 2017-12-28.

^ "Constitution of the Republic of Korea" (PDF). 1987. p. 12. Retrieved 2017-12-27.

^ Kim, Jongcheol (2012). "Constitutional Law". Introduction to Korean Law. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 78. ISBN 3642316891.

^ a b "Military Service Act, Article 8". Korean Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-29.

^ "History". Military Manpower Administration. Retrieved 2017-12-29.

^ "Military Service Act, Article 5". Korean Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-29.

^ "Military Service Act, Articles 10-14". Korean Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-29.

^ Lent, Jesse (2016-04-01). "'Descendants Of The Sun' Star Song Joong Ki Discusses His Time In The South Korean Army". Korea Portal. Retrieved 2017-12-30.

^ "Military Service Act, Article 18". Korea Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-30.

^ "Military Service Act, Articles 26-43". Korea Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-30.

^ "Conscription 'Should Be Phased Out Slowly'". Chosun Ilbo. 2010-07-06. Retrieved 2017-12-30.

^ Kim, Christine (2010-12-22). "Plan to cut compulsory military service scrapped". Korea JoongAng Daily. Retrieved 2017-12-30.

^ "제68조의11(예술ㆍ체육요원의 추천 등) [Article 68-11: Recommendation of arts and sports personnel, etc.]". 병역법 시행령 [Military Service Act Implementation Rules]. South Korea: Ministry of Government Legislation. 29 November 2016. Retrieved 6 April 2018. 법 제33조의7제1항 전단에서 "대통령령으로 정하는 예술·체육 분야의 특기를 가진 사람"이란 다음 각 호의 어느 하나에 해당하는 사람을 말한다. ... 4. 올림픽대회에서 3위 이상으로 입상한 사람(단체경기종목의 경우에는 실제로 출전한 선수만 해당한다) 5. 아시아경기대회에서 1위로 입상한 사람(단체경기종목의 경우에는 실제로 출전한 선수만 해당한다). [In Article 33, Paragraph 7, Subparagraph 2 of the Act, 'a person having special talents in arts and athletics fields, as defined by presidential order' refers to persons to whom are applicable any one of the provisions of the following subparagraphs. ... 4. A person who received a prize for ranked third or above at the Olympics (in the case of team events, only applicable to athletes who actually participated). 5. A person who received a prize for ranking first at the Asian Games (in the case of team events, only applicable to athletes who actually participated).]

^ "리우에서도 떠오른 축구대표팀 '병역특례'".

^ "Footballer to Be Spared Military Service Despite IOC Probe". Chosun Ilbo. 14 August 2012. Retrieved 2 October 2012.

^ "Medal instead of military service". The Hankyoreh. 11 August 2012. Retrieved 25 February 2013.

^ "들쭉날쭉 병역특례기준 '형평성' 논란…병무청 '누적점수제' 추진" (in Korean). Yonhap News Agency. September 30, 2016.

^ "Park Tae-hwan Enters Army Boot Camp". Chosun Ilbo. 5 October 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2012.

^ "Star Swimmer Says Army Boot Camp Helped Him Grow". Chosun Ilbo. 1 November 2012. Retrieved 4 April 2013.

^ "Hyeon Chung Participates In Korean Military Training - ATP World Tour - Tennis - ATP World Tour - Tennis".

^ 공무원보수규정 '별표 13' 군인의 봉급표(제5조 및 별표 1 관련) . Korea Ministry of Government Legislation (in Korean). Retrieved 28 April 2015.

^ 조, 기호 (18 July 2012). "운동화 한 켤레 못 주는 군(軍)!". Seoul Broadcasting System. Retrieved 4 August 2012.

^ "[보도자료] 예산 없다던 국방부, 사관생도에게는 고가 외국브랜드 운동화 지급". Retrieved 4 August 2012.[dead link]

^ "FAQs-Dual Citizens | U.S. Embassy & Consulate in Korea". U.S. Embassy & Consulate in Korea. Retrieved 2017-10-12.

^ "South Korean singer Rain reports for military service". BBC News. 11 October 2011. Retrieved 2011-10-14.

^ Park, Eun-jee (16 January 2013). "Military service mischief a losing battle". Joongang Daily. Archived from the original on 29 June 2013. Retrieved 4 April 2013.

^ Seo, Ji-eun "Steve Yoo isn’t coming back to Korea" Archived 6 January 2013 at the Wayback Machine. Joongang Daily. 20 October 2011. retrieved 2011-11-08

^ (in Korean) "최지우, '승헌이에게 말 걸어볼까?"[permanent dead link] SSTV. 30 June 2009. Retrieved 2011-11-06

^ "Song Seung-heon, Jang Hyeok Discharged from Military" HanCinema. 16 November 2011. Retrieved 2011-10-14

^ (in Korean) "Song Seung-heon discharged from the army"Yahoo News Korea, 2006-11-18. Archived 14 June 2011 at the Wayback Machine.

^ "Rapper Gets Suspended Jail Term for Draft Dodging" Chosun Ilbo. 12 April 2011. Retrieved 2011-10-14

^ "KBS, MBC release list of 36 banned entertainers" Dong-A Ilbo. 28 September 2011. 2011-10-14

^ Sunwoo, Carla (22 June 2012). "Actor Kim Moo-yul was poor enough to dodge military service". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 27 January 2013. Retrieved 6 October 2012.

^ Lee, In-kyung (21 June 2012). "Kim Moo Yul Involved in Military Scandal after Avoiding Duties". enewsWorld. Retrieved 2012-10-06.

^ "High-Paid Actor Exempted from Draft for Poverty". The Chosun Ilbo. 22 June 2012. Retrieved 2012-10-06.

^ Moon, Gwang-lip (25 June 2012). "Agent says Kim Moo-yul's family situation was 'nearly impossible'". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 11 August 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2012.

^ Sunwoo, Carla (10 July 2012). "Kim Moo-yul kicked off movie set". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 26 January 2013. Retrieved 6 October 2012.

^ Sunwoo, Carla (11 July 2012). "Choi Daniel to replace Kim Moo-yul". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 5 August 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2012.

^ Lee, Hye-ji (5 October 2012). "Kim Moo-yeol to Enter Army, Cleaning out Exemption Rumors". 10Asia. Retrieved 2012-11-18.

^ Sunwoo, Carla (11 October 2011). "Kim Moo-yul enlists after rumors". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 26 October 2012. Retrieved 18 November 2012.

^ "BIGBANG's T.O.P confirms military enlistment date". Yibada. November 22, 2016.

^ "The Full Story Behind T.O.P's Drug Scandal, And The Mysterious Trainee Woman". June 2, 2017. Retrieved June 8, 2017.

^ Jun, R. "BIGBANG's T.O.P To Be Dismissed From Duty For Duration of Prosecution". Soompi. Retrieved 8 June 2017.

^ "Medical expert comments on T.O.P's benzodiazepine overdose | allkpop.com". allkpop. Retrieved 2017-06-09.

^ "BIGBANG's T.O.P hospitalized for drug overdose". YonhapNews. June 6, 2017. Retrieved June 6, 2017.

^ "K-pop superstar T.O.P. in intensive care after overdose". BBC. June 8, 2017. Retrieved June 28, 2017.

^ Kim Jung-kyoon (June 30, 2017). "T.O.P admits to all charges at first hearing". Korea JoongAng Daily. Retrieved July 19, 2017.

^ "Big Bang's T.O.P pleads guilty to pot charges". The Jakarta Post. June 30, 2017. Retrieved 2017-07-19.

^ Park Hyeong-taek (June 29, 2017). "[SC현장] 탑, 대마초 4회 흡연 시인…"공소사실 모두 인정"" [[SC scene] Top, smoking four po ... "All the facts of the charges"]. Sports Chosun (in Korean). Retrieved July 19, 2017.

^ Riddhiman Mukhopadhyay (July 20, 2017). "Rapper T.O.P sentenced at final trial: Apologizes to fans for his actions". International Business Times. Retrieved July 21, 2017.

^ "(LEAD) BIGBANG's T.O.P. gets suspended sentence for marijuana use". Yonhap News Agency. July 20, 2017. Retrieved July 20, 2017.

^ "빅뱅 탑, 재복무심사에서 부적합 결론… 의경신분 박탈" [Big Bang tower is inadequate in re-examination ... Deprivation of state]. Sports Chosun (in Korean). July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.

^ "BIGBANG's T.O.P to lose police post after drug conviction". Yonhap News Agency. July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.

^ "탑, 의경 신분 박탈 '재복무 심사서 부적합 판정'" [Top, disqualification of state of rehabilitation]. Starin E-Daily (in Korean). July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.

^ "BigBang rapper T.O.P cannot continue serving military duty as a policeman". Starits Times. July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.

^ Lee Young-jae (August 28, 2017). "'대마초 흡연' 빅뱅 탑, 의경에서 사회복무 요원 됐다". Korea JoongAng Daily (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.

^ Kim Ji-heon (August 28, 2017). "'대마초' 빅뱅 탑, 오늘 의경 전역…사회복무요원으로 근무". Yonhap News Agency (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.

^ Kim Yoo-jin (August 28, 2017). "'대마초 논란' 탑, 보충역 통보받고 오늘 전역…사회복무요원으로 전환". Herald Economy (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.

^ Hae Kyung Heon (August 28, 2017). "대마초 집유판결 탑 결국 사회복무요원으로, 누리꾼 반응 '냉랭'". Sports Khan (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.

^ "Country report and updates: Korea, South - War Resisters' International". www.wri-irg.org.

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Date: May 28th, 2018 11:44 PM
Author: The Sheer Entitled Caucasity

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Conscription in South Korea

Conscription in South Korea has existed since 1957 and requires male citizens between the ages of 18 and 35 to perform about two years of compulsory military service.[1][2] Women are not required to perform military service, but may voluntarily enlist.[3]

Establishment Edit

The basis for military conscription in South Korea is the Constitution of the Republic of Korea, which was promulgated on July 17, 1948. The constitution states in Article 39, "All citizens shall have the duty of national defense under the conditions as prescribed by Act."[4][5] The Military Service Act of 1949, which was implemented in 1957, specified that compulsory military service is required for men ages 18 or older.[6][2] Conscription is managed by the Military Manpower Administration, which was created in 1948.[7]

Requirements Edit

Enlistment and physical exam Edit

By law, when a Korean man turns 18 years old, he is enlisted for "first citizen service," meaning he is liable for military duty, but is not yet required to serve.[6][8] When he turns 19 years old (or, in some instances, 20 years old), he is required to undergo a physical exam to determine whether he is suitable for military service. The table below shows the physical exam's possible grades and their outcomes, according to the Military Service Act.[9]

Grade Description Outcome

1, 2, 3, 4 "Those whose physical and psychological constitution is healthy enough to perform active or supplemental service." "To be enlisted for active duty service, supplemental service or the second citizen service, based on their qualifications, such as educational background and age."

5 "Those incapable of entering active or supplemental service, but capable of entering the second citizen service." "To be enlisted for the second citizen service."

6 "Those incapable of performing military service due to any disease or mental or physical incompetence." "To be exempted from military service."

7 "Those unable to be graded...due to any disease or mental or physical incompetence." "To undergo a follow-up physical examination" within two years.

Service types and length Edit

The length of compulsory military service in South Korea varies based on military branch.[10] Active duty soldiers serve 21 months in the Army or Marine Corps, 23 months in the Navy, and 24 months in the Air Force.[11] After conscripts finish their military service, they are automatically placed on the reserve roster and are obligated to attend a few days of annual military training for 6 years.[citation needed]

Non-active duty personnel, or "supplemental service" personnel serve for various lengths: 24 months for social work personnel or international cooperation service personnel; 34 months for arts and sports personnel or industrial technical personnel; and 36 months for public health doctors, lawyers, veterinarians, or expert researchers.[12]

South Korea currently has among the longest military service periods in the world, ranked behind Israel, Singapore, and North Korea.[citation needed] In 2010, there was growing public pressure to either shorten the length of conscription or to switch to voluntary military service, and calls from experts for a gradual phasing out of conscription rather than complete abolition.[13] However, in December 2010, after taking into consideration of the 2010 ROKS Cheonan sinking and Bombardment of Yeonpyeong incidents, the South Korean government said it would not reduce service periods.[14]

Exemptions for Olympic medalists Edit

Current conscription regulations stipulate that athletes who win medals in the Olympic Games or gold medals in the Asian Games are granted exemptions from military service and are placed in Grade 4.[15] They are required to do four weeks of basic military training and engage in sports field for 34 months. After that, they are automatically placed on the reserve roster, and are obligated to attend a few days of annual military training for six years. In practice, after athletes finish their four weeks of basic military training, they are able to continue their own sports career during the 34 months of duty.[16]

Notable athletes who have been granted exemptions from military service are the bronze medal-winning football team at the 2012 Summer Olympics,[17][18] 2008 Olympic gold medalists badminton player Lee Yong-dae[19] and swimmer Park Tae-hwan[20][21] and 2014 Asian Games gold medalist tennis player Hyeon Chung.[22]

Compensation Edit

The following data is from 'Regulation on Public Servant Compensation', implemented on 1 January 2017.[23] Exchange rate as of 2 May 2018 (₩1077 to $1.00USD)

Private (이등병) Private first class (일등병) Corporal (상등병) Sergeant (병장)

₩163,000

$151.35 (approx) per month ₩176,400

$163.79 (approx) per month ₩195,000

$181.06 (approx) per month ₩216,000

$200.56 (approx) per month

Equipment Edit

The Ministry of National Defense has revealed that it has failed to provide sneakers to 7,411 recruits who joined the military from 22 May to 4 June 2012, after the budget was insufficient for need. The Defense ministry originally projected the cost of each pair of sneakers to be 11,000 KRW. However, the actual cost turned out to be 15,000 KRW.[24]

The office of National Assembly member Kim Kwang-jin of Democratic United Party revealed that cadets in Korea Military Academy were provided with sneakers worth 60,000 KRW and tennis shoes. Cadets in Korea Army Academy at Yeongcheon were provided with sneakers worth 64,250 KRW, in addition to running shoes and soccer shoes.[25]

Dual citizens Edit

For dual citizens, or those with multiple citizenships, male South Koreans must choose their citizenship by the time they turn 18, before March 31 of that year. If these males choose to revoke their South Korean citizenship, they will not be required to complete their mandatory military service. However, if they fail to choose their citizenship by their 18th year, they will be subjected to fulfill their mandatory military service.[26] If males choose to renounce their citizenship by their 18th year, they are ineligible to gain a Korean work visa (F series) until after they turn 40 years of age. It may still be possible to gain an E series visa.

Controversies Edit

The South Korean public is sensitive towards the country's mandatory military service, but also has a low tolerance towards those who attempt to dodge or receive special treatment, especially after scandals of wealthy families caught trying to avoid their national duty. Those found or accused of draft dodging and negligence of duty often face harsh penalties and public backlash. According to Ha Jae-keun, a South Korean pop columnist, "The mood against draft-dodgers and negligence of duty is so hostile that nowadays entertainers feel it's better to get it over and done with".[27][28]

Steve Yoo Edit

In 2002, right before Korean American pop singer Steve Yoo was due to be drafted for his military service, he gave up his Korean nationality and became a naturalized U.S. citizen. He was born in Seoul and migrated to the United States at the age of 13. The South Korean government considered it an act of desertion and deported him, banning him from entering the country permanently.[29]

Song Seung-heon Edit

In late 2004, it was revealed that actor Song Seung-heon had avoided his draft by taking medication to fail the military physical examination. Song had previously been exempted by claiming to have severe diabetes and high blood pressure, but that was found by the South Korean government to be false.[30] Amidst press coverage and public outcry, Song publicly apologized and agreed to immediately serve his two-year term in the military. Song was discharged on 15 November 2006 with the rank of Corporal.[31][32]

MC Mong Edit

On 11 April 2011, rapper MC Mong was cleared of intentionally pulling out healthy teeth to be exempted from military duty but was sentenced to a suspended jail term of 6 months, probation for one year, and 120 hours of community service, for deliberately delaying enlistment on false grounds.[33] The court acknowledged that there was a delay in his military enlistment; however, they were unable to determine whether he was guilty of extracting teeth for the purpose of avoiding his military draft. In September 2011, it was reported that Mong has been banned by Korean Broadcasting System (KBS) and Munhwa Broadcasting Corporation (MBC) from appearing in its TV shows, for draft dodging.[34]

Kim Mu-yeol Edit

In June 2012 Kim Mu-yeol came under growing public criticism over allegations he dodged his compulsory military service. In a report released by the Korean Board of Audit and Inspection (BAI), Kim was deemed fit to serve in active duty as a level two recruit after a March 2001 physical examination. However, throughout 2007 to 2009, Kim was granted postponement on the grounds that he was taking civil service examinations or had been admitted to a work training facility, neither of which took place. During this time he reportedly earned approximately ₩300 million from films, musicals and television work. In December 2009, he received his final notice for enlistment, having used up the 730 days allowed for postponement. He submitted a request to change his military status in January 2010 because of a knee injury, which was rejected. Finally, a valid exemption was granted on the grounds that he was a "low-income individual" and the sole provider for his family. BAI's contention was that Kim's income is substantially higher than the standard for disqualification due to poverty; thus, the Military Manpower Administration was negligent in their duties by granting the exemption.[35][36][37]

Kim's agency Prain TPC defended him, stating that Kim had been supporting his family by working as a security guard, construction worker and at a mobile phone factory since his late teens. When his father collapsed from a cerebral hemorrhage and was diagnosed with cancer in 2008, the treatments incurred a lot of debt for the family. Their worsening financial condition caused them to become totally dependent on Kim, resulting in his said filing for an exemption in 2010.[38] Given the publicity, a reinvestigation into the case was launched and Kim was asked by the production company to leave the film 11 A.M. (he was replaced by Choi Daniel).[39][40] On 4 October 2012, Kim released a statement that though there was no wrongdoing on his part, he had decided to voluntarily enter the army "to recover his honor damaged by the rumors."[41][42]

T.O.P Edit

T.O.P began his two-year mandatory military service on February 9, 2017 as a conscripted police officer, where he was set to be discharged on November 8, 2018 after completing the requirements.[43] However, it was announced in June that he would be prosecuted without detention for use of marijuana.[44] He was subsequently transferred to a different police division to await notice of prosecution, and was suspended from police duty pending verdict on his case.[45] A few days after the announcement, T.O.P was found unconscious in police barracks due to a suspected anti-anxiety medicine overdose of prescribed benzodiazepine,[46] and was hospitalized.[47] On June 8, T.O.P's mother confirmed that her son had opened his eyes and was recovering.[48]

On June 29, T.O.P faced his first trial for the marijuana usage charges at the Seoul Central District Court.[49] He pleaded guilty to the charges against him and admitted that he did smoke marijuana on two out of the four instances.[50] T.O.P received two years of probation, with a possibility of ten months' jail time if he violates any terms.[51] At the second court hearing the following month, T.O.P was sentenced to 10 months in prison suspended for two years for illegal marijuana use.[52] He acknowledged all guilty charges. After undergoing a disciplinary review by the police to decide if T.O.P could return as a conscripted policeman or will complete his service as a public service officer,[53] the Seoul Metropolitan Police Agency reviewed T.O.P's current condition and decided T.O.P is unfit to resume service in his previous position.[54][55] A request was made to Army headquarters for a new position for T.O.P to determine either to serve as a public service worker of a full-time reserve soldier to complete his mandatory service.[56][57] T.O.P was eventually assigned reservist status by the Ministry of National Defense and transferred from police department.[58] He will complete his mandatory service as a public service worker.[59] The time T.O.P had been dismissed from duty during his prosecution will not count towards his total service.[60][61]

Conscientious objection Edit

The right to conscientious objection is not recognised in South Korea.[62] Usually, over 400 people are imprisoned at any one time for refusing military service, for political or religious reasons. This is contrary to international human rights standards and the government of Korea have been repeatedly criticised for not allowing those whose conscience prevents them from joining the military to undertake some kind of substitute service, rather than imprisoning them.

See also Edit

Republic of Korea Armed Forces

Republic of Korea Army

Republic of Korea Marine Corps

Republic of Korea Navy

Republic of Korea Air Force

References Edit

^ "병역이행안내 - 개요(총괄)" [Military Service Implementation Guide - General Overview]. Military Manpower Organization (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-12-28.

^ a b Lee, Namhee (2007). The Making of Minjung: Democracy and the Politics of Representation in South Korea. Cornell University Press. p. 91. ISBN 0801445663.

^ "S. Korea to expand women's role in military". Yonhap News Agency. 2017-12-20. Retrieved 2017-12-28.

^ "Constitution of the Republic of Korea" (PDF). 1987. p. 12. Retrieved 2017-12-27.

^ Kim, Jongcheol (2012). "Constitutional Law". Introduction to Korean Law. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 78. ISBN 3642316891.

^ a b "Military Service Act, Article 8". Korean Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-29.

^ "History". Military Manpower Administration. Retrieved 2017-12-29.

^ "Military Service Act, Article 5". Korean Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-29.

^ "Military Service Act, Articles 10-14". Korean Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-29.

^ Lent, Jesse (2016-04-01). "'Descendants Of The Sun' Star Song Joong Ki Discusses His Time In The South Korean Army". Korea Portal. Retrieved 2017-12-30.

^ "Military Service Act, Article 18". Korea Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-30.

^ "Military Service Act, Articles 26-43". Korea Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-30.

^ "Conscription 'Should Be Phased Out Slowly'". Chosun Ilbo. 2010-07-06. Retrieved 2017-12-30.

^ Kim, Christine (2010-12-22). "Plan to cut compulsory military service scrapped". Korea JoongAng Daily. Retrieved 2017-12-30.

^ "제68조의11(예술ㆍ체육요원의 추천 등) [Article 68-11: Recommendation of arts and sports personnel, etc.]". 병역법 시행령 [Military Service Act Implementation Rules]. South Korea: Ministry of Government Legislation. 29 November 2016. Retrieved 6 April 2018. 법 제33조의7제1항 전단에서 "대통령령으로 정하는 예술·체육 분야의 특기를 가진 사람"이란 다음 각 호의 어느 하나에 해당하는 사람을 말한다. ... 4. 올림픽대회에서 3위 이상으로 입상한 사람(단체경기종목의 경우에는 실제로 출전한 선수만 해당한다) 5. 아시아경기대회에서 1위로 입상한 사람(단체경기종목의 경우에는 실제로 출전한 선수만 해당한다). [In Article 33, Paragraph 7, Subparagraph 2 of the Act, 'a person having special talents in arts and athletics fields, as defined by presidential order' refers to persons to whom are applicable any one of the provisions of the following subparagraphs. ... 4. A person who received a prize for ranked third or above at the Olympics (in the case of team events, only applicable to athletes who actually participated). 5. A person who received a prize for ranking first at the Asian Games (in the case of team events, only applicable to athletes who actually participated).]

^ "리우에서도 떠오른 축구대표팀 '병역특례'".

^ "Footballer to Be Spared Military Service Despite IOC Probe". Chosun Ilbo. 14 August 2012. Retrieved 2 October 2012.

^ "Medal instead of military service". The Hankyoreh. 11 August 2012. Retrieved 25 February 2013.

^ "들쭉날쭉 병역특례기준 '형평성' 논란…병무청 '누적점수제' 추진" (in Korean). Yonhap News Agency. September 30, 2016.

^ "Park Tae-hwan Enters Army Boot Camp". Chosun Ilbo. 5 October 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2012.

^ "Star Swimmer Says Army Boot Camp Helped Him Grow". Chosun Ilbo. 1 November 2012. Retrieved 4 April 2013.

^ "Hyeon Chung Participates In Korean Military Training - ATP World Tour - Tennis - ATP World Tour - Tennis".

^ 공무원보수규정 '별표 13' 군인의 봉급표(제5조 및 별표 1 관련) . Korea Ministry of Government Legislation (in Korean). Retrieved 28 April 2015.

^ 조, 기호 (18 July 2012). "운동화 한 켤레 못 주는 군(軍)!". Seoul Broadcasting System. Retrieved 4 August 2012.

^ "[보도자료] 예산 없다던 국방부, 사관생도에게는 고가 외국브랜드 운동화 지급". Retrieved 4 August 2012.[dead link]

^ "FAQs-Dual Citizens | U.S. Embassy & Consulate in Korea". U.S. Embassy & Consulate in Korea. Retrieved 2017-10-12.

^ "South Korean singer Rain reports for military service". BBC News. 11 October 2011. Retrieved 2011-10-14.

^ Park, Eun-jee (16 January 2013). "Military service mischief a losing battle". Joongang Daily. Archived from the original on 29 June 2013. Retrieved 4 April 2013.

^ Seo, Ji-eun "Steve Yoo isn’t coming back to Korea" Archived 6 January 2013 at the Wayback Machine. Joongang Daily. 20 October 2011. retrieved 2011-11-08

^ (in Korean) "최지우, '승헌이에게 말 걸어볼까?"[permanent dead link] SSTV. 30 June 2009. Retrieved 2011-11-06

^ "Song Seung-heon, Jang Hyeok Discharged from Military" HanCinema. 16 November 2011. Retrieved 2011-10-14

^ (in Korean) "Song Seung-heon discharged from the army"Yahoo News Korea, 2006-11-18. Archived 14 June 2011 at the Wayback Machine.

^ "Rapper Gets Suspended Jail Term for Draft Dodging" Chosun Ilbo. 12 April 2011. Retrieved 2011-10-14

^ "KBS, MBC release list of 36 banned entertainers" Dong-A Ilbo. 28 September 2011. 2011-10-14

^ Sunwoo, Carla (22 June 2012). "Actor Kim Moo-yul was poor enough to dodge military service". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 27 January 2013. Retrieved 6 October 2012.

^ Lee, In-kyung (21 June 2012). "Kim Moo Yul Involved in Military Scandal after Avoiding Duties". enewsWorld. Retrieved 2012-10-06.

^ "High-Paid Actor Exempted from Draft for Poverty". The Chosun Ilbo. 22 June 2012. Retrieved 2012-10-06.

^ Moon, Gwang-lip (25 June 2012). "Agent says Kim Moo-yul's family situation was 'nearly impossible'". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 11 August 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2012.

^ Sunwoo, Carla (10 July 2012). "Kim Moo-yul kicked off movie set". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 26 January 2013. Retrieved 6 October 2012.

^ Sunwoo, Carla (11 July 2012). "Choi Daniel to replace Kim Moo-yul". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 5 August 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2012.

^ Lee, Hye-ji (5 October 2012). "Kim Moo-yeol to Enter Army, Cleaning out Exemption Rumors". 10Asia. Retrieved 2012-11-18.

^ Sunwoo, Carla (11 October 2011). "Kim Moo-yul enlists after rumors". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 26 October 2012. Retrieved 18 November 2012.

^ "BIGBANG's T.O.P confirms military enlistment date". Yibada. November 22, 2016.

^ "The Full Story Behind T.O.P's Drug Scandal, And The Mysterious Trainee Woman". June 2, 2017. Retrieved June 8, 2017.

^ Jun, R. "BIGBANG's T.O.P To Be Dismissed From Duty For Duration of Prosecution". Soompi. Retrieved 8 June 2017.

^ "Medical expert comments on T.O.P's benzodiazepine overdose | allkpop.com". allkpop. Retrieved 2017-06-09.

^ "BIGBANG's T.O.P hospitalized for drug overdose". YonhapNews. June 6, 2017. Retrieved June 6, 2017.

^ "K-pop superstar T.O.P. in intensive care after overdose". BBC. June 8, 2017. Retrieved June 28, 2017.

^ Kim Jung-kyoon (June 30, 2017). "T.O.P admits to all charges at first hearing". Korea JoongAng Daily. Retrieved July 19, 2017.

^ "Big Bang's T.O.P pleads guilty to pot charges". The Jakarta Post. June 30, 2017. Retrieved 2017-07-19.

^ Park Hyeong-taek (June 29, 2017). "[SC현장] 탑, 대마초 4회 흡연 시인…"공소사실 모두 인정"" [[SC scene] Top, smoking four po ... "All the facts of the charges"]. Sports Chosun (in Korean). Retrieved July 19, 2017.

^ Riddhiman Mukhopadhyay (July 20, 2017). "Rapper T.O.P sentenced at final trial: Apologizes to fans for his actions". International Business Times. Retrieved July 21, 2017.

^ "(LEAD) BIGBANG's T.O.P. gets suspended sentence for marijuana use". Yonhap News Agency. July 20, 2017. Retrieved July 20, 2017.

^ "빅뱅 탑, 재복무심사에서 부적합 결론… 의경신분 박탈" [Big Bang tower is inadequate in re-examination ... Deprivation of state]. Sports Chosun (in Korean). July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.

^ "BIGBANG's T.O.P to lose police post after drug conviction". Yonhap News Agency. July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.

^ "탑, 의경 신분 박탈 '재복무 심사서 부적합 판정'" [Top, disqualification of state of rehabilitation]. Starin E-Daily (in Korean). July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.

^ "BigBang rapper T.O.P cannot continue serving military duty as a policeman". Starits Times. July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.

^ Lee Young-jae (August 28, 2017). "'대마초 흡연' 빅뱅 탑, 의경에서 사회복무 요원 됐다". Korea JoongAng Daily (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.

^ Kim Ji-heon (August 28, 2017). "'대마초' 빅뱅 탑, 오늘 의경 전역…사회복무요원으로 근무". Yonhap News Agency (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.

^ Kim Yoo-jin (August 28, 2017). "'대마초 논란' 탑, 보충역 통보받고 오늘 전역…사회복무요원으로 전환". Herald Economy (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.

^ Hae Kyung Heon (August 28, 2017). "대마초 집유판결 탑 결국 사회복무요원으로, 누리꾼 반응 '냉랭'". Sports Khan (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.

^ "Country report and updates: Korea, South - War Resisters' International". www.wri-irg.org.

Exter

Wikipedia Search

EditWatch this pageRead in another language

Conscription in South Korea

Conscription in South Korea has existed since 1957 and requires male citizens between the ages of 18 and 35 to perform about two years of compulsory military service.[1][2] Women are not required to perform military service, but may voluntarily enlist.[3]

Establishment Edit

The basis for military conscription in South Korea is the Constitution of the Republic of Korea, which was promulgated on July 17, 1948. The constitution states in Article 39, "All citizens shall have the duty of national defense under the conditions as prescribed by Act."[4][5] The Military Service Act of 1949, which was implemented in 1957, specified that compulsory military service is required for men ages 18 or older.[6][2] Conscription is managed by the Military Manpower Administration, which was created in 1948.[7]

Requirements Edit

Enlistment and physical exam Edit

By law, when a Korean man turns 18 years old, he is enlisted for "first citizen service," meaning he is liable for military duty, but is not yet required to serve.[6][8] When he turns 19 years old (or, in some instances, 20 years old), he is required to undergo a physical exam to determine whether he is suitable for military service. The table below shows the physical exam's possible grades and their outcomes, according to the Military Service Act.[9]

Grade Description Outcome

1, 2, 3, 4 "Those whose physical and psychological constitution is healthy enough to perform active or supplemental service." "To be enlisted for active duty service, supplemental service or the second citizen service, based on their qualifications, such as educational background and age."

5 "Those incapable of entering active or supplemental service, but capable of entering the second citizen service." "To be enlisted for the second citizen service."

6 "Those incapable of performing military service due to any disease or mental or physical incompetence." "To be exempted from military service."

7 "Those unable to be graded...due to any disease or mental or physical incompetence." "To undergo a follow-up physical examination" within two years.

Service types and length Edit

The length of compulsory military service in South Korea varies based on military branch.[10] Active duty soldiers serve 21 months in the Army or Marine Corps, 23 months in the Navy, and 24 months in the Air Force.[11] After conscripts finish their military service, they are automatically placed on the reserve roster and are obligated to attend a few days of annual military training for 6 years.[citation needed]

Non-active duty personnel, or "supplemental service" personnel serve for various lengths: 24 months for social work personnel or international cooperation service personnel; 34 months for arts and sports personnel or industrial technical personnel; and 36 months for public health doctors, lawyers, veterinarians, or expert researchers.[12]

South Korea currently has among the longest military service periods in the world, ranked behind Israel, Singapore, and North Korea.[citation needed] In 2010, there was growing public pressure to either shorten the length of conscription or to switch to voluntary military service, and calls from experts for a gradual phasing out of conscription rather than complete abolition.[13] However, in December 2010, after taking into consideration of the 2010 ROKS Cheonan sinking and Bombardment of Yeonpyeong incidents, the South Korean government said it would not reduce service periods.[14]

Exemptions for Olympic medalists Edit

Current conscription regulations stipulate that athletes who win medals in the Olympic Games or gold medals in the Asian Games are granted exemptions from military service and are placed in Grade 4.[15] They are required to do four weeks of basic military training and engage in sports field for 34 months. After that, they are automatically placed on the reserve roster, and are obligated to attend a few days of annual military training for six years. In practice, after athletes finish their four weeks of basic military training, they are able to continue their own sports career during the 34 months of duty.[16]

Notable athletes who have been granted exemptions from military service are the bronze medal-winning football team at the 2012 Summer Olympics,[17][18] 2008 Olympic gold medalists badminton player Lee Yong-dae[19] and swimmer Park Tae-hwan[20][21] and 2014 Asian Games gold medalist tennis player Hyeon Chung.[22]

Compensation Edit

The following data is from 'Regulation on Public Servant Compensation', implemented on 1 January 2017.[23] Exchange rate as of 2 May 2018 (₩1077 to $1.00USD)

Private (이등병) Private first class (일등병) Corporal (상등병) Sergeant (병장)

₩163,000

$151.35 (approx) per month ₩176,400

$163.79 (approx) per month ₩195,000

$181.06 (approx) per month ₩216,000

$200.56 (approx) per month

Equipment Edit

The Ministry of National Defense has revealed that it has failed to provide sneakers to 7,411 recruits who joined the military from 22 May to 4 June 2012, after the budget was insufficient for need. The Defense ministry originally projected the cost of each pair of sneakers to be 11,000 KRW. However, the actual cost turned out to be 15,000 KRW.[24]

The office of National Assembly member Kim Kwang-jin of Democratic United Party revealed that cadets in Korea Military Academy were provided with sneakers worth 60,000 KRW and tennis shoes. Cadets in Korea Army Academy at Yeongcheon were provided with sneakers worth 64,250 KRW, in addition to running shoes and soccer shoes.[25]

Dual citizens Edit

For dual citizens, or those with multiple citizenships, male South Koreans must choose their citizenship by the time they turn 18, before March 31 of that year. If these males choose to revoke their South Korean citizenship, they will not be required to complete their mandatory military service. However, if they fail to choose their citizenship by their 18th year, they will be subjected to fulfill their mandatory military service.[26] If males choose to renounce their citizenship by their 18th year, they are ineligible to gain a Korean work visa (F series) until after they turn 40 years of age. It may still be possible to gain an E series visa.

Controversies Edit

The South Korean public is sensitive towards the country's mandatory military service, but also has a low tolerance towards those who attempt to dodge or receive special treatment, especially after scandals of wealthy families caught trying to avoid their national duty. Those found or accused of draft dodging and negligence of duty often face harsh penalties and public backlash. According to Ha Jae-keun, a South Korean pop columnist, "The mood against draft-dodgers and negligence of duty is so hostile that nowadays entertainers feel it's better to get it over and done with".[27][28]

Steve Yoo Edit

In 2002, right before Korean American pop singer Steve Yoo was due to be drafted for his military service, he gave up his Korean nationality and became a naturalized U.S. citizen. He was born in Seoul and migrated to the United States at the age of 13. The South Korean government considered it an act of desertion and deported him, banning him from entering the country permanently.[29]

Song Seung-heon Edit

In late 2004, it was revealed that actor Song Seung-heon had avoided his draft by taking medication to fail the military physical examination. Song had previously been exempted by claiming to have severe diabetes and high blood pressure, but that was found by the South Korean government to be false.[30] Amidst press coverage and public outcry, Song publicly apologized and agreed to immediately serve his two-year term in the military. Song was discharged on 15 November 2006 with the rank of Corporal.[31][32]

MC Mong Edit

On 11 April 2011, rapper MC Mong was cleared of intentionally pulling out healthy teeth to be exempted from military duty but was sentenced to a suspended jail term of 6 months, probation for one year, and 120 hours of community service, for deliberately delaying enlistment on false grounds.[33] The court acknowledged that there was a delay in his military enlistment; however, they were unable to determine whether he was guilty of extracting teeth for the purpose of avoiding his military draft. In September 2011, it was reported that Mong has been banned by Korean Broadcasting System (KBS) and Munhwa Broadcasting Corporation (MBC) from appearing in its TV shows, for draft dodging.[34]

Kim Mu-yeol Edit

In June 2012 Kim Mu-yeol came under growing public criticism over allegations he dodged his compulsory military service. In a report released by the Korean Board of Audit and Inspection (BAI), Kim was deemed fit to serve in active duty as a level two recruit after a March 2001 physical examination. However, throughout 2007 to 2009, Kim was granted postponement on the grounds that he was taking civil service examinations or had been admitted to a work training facility, neither of which took place. During this time he reportedly earned approximately ₩300 million from films, musicals and television work. In December 2009, he received his final notice for enlistment, having used up the 730 days allowed for postponement. He submitted a request to change his military status in January 2010 because of a knee injury, which was rejected. Finally, a valid exemption was granted on the grounds that he was a "low-income individual" and the sole provider for his family. BAI's contention was that Kim's income is substantially higher than the standard for disqualification due to poverty; thus, the Military Manpower Administration was negligent in their duties by granting the exemption.[35][36][37]

Kim's agency Prain TPC defended him, stating that Kim had been supporting his family by working as a security guard, construction worker and at a mobile phone factory since his late teens. When his father collapsed from a cerebral hemorrhage and was diagnosed with cancer in 2008, the treatments incurred a lot of debt for the family. Their worsening financial condition caused them to become totally dependent on Kim, resulting in his said filing for an exemption in 2010.[38] Given the publicity, a reinvestigation into the case was launched and Kim was asked by the production company to leave the film 11 A.M. (he was replaced by Choi Daniel).[39][40] On 4 October 2012, Kim released a statement that though there was no wrongdoing on his part, he had decided to voluntarily enter the army "to recover his honor damaged by the rumors."[41][42]

T.O.P Edit

T.O.P began his two-year mandatory military service on February 9, 2017 as a conscripted police officer, where he was set to be discharged on November 8, 2018 after completing the requirements.[43] However, it was announced in June that he would be prosecuted without detention for use of marijuana.[44] He was subsequently transferred to a different police division to await notice of prosecution, and was suspended from police duty pending verdict on his case.[45] A few days after the announcement, T.O.P was found unconscious in police barracks due to a suspected anti-anxiety medicine overdose of prescribed benzodiazepine,[46] and was hospitalized.[47] On June 8, T.O.P's mother confirmed that her son had opened his eyes and was recovering.[48]

On June 29, T.O.P faced his first trial for the marijuana usage charges at the Seoul Central District Court.[49] He pleaded guilty to the charges against him and admitted that he did smoke marijuana on two out of the four instances.[50] T.O.P received two years of probation, with a possibility of ten months' jail time if he violates any terms.[51] At the second court hearing the following month, T.O.P was sentenced to 10 months in prison suspended for two years for illegal marijuana use.[52] He acknowledged all guilty charges. After undergoing a disciplinary review by the police to decide if T.O.P could return as a conscripted policeman or will complete his service as a public service officer,[53] the Seoul Metropolitan Police Agency reviewed T.O.P's current condition and decided T.O.P is unfit to resume service in his previous position.[54][55] A request was made to Army headquarters for a new position for T.O.P to determine either to serve as a public service worker of a full-time reserve soldier to complete his mandatory service.[56][57] T.O.P was eventually assigned reservist status by the Ministry of National Defense and transferred from police department.[58] He will complete his mandatory service as a public service worker.[59] The time T.O.P had been dismissed from duty during his prosecution will not count towards his total service.[60][61]

Conscientious objection Edit

The right to conscientious objection is not recognised in South Korea.[62] Usually, over 400 people are imprisoned at any one time for refusing military service, for political or religious reasons. This is contrary to international human rights standards and the government of Korea have been repeatedly criticised for not allowing those whose conscience prevents them from joining the military to undertake some kind of substitute service, rather than imprisoning them.

See also Edit

Republic of Korea Armed Forces

Republic of Korea Army

Republic of Korea Marine Corps

Republic of Korea Navy

Republic of Korea Air Force

References Edit

^ "병역이행안내 - 개요(총괄)" [Military Service Implementation Guide - General Overview]. Military Manpower Organization (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-12-28.

^ a b Lee, Namhee (2007). The Making of Minjung: Democracy and the Politics of Representation in South Korea. Cornell University Press. p. 91. ISBN 0801445663.

^ "S. Korea to expand women's role in military". Yonhap News Agency. 2017-12-20. Retrieved 2017-12-28.

^ "Constitution of the Republic of Korea" (PDF). 1987. p. 12. Retrieved 2017-12-27.

^ Kim, Jongcheol (2012). "Constitutional Law". Introduction to Korean Law. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 78. ISBN 3642316891.

^ a b "Military Service Act, Article 8". Korean Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-29.

^ "History". Military Manpower Administration. Retrieved 2017-12-29.

^ "Military Service Act, Article 5". Korean Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-29.

^ "Military Service Act, Articles 10-14". Korean Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-29.

^ Lent, Jesse (2016-04-01). "'Descendants Of The Sun' Star Song Joong Ki Discusses His Time In The South Korean Army". Korea Portal. Retrieved 2017-12-30.

^ "Military Service Act, Article 18". Korea Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-30.

^ "Military Service Act, Articles 26-43". Korea Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-30.

^ "Conscription 'Should Be Phased Out Slowly'". Chosun Ilbo. 2010-07-06. Retrieved 2017-12-30.

^ Kim, Christine (2010-12-22). "Plan to cut compulsory military service scrapped". Korea JoongAng Daily. Retrieved 2017-12-30.

^ "제68조의11(예술ㆍ체육요원의 추천 등) [Article 68-11: Recommendation of arts and sports personnel, etc.]". 병역법 시행령 [Military Service Act Implementation Rules]. South Korea: Ministry of Government Legislation. 29 November 2016. Retrieved 6 April 2018. 법 제33조의7제1항 전단에서 "대통령령으로 정하는 예술·체육 분야의 특기를 가진 사람"이란 다음 각 호의 어느 하나에 해당하는 사람을 말한다. ... 4. 올림픽대회에서 3위 이상으로 입상한 사람(단체경기종목의 경우에는 실제로 출전한 선수만 해당한다) 5. 아시아경기대회에서 1위로 입상한 사람(단체경기종목의 경우에는 실제로 출전한 선수만 해당한다). [In Article 33, Paragraph 7, Subparagraph 2 of the Act, 'a person having special talents in arts and athletics fields, as defined by presidential order' refers to persons to whom are applicable any one of the provisions of the following subparagraphs. ... 4. A person who received a prize for ranked third or above at the Olympics (in the case of team events, only applicable to athletes who actually participated). 5. A person who received a prize for ranking first at the Asian Games (in the case of team events, only applicable to athletes who actually participated).]

^ "리우에서도 떠오른 축구대표팀 '병역특례'".

^ "Footballer to Be Spared Military Service Despite IOC Probe". Chosun Ilbo. 14 August 2012. Retrieved 2 October 2012.

^ "Medal instead of military service". The Hankyoreh. 11 August 2012. Retrieved 25 February 2013.

^ "들쭉날쭉 병역특례기준 '형평성' 논란…병무청 '누적점수제' 추진" (in Korean). Yonhap News Agency. September 30, 2016.

^ "Park Tae-hwan Enters Army Boot Camp". Chosun Ilbo. 5 October 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2012.

^ "Star Swimmer Says Army Boot Camp Helped Him Grow". Chosun Ilbo. 1 November 2012. Retrieved 4 April 2013.

^ "Hyeon Chung Participates In Korean Military Training - ATP World Tour - Tennis - ATP World Tour - Tennis".

^ 공무원보수규정 '별표 13' 군인의 봉급표(제5조 및 별표 1 관련) . Korea Ministry of Government Legislation (in Korean). Retrieved 28 April 2015.

^ 조, 기호 (18 July 2012). "운동화 한 켤레 못 주는 군(軍)!". Seoul Broadcasting System. Retrieved 4 August 2012.

^ "[보도자료] 예산 없다던 국방부, 사관생도에게는 고가 외국브랜드 운동화 지급". Retrieved 4 August 2012.[dead link]

^ "FAQs-Dual Citizens | U.S. Embassy & Consulate in Korea". U.S. Embassy & Consulate in Korea. Retrieved 2017-10-12.

^ "South Korean singer Rain reports for military service". BBC News. 11 October 2011. Retrieved 2011-10-14.

^ Park, Eun-jee (16 January 2013). "Military service mischief a losing battle". Joongang Daily. Archived from the original on 29 June 2013. Retrieved 4 April 2013.

^ Seo, Ji-eun "Steve Yoo isn’t coming back to Korea" Archived 6 January 2013 at the Wayback Machine. Joongang Daily. 20 October 2011. retrieved 2011-11-08

^ (in Korean) "최지우, '승헌이에게 말 걸어볼까?"[permanent dead link] SSTV. 30 June 2009. Retrieved 2011-11-06

^ "Song Seung-heon, Jang Hyeok Discharged from Military" HanCinema. 16 November 2011. Retrieved 2011-10-14

^ (in Korean) "Song Seung-heon discharged from the army"Yahoo News Korea, 2006-11-18. Archived 14 June 2011 at the Wayback Machine.

^ "Rapper Gets Suspended Jail Term for Draft Dodging" Chosun Ilbo. 12 April 2011. Retrieved 2011-10-14

^ "KBS, MBC release list of 36 banned entertainers" Dong-A Ilbo. 28 September 2011. 2011-10-14

^ Sunwoo, Carla (22 June 2012). "Actor Kim Moo-yul was poor enough to dodge military service". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 27 January 2013. Retrieved 6 October 2012.

^ Lee, In-kyung (21 June 2012). "Kim Moo Yul Involved in Military Scandal after Avoiding Duties". enewsWorld. Retrieved 2012-10-06.

^ "High-Paid Actor Exempted from Draft for Poverty". The Chosun Ilbo. 22 June 2012. Retrieved 2012-10-06.

^ Moon, Gwang-lip (25 June 2012). "Agent says Kim Moo-yul's family situation was 'nearly impossible'". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 11 August 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2012.

^ Sunwoo, Carla (10 July 2012). "Kim Moo-yul kicked off movie set". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 26 January 2013. Retrieved 6 October 2012.

^ Sunwoo, Carla (11 July 2012). "Choi Daniel to replace Kim Moo-yul". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 5 August 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2012.

^ Lee, Hye-ji (5 October 2012). "Kim Moo-yeol to Enter Army, Cleaning out Exemption Rumors". 10Asia. Retrieved 2012-11-18.

^ Sunwoo, Carla (11 October 2011). "Kim Moo-yul enlists after rumors". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 26 October 2012. Retrieved 18 November 2012.

^ "BIGBANG's T.O.P confirms military enlistment date". Yibada. November 22, 2016.

^ "The Full Story Behind T.O.P's Drug Scandal, And The Mysterious Trainee Woman". June 2, 2017. Retrieved June 8, 2017.

^ Jun, R. "BIGBANG's T.O.P To Be Dismissed From Duty For Duration of Prosecution". Soompi. Retrieved 8 June 2017.

^ "Medical expert comments on T.O.P's benzodiazepine overdose | allkpop.com". allkpop. Retrieved 2017-06-09.

^ "BIGBANG's T.O.P hospitalized for drug overdose". YonhapNews. June 6, 2017. Retrieved June 6, 2017.

^ "K-pop superstar T.O.P. in intensive care after overdose". BBC. June 8, 2017. Retrieved June 28, 2017.

^ Kim Jung-kyoon (June 30, 2017). "T.O.P admits to all charges at first hearing". Korea JoongAng Daily. Retrieved July 19, 2017.

^ "Big Bang's T.O.P pleads guilty to pot charges". The Jakarta Post. June 30, 2017. Retrieved 2017-07-19.

^ Park Hyeong-taek (June 29, 2017). "[SC현장] 탑, 대마초 4회 흡연 시인…"공소사실 모두 인정"" [[SC scene] Top, smoking four po ... "All the facts of the charges"]. Sports Chosun (in Korean). Retrieved July 19, 2017.

^ Riddhiman Mukhopadhyay (July 20, 2017). "Rapper T.O.P sentenced at final trial: Apologizes to fans for his actions". International Business Times. Retrieved July 21, 2017.

^ "(LEAD) BIGBANG's T.O.P. gets suspended sentence for marijuana use". Yonhap News Agency. July 20, 2017. Retrieved July 20, 2017.

^ "빅뱅 탑, 재복무심사에서 부적합 결론… 의경신분 박탈" [Big Bang tower is inadequate in re-examination ... Deprivation of state]. Sports Chosun (in Korean). July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.

^ "BIGBANG's T.O.P to lose police post after drug conviction". Yonhap News Agency. July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.

^ "탑, 의경 신분 박탈 '재복무 심사서 부적합 판정'" [Top, disqualification of state of rehabilitation]. Starin E-Daily (in Korean). July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.

^ "BigBang rapper T.O.P cannot continue serving military duty as a policeman". Starits Times. July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.

^ Lee Young-jae (August 28, 2017). "'대마초 흡연' 빅뱅 탑, 의경에서 사회복무 요원 됐다". Korea JoongAng Daily (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.

^ Kim Ji-heon (August 28, 2017). "'대마초' 빅뱅 탑, 오늘 의경 전역…사회복무요원으로 근무". Yonhap News Agency (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.

^ Kim Yoo-jin (August 28, 2017). "'대마초 논란' 탑, 보충역 통보받고 오늘 전역…사회복무요원으로 전환". Herald Economy (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.

^ Hae Kyung Heon (August 28, 2017). "대마초 집유판결 탑 결국 사회복무요원으로, 누리꾼 반응 '냉랭'". Sports Khan (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.

^ "Country report and updates: Korea, South - War Resisters' International". www.wri-irg.org.

Exter

(http://www.autoadmit.com/thread.php?thread_id=3345436&forum_id=2#36142781)



Reply Favorite

Date: September 8th, 2016 9:48 PM
Author: american space force

this is normal and healthy.

(http://www.autoadmit.com/thread.php?thread_id=3345436&forum_id=2#31364725)



Reply Favorite

Date: September 8th, 2016 9:53 PM
Author: nyuug (18 yr old American girl ridin dat Yellow Monster Gangnam Style)

getting laid has never been about how hot you are, how much money you make, etc. all you need to know is how to filter DTF girls from non-DTF girls. thats it.

(http://www.autoadmit.com/thread.php?thread_id=3345436&forum_id=2#31364770)



Reply Favorite

Date: September 8th, 2016 9:55 PM
Author: \'\"\'\"\"\'\"

lisped the guy who was a virgin throughout high school and college

(http://www.autoadmit.com/thread.php?thread_id=3345436&forum_id=2#31364796)



Reply Favorite

Date: September 8th, 2016 9:56 PM
Author: nyuug (18 yr old American girl ridin dat Yellow Monster Gangnam Style)

lost my v-card to a white girl senior year when i was still a NYU UG. second girl was white too

(http://www.autoadmit.com/thread.php?thread_id=3345436&forum_id=2#31364801)



Reply Favorite

Date: September 8th, 2016 9:57 PM
Author: \'\"\'\"\"\'\"

she was a prostitute though. LJL

(http://www.autoadmit.com/thread.php?thread_id=3345436&forum_id=2#31364807)



Reply Favorite

Date: September 8th, 2016 9:59 PM
Author: 8========D~~~

Ouch.

(http://www.autoadmit.com/thread.php?thread_id=3345436&forum_id=2#31364834)



Reply Favorite

Date: September 8th, 2016 10:10 PM
Author: nyuug (18 yr old American girl ridin dat Yellow Monster Gangnam Style)

if you are an asian man, your first girl should be a white girl

(http://www.autoadmit.com/thread.php?thread_id=3345436&forum_id=2#31364943)



Reply Favorite

Date: September 8th, 2016 10:10 PM
Author: \'\"\'\"\"\'\"

she was an escort LJL

(http://www.autoadmit.com/thread.php?thread_id=3345436&forum_id=2#31364946)



Reply Favorite

Date: September 8th, 2016 10:10 PM
Author: The DJT USSF INTERGALACTIC JUGGERNAUT

white prostitute*

(http://www.autoadmit.com/thread.php?thread_id=3345436&forum_id=2#31364947)



Reply Favorite

Date: September 8th, 2016 10:11 PM
Author: my dog faces more systemic racism than I do (America First)

What excuse did you give your mommy for why you needed the $200?

(http://www.autoadmit.com/thread.php?thread_id=3345436&forum_id=2#31364956)



Reply Favorite

Date: May 28th, 2018 11:43 PM
Author: The Sheer Entitled Caucasity

Wikipedia Search

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Conscription in South Korea

Conscription in South Korea has existed since 1957 and requires male citizens between the ages of 18 and 35 to perform about two years of compulsory military service.[1][2] Women are not required to perform military service, but may voluntarily enlist.[3]

Establishment Edit

The basis for military conscription in South Korea is the Constitution of the Republic of Korea, which was promulgated on July 17, 1948. The constitution states in Article 39, "All citizens shall have the duty of national defense under the conditions as prescribed by Act."[4][5] The Military Service Act of 1949, which was implemented in 1957, specified that compulsory military service is required for men ages 18 or older.[6][2] Conscription is managed by the Military Manpower Administration, which was created in 1948.[7]

Requirements Edit

Enlistment and physical exam Edit

By law, when a Korean man turns 18 years old, he is enlisted for "first citizen service," meaning he is liable for military duty, but is not yet required to serve.[6][8] When he turns 19 years old (or, in some instances, 20 years old), he is required to undergo a physical exam to determine whether he is suitable for military service. The table below shows the physical exam's possible grades and their outcomes, according to the Military Service Act.[9]

Grade Description Outcome

1, 2, 3, 4 "Those whose physical and psychological constitution is healthy enough to perform active or supplemental service." "To be enlisted for active duty service, supplemental service or the second citizen service, based on their qualifications, such as educational background and age."

5 "Those incapable of entering active or supplemental service, but capable of entering the second citizen service." "To be enlisted for the second citizen service."

6 "Those incapable of performing military service due to any disease or mental or physical incompetence." "To be exempted from military service."

7 "Those unable to be graded...due to any disease or mental or physical incompetence." "To undergo a follow-up physical examination" within two years.

Service types and length Edit

The length of compulsory military service in South Korea varies based on military branch.[10] Active duty soldiers serve 21 months in the Army or Marine Corps, 23 months in the Navy, and 24 months in the Air Force.[11] After conscripts finish their military service, they are automatically placed on the reserve roster and are obligated to attend a few days of annual military training for 6 years.[citation needed]

Non-active duty personnel, or "supplemental service" personnel serve for various lengths: 24 months for social work personnel or international cooperation service personnel; 34 months for arts and sports personnel or industrial technical personnel; and 36 months for public health doctors, lawyers, veterinarians, or expert researchers.[12]

South Korea currently has among the longest military service periods in the world, ranked behind Israel, Singapore, and North Korea.[citation needed] In 2010, there was growing public pressure to either shorten the length of conscription or to switch to voluntary military service, and calls from experts for a gradual phasing out of conscription rather than complete abolition.[13] However, in December 2010, after taking into consideration of the 2010 ROKS Cheonan sinking and Bombardment of Yeonpyeong incidents, the South Korean government said it would not reduce service periods.[14]

Exemptions for Olympic medalists Edit

Current conscription regulations stipulate that athletes who win medals in the Olympic Games or gold medals in the Asian Games are granted exemptions from military service and are placed in Grade 4.[15] They are required to do four weeks of basic military training and engage in sports field for 34 months. After that, they are automatically placed on the reserve roster, and are obligated to attend a few days of annual military training for six years. In practice, after athletes finish their four weeks of basic military training, they are able to continue their own sports career during the 34 months of duty.[16]

Notable athletes who have been granted exemptions from military service are the bronze medal-winning football team at the 2012 Summer Olympics,[17][18] 2008 Olympic gold medalists badminton player Lee Yong-dae[19] and swimmer Park Tae-hwan[20][21] and 2014 Asian Games gold medalist tennis player Hyeon Chung.[22]

Compensation Edit

The following data is from 'Regulation on Public Servant Compensation', implemented on 1 January 2017.[23] Exchange rate as of 2 May 2018 (₩1077 to $1.00USD)

Private (이등병) Private first class (일등병) Corporal (상등병) Sergeant (병장)

₩163,000

$151.35 (approx) per month ₩176,400

$163.79 (approx) per month ₩195,000

$181.06 (approx) per month ₩216,000

$200.56 (approx) per month

Equipment Edit

The Ministry of National Defense has revealed that it has failed to provide sneakers to 7,411 recruits who joined the military from 22 May to 4 June 2012, after the budget was insufficient for need. The Defense ministry originally projected the cost of each pair of sneakers to be 11,000 KRW. However, the actual cost turned out to be 15,000 KRW.[24]

The office of National Assembly member Kim Kwang-jin of Democratic United Party revealed that cadets in Korea Military Academy were provided with sneakers worth 60,000 KRW and tennis shoes. Cadets in Korea Army Academy at Yeongcheon were provided with sneakers worth 64,250 KRW, in addition to running shoes and soccer shoes.[25]

Dual citizens Edit

For dual citizens, or those with multiple citizenships, male South Koreans must choose their citizenship by the time they turn 18, before March 31 of that year. If these males choose to revoke their South Korean citizenship, they will not be required to complete their mandatory military service. However, if they fail to choose their citizenship by their 18th year, they will be subjected to fulfill their mandatory military service.[26] If males choose to renounce their citizenship by their 18th year, they are ineligible to gain a Korean work visa (F series) until after they turn 40 years of age. It may still be possible to gain an E series visa.

Controversies Edit

The South Korean public is sensitive towards the country's mandatory military service, but also has a low tolerance towards those who attempt to dodge or receive special treatment, especially after scandals of wealthy families caught trying to avoid their national duty. Those found or accused of draft dodging and negligence of duty often face harsh penalties and public backlash. According to Ha Jae-keun, a South Korean pop columnist, "The mood against draft-dodgers and negligence of duty is so hostile that nowadays entertainers feel it's better to get it over and done with".[27][28]

Steve Yoo Edit

In 2002, right before Korean American pop singer Steve Yoo was due to be drafted for his military service, he gave up his Korean nationality and became a naturalized U.S. citizen. He was born in Seoul and migrated to the United States at the age of 13. The South Korean government considered it an act of desertion and deported him, banning him from entering the country permanently.[29]

Song Seung-heon Edit

In late 2004, it was revealed that actor Song Seung-heon had avoided his draft by taking medication to fail the military physical examination. Song had previously been exempted by claiming to have severe diabetes and high blood pressure, but that was found by the South Korean government to be false.[30] Amidst press coverage and public outcry, Song publicly apologized and agreed to immediately serve his two-year term in the military. Song was discharged on 15 November 2006 with the rank of Corporal.[31][32]

MC Mong Edit

On 11 April 2011, rapper MC Mong was cleared of intentionally pulling out healthy teeth to be exempted from military duty but was sentenced to a suspended jail term of 6 months, probation for one year, and 120 hours of community service, for deliberately delaying enlistment on false grounds.[33] The court acknowledged that there was a delay in his military enlistment; however, they were unable to determine whether he was guilty of extracting teeth for the purpose of avoiding his military draft. In September 2011, it was reported that Mong has been banned by Korean Broadcasting System (KBS) and Munhwa Broadcasting Corporation (MBC) from appearing in its TV shows, for draft dodging.[34]

Kim Mu-yeol Edit

In June 2012 Kim Mu-yeol came under growing public criticism over allegations he dodged his compulsory military service. In a report released by the Korean Board of Audit and Inspection (BAI), Kim was deemed fit to serve in active duty as a level two recruit after a March 2001 physical examination. However, throughout 2007 to 2009, Kim was granted postponement on the grounds that he was taking civil service examinations or had been admitted to a work training facility, neither of which took place. During this time he reportedly earned approximately ₩300 million from films, musicals and television work. In December 2009, he received his final notice for enlistment, having used up the 730 days allowed for postponement. He submitted a request to change his military status in January 2010 because of a knee injury, which was rejected. Finally, a valid exemption was granted on the grounds that he was a "low-income individual" and the sole provider for his family. BAI's contention was that Kim's income is substantially higher than the standard for disqualification due to poverty; thus, the Military Manpower Administration was negligent in their duties by granting the exemption.[35][36][37]

Kim's agency Prain TPC defended him, stating that Kim had been supporting his family by working as a security guard, construction worker and at a mobile phone factory since his late teens. When his father collapsed from a cerebral hemorrhage and was diagnosed with cancer in 2008, the treatments incurred a lot of debt for the family. Their worsening financial condition caused them to become totally dependent on Kim, resulting in his said filing for an exemption in 2010.[38] Given the publicity, a reinvestigation into the case was launched and Kim was asked by the production company to leave the film 11 A.M. (he was replaced by Choi Daniel).[39][40] On 4 October 2012, Kim released a statement that though there was no wrongdoing on his part, he had decided to voluntarily enter the army "to recover his honor damaged by the rumors."[41][42]

T.O.P Edit

T.O.P began his two-year mandatory military service on February 9, 2017 as a conscripted police officer, where he was set to be discharged on November 8, 2018 after completing the requirements.[43] However, it was announced in June that he would be prosecuted without detention for use of marijuana.[44] He was subsequently transferred to a different police division to await notice of prosecution, and was suspended from police duty pending verdict on his case.[45] A few days after the announcement, T.O.P was found unconscious in police barracks due to a suspected anti-anxiety medicine overdose of prescribed benzodiazepine,[46] and was hospitalized.[47] On June 8, T.O.P's mother confirmed that her son had opened his eyes and was recovering.[48]

On June 29, T.O.P faced his first trial for the marijuana usage charges at the Seoul Central District Court.[49] He pleaded guilty to the charges against him and admitted that he did smoke marijuana on two out of the four instances.[50] T.O.P received two years of probation, with a possibility of ten months' jail time if he violates any terms.[51] At the second court hearing the following month, T.O.P was sentenced to 10 months in prison suspended for two years for illegal marijuana use.[52] He acknowledged all guilty charges. After undergoing a disciplinary review by the police to decide if T.O.P could return as a conscripted policeman or will complete his service as a public service officer,[53] the Seoul Metropolitan Police Agency reviewed T.O.P's current condition and decided T.O.P is unfit to resume service in his previous position.[54][55] A request was made to Army headquarters for a new position for T.O.P to determine either to serve as a public service worker of a full-time reserve soldier to complete his mandatory service.[56][57] T.O.P was eventually assigned reservist status by the Ministry of National Defense and transferred from police department.[58] He will complete his mandatory service as a public service worker.[59] The time T.O.P had been dismissed from duty during his prosecution will not count towards his total service.[60][61]

Conscientious objection Edit

The right to conscientious objection is not recognised in South Korea.[62] Usually, over 400 people are imprisoned at any one time for refusing military service, for political or religious reasons. This is contrary to international human rights standards and the government of Korea have been repeatedly criticised for not allowing those whose conscience prevents them from joining the military to undertake some kind of substitute service, rather than imprisoning them.

See also Edit

Republic of Korea Armed Forces

Republic of Korea Army

Republic of Korea Marine Corps

Republic of Korea Navy

Republic of Korea Air Force

References Edit

^ "병역이행안내 - 개요(총괄)" [Military Service Implementation Guide - General Overview]. Military Manpower Organization (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-12-28.

^ a b Lee, Namhee (2007). The Making of Minjung: Democracy and the Politics of Representation in South Korea. Cornell University Press. p. 91. ISBN 0801445663.

^ "S. Korea to expand women's role in military". Yonhap News Agency. 2017-12-20. Retrieved 2017-12-28.

^ "Constitution of the Republic of Korea" (PDF). 1987. p. 12. Retrieved 2017-12-27.

^ Kim, Jongcheol (2012). "Constitutional Law". Introduction to Korean Law. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 78. ISBN 3642316891.

^ a b "Military Service Act, Article 8". Korean Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-29.

^ "History". Military Manpower Administration. Retrieved 2017-12-29.

^ "Military Service Act, Article 5". Korean Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-29.

^ "Military Service Act, Articles 10-14". Korean Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-29.

^ Lent, Jesse (2016-04-01). "'Descendants Of The Sun' Star Song Joong Ki Discusses His Time In The South Korean Army". Korea Portal. Retrieved 2017-12-30.

^ "Military Service Act, Article 18". Korea Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-30.

^ "Military Service Act, Articles 26-43". Korea Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-30.

^ "Conscription 'Should Be Phased Out Slowly'". Chosun Ilbo. 2010-07-06. Retrieved 2017-12-30.

^ Kim, Christine (2010-12-22). "Plan to cut compulsory military service scrapped". Korea JoongAng Daily. Retrieved 2017-12-30.

^ "제68조의11(예술ㆍ체육요원의 추천 등) [Article 68-11: Recommendation of arts and sports personnel, etc.]". 병역법 시행령 [Military Service Act Implementation Rules]. South Korea: Ministry of Government Legislation. 29 November 2016. Retrieved 6 April 2018. 법 제33조의7제1항 전단에서 "대통령령으로 정하는 예술·체육 분야의 특기를 가진 사람"이란 다음 각 호의 어느 하나에 해당하는 사람을 말한다. ... 4. 올림픽대회에서 3위 이상으로 입상한 사람(단체경기종목의 경우에는 실제로 출전한 선수만 해당한다) 5. 아시아경기대회에서 1위로 입상한 사람(단체경기종목의 경우에는 실제로 출전한 선수만 해당한다). [In Article 33, Paragraph 7, Subparagraph 2 of the Act, 'a person having special talents in arts and athletics fields, as defined by presidential order' refers to persons to whom are applicable any one of the provisions of the following subparagraphs. ... 4. A person who received a prize for ranked third or above at the Olympics (in the case of team events, only applicable to athletes who actually participated). 5. A person who received a prize for ranking first at the Asian Games (in the case of team events, only applicable to athletes who actually participated).]

^ "리우에서도 떠오른 축구대표팀 '병역특례'".

^ "Footballer to Be Spared Military Service Despite IOC Probe". Chosun Ilbo. 14 August 2012. Retrieved 2 October 2012.

^ "Medal instead of military service". The Hankyoreh. 11 August 2012. Retrieved 25 February 2013.

^ "들쭉날쭉 병역특례기준 '형평성' 논란…병무청 '누적점수제' 추진" (in Korean). Yonhap News Agency. September 30, 2016.

^ "Park Tae-hwan Enters Army Boot Camp". Chosun Ilbo. 5 October 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2012.

^ "Star Swimmer Says Army Boot Camp Helped Him Grow". Chosun Ilbo. 1 November 2012. Retrieved 4 April 2013.

^ "Hyeon Chung Participates In Korean Military Training - ATP World Tour - Tennis - ATP World Tour - Tennis".

^ 공무원보수규정 '별표 13' 군인의 봉급표(제5조 및 별표 1 관련) . Korea Ministry of Government Legislation (in Korean). Retrieved 28 April 2015.

^ 조, 기호 (18 July 2012). "운동화 한 켤레 못 주는 군(軍)!". Seoul Broadcasting System. Retrieved 4 August 2012.

^ "[보도자료] 예산 없다던 국방부, 사관생도에게는 고가 외국브랜드 운동화 지급". Retrieved 4 August 2012.[dead link]

^ "FAQs-Dual Citizens | U.S. Embassy & Consulate in Korea". U.S. Embassy & Consulate in Korea. Retrieved 2017-10-12.

^ "South Korean singer Rain reports for military service". BBC News. 11 October 2011. Retrieved 2011-10-14.

^ Park, Eun-jee (16 January 2013). "Military service mischief a losing battle". Joongang Daily. Archived from the original on 29 June 2013. Retrieved 4 April 2013.

^ Seo, Ji-eun "Steve Yoo isn’t coming back to Korea" Archived 6 January 2013 at the Wayback Machine. Joongang Daily. 20 October 2011. retrieved 2011-11-08

^ (in Korean) "최지우, '승헌이에게 말 걸어볼까?"[permanent dead link] SSTV. 30 June 2009. Retrieved 2011-11-06

^ "Song Seung-heon, Jang Hyeok Discharged from Military" HanCinema. 16 November 2011. Retrieved 2011-10-14

^ (in Korean) "Song Seung-heon discharged from the army"Yahoo News Korea, 2006-11-18. Archived 14 June 2011 at the Wayback Machine.

^ "Rapper Gets Suspended Jail Term for Draft Dodging" Chosun Ilbo. 12 April 2011. Retrieved 2011-10-14

^ "KBS, MBC release list of 36 banned entertainers" Dong-A Ilbo. 28 September 2011. 2011-10-14

^ Sunwoo, Carla (22 June 2012). "Actor Kim Moo-yul was poor enough to dodge military service". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 27 January 2013. Retrieved 6 October 2012.

^ Lee, In-kyung (21 June 2012). "Kim Moo Yul Involved in Military Scandal after Avoiding Duties". enewsWorld. Retrieved 2012-10-06.

^ "High-Paid Actor Exempted from Draft for Poverty". The Chosun Ilbo. 22 June 2012. Retrieved 2012-10-06.

^ Moon, Gwang-lip (25 June 2012). "Agent says Kim Moo-yul's family situation was 'nearly impossible'". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 11 August 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2012.

^ Sunwoo, Carla (10 July 2012). "Kim Moo-yul kicked off movie set". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 26 January 2013. Retrieved 6 October 2012.

^ Sunwoo, Carla (11 July 2012). "Choi Daniel to replace Kim Moo-yul". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 5 August 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2012.

^ Lee, Hye-ji (5 October 2012). "Kim Moo-yeol to Enter Army, Cleaning out Exemption Rumors". 10Asia. Retrieved 2012-11-18.

^ Sunwoo, Carla (11 October 2011). "Kim Moo-yul enlists after rumors". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 26 October 2012. Retrieved 18 November 2012.

^ "BIGBANG's T.O.P confirms military enlistment date". Yibada. November 22, 2016.

^ "The Full Story Behind T.O.P's Drug Scandal, And The Mysterious Trainee Woman". June 2, 2017. Retrieved June 8, 2017.

^ Jun, R. "BIGBANG's T.O.P To Be Dismissed From Duty For Duration of Prosecution". Soompi. Retrieved 8 June 2017.

^ "Medical expert comments on T.O.P's benzodiazepine overdose | allkpop.com". allkpop. Retrieved 2017-06-09.

^ "BIGBANG's T.O.P hospitalized for drug overdose". YonhapNews. June 6, 2017. Retrieved June 6, 2017.

^ "K-pop superstar T.O.P. in intensive care after overdose". BBC. June 8, 2017. Retrieved June 28, 2017.

^ Kim Jung-kyoon (June 30, 2017). "T.O.P admits to all charges at first hearing". Korea JoongAng Daily. Retrieved July 19, 2017.

^ "Big Bang's T.O.P pleads guilty to pot charges". The Jakarta Post. June 30, 2017. Retrieved 2017-07-19.

^ Park Hyeong-taek (June 29, 2017). "[SC현장] 탑, 대마초 4회 흡연 시인…"공소사실 모두 인정"" [[SC scene] Top, smoking four po ... "All the facts of the charges"]. Sports Chosun (in Korean). Retrieved July 19, 2017.

^ Riddhiman Mukhopadhyay (July 20, 2017). "Rapper T.O.P sentenced at final trial: Apologizes to fans for his actions". International Business Times. Retrieved July 21, 2017.

^ "(LEAD) BIGBANG's T.O.P. gets suspended sentence for marijuana use". Yonhap News Agency. July 20, 2017. Retrieved July 20, 2017.

^ "빅뱅 탑, 재복무심사에서 부적합 결론… 의경신분 박탈" [Big Bang tower is inadequate in re-examination ... Deprivation of state]. Sports Chosun (in Korean). July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.

^ "BIGBANG's T.O.P to lose police post after drug conviction". Yonhap News Agency. July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.

^ "탑, 의경 신분 박탈 '재복무 심사서 부적합 판정'" [Top, disqualification of state of rehabilitation]. Starin E-Daily (in Korean). July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.

^ "BigBang rapper T.O.P cannot continue serving military duty as a policeman". Starits Times. July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.

^ Lee Young-jae (August 28, 2017). "'대마초 흡연' 빅뱅 탑, 의경에서 사회복무 요원 됐다". Korea JoongAng Daily (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.

^ Kim Ji-heon (August 28, 2017). "'대마초' 빅뱅 탑, 오늘 의경 전역…사회복무요원으로 근무". Yonhap News Agency (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.

^ Kim Yoo-jin (August 28, 2017). "'대마초 논란' 탑, 보충역 통보받고 오늘 전역…사회복무요원으로 전환". Herald Economy (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.

^ Hae Kyung Heon (August 28, 2017). "대마초 집유판결 탑 결국 사회복무요원으로, 누리꾼 반응 '냉랭'". Sports Khan (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.

^ "Country report and updates: Korea, South - War Resisters' International". www.wri-irg.org.

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Conscription in South Korea

Conscription in South Korea has existed since 1957 and requires male citizens between the ages of 18 and 35 to perform about two years of compulsory military service.[1][2] Women are not required to perform military service, but may voluntarily enlist.[3]

Establishment Edit

The basis for military conscription in South Korea is the Constitution of the Republic of Korea, which was promulgated on July 17, 1948. The constitution states in Article 39, "All citizens shall have the duty of national defense under the conditions as prescribed by Act."[4][5] The Military Service Act of 1949, which was implemented in 1957, specified that compulsory military service is required for men ages 18 or older.[6][2] Conscription is managed by the Military Manpower Administration, which was created in 1948.[7]

Requirements Edit

Enlistment and physical exam Edit

By law, when a Korean man turns 18 years old, he is enlisted for "first citizen service," meaning he is liable for military duty, but is not yet required to serve.[6][8] When he turns 19 years old (or, in some instances, 20 years old), he is required to undergo a physical exam to determine whether he is suitable for military service. The table below shows the physical exam's possible grades and their outcomes, according to the Military Service Act.[9]

Grade Description Outcome

1, 2, 3, 4 "Those whose physical and psychological constitution is healthy enough to perform active or supplemental service." "To be enlisted for active duty service, supplemental service or the second citizen service, based on their qualifications, such as educational background and age."

5 "Those incapable of entering active or supplemental service, but capable of entering the second citizen service." "To be enlisted for the second citizen service."

6 "Those incapable of performing military service due to any disease or mental or physical incompetence." "To be exempted from military service."

7 "Those unable to be graded...due to any disease or mental or physical incompetence." "To undergo a follow-up physical examination" within two years.

Service types and length Edit

The length of compulsory military service in South Korea varies based on military branch.[10] Active duty soldiers serve 21 months in the Army or Marine Corps, 23 months in the Navy, and 24 months in the Air Force.[11] After conscripts finish their military service, they are automatically placed on the reserve roster and are obligated to attend a few days of annual military training for 6 years.[citation needed]

Non-active duty personnel, or "supplemental service" personnel serve for various lengths: 24 months for social work personnel or international cooperation service personnel; 34 months for arts and sports personnel or industrial technical personnel; and 36 months for public health doctors, lawyers, veterinarians, or expert researchers.[12]

South Korea currently has among the longest military service periods in the world, ranked behind Israel, Singapore, and North Korea.[citation needed] In 2010, there was growing public pressure to either shorten the length of conscription or to switch to voluntary military service, and calls from experts for a gradual phasing out of conscription rather than complete abolition.[13] However, in December 2010, after taking into consideration of the 2010 ROKS Cheonan sinking and Bombardment of Yeonpyeong incidents, the South Korean government said it would not reduce service periods.[14]

Exemptions for Olympic medalists Edit

Current conscription regulations stipulate that athletes who win medals in the Olympic Games or gold medals in the Asian Games are granted exemptions from military service and are placed in Grade 4.[15] They are required to do four weeks of basic military training and engage in sports field for 34 months. After that, they are automatically placed on the reserve roster, and are obligated to attend a few days of annual military training for six years. In practice, after athletes finish their four weeks of basic military training, they are able to continue their own sports career during the 34 months of duty.[16]

Notable athletes who have been granted exemptions from military service are the bronze medal-winning football team at the 2012 Summer Olympics,[17][18] 2008 Olympic gold medalists badminton player Lee Yong-dae[19] and swimmer Park Tae-hwan[20][21] and 2014 Asian Games gold medalist tennis player Hyeon Chung.[22]

Compensation Edit

The following data is from 'Regulation on Public Servant Compensation', implemented on 1 January 2017.[23] Exchange rate as of 2 May 2018 (₩1077 to $1.00USD)

Private (이등병) Private first class (일등병) Corporal (상등병) Sergeant (병장)

₩163,000

$151.35 (approx) per month ₩176,400

$163.79 (approx) per month ₩195,000

$181.06 (approx) per month ₩216,000

$200.56 (approx) per month

Equipment Edit

The Ministry of National Defense has revealed that it has failed to provide sneakers to 7,411 recruits who joined the military from 22 May to 4 June 2012, after the budget was insufficient for need. The Defense ministry originally projected the cost of each pair of sneakers to be 11,000 KRW. However, the actual cost turned out to be 15,000 KRW.[24]

The office of National Assembly member Kim Kwang-jin of Democratic United Party revealed that cadets in Korea Military Academy were provided with sneakers worth 60,000 KRW and tennis shoes. Cadets in Korea Army Academy at Yeongcheon were provided with sneakers worth 64,250 KRW, in addition to running shoes and soccer shoes.[25]

Dual citizens Edit

For dual citizens, or those with multiple citizenships, male South Koreans must choose their citizenship by the time they turn 18, before March 31 of that year. If these males choose to revoke their South Korean citizenship, they will not be required to complete their mandatory military service. However, if they fail to choose their citizenship by their 18th year, they will be subjected to fulfill their mandatory military service.[26] If males choose to renounce their citizenship by their 18th year, they are ineligible to gain a Korean work visa (F series) until after they turn 40 years of age. It may still be possible to gain an E series visa.

Controversies Edit

The South Korean public is sensitive towards the country's mandatory military service, but also has a low tolerance towards those who attempt to dodge or receive special treatment, especially after scandals of wealthy families caught trying to avoid their national duty. Those found or accused of draft dodging and negligence of duty often face harsh penalties and public backlash. According to Ha Jae-keun, a South Korean pop columnist, "The mood against draft-dodgers and negligence of duty is so hostile that nowadays entertainers feel it's better to get it over and done with".[27][28]

Steve Yoo Edit

In 2002, right before Korean American pop singer Steve Yoo was due to be drafted for his military service, he gave up his Korean nationality and became a naturalized U.S. citizen. He was born in Seoul and migrated to the United States at the age of 13. The South Korean government considered it an act of desertion and deported him, banning him from entering the country permanently.[29]

Song Seung-heon Edit

In late 2004, it was revealed that actor Song Seung-heon had avoided his draft by taking medication to fail the military physical examination. Song had previously been exempted by claiming to have severe diabetes and high blood pressure, but that was found by the South Korean government to be false.[30] Amidst press coverage and public outcry, Song publicly apologized and agreed to immediately serve his two-year term in the military. Song was discharged on 15 November 2006 with the rank of Corporal.[31][32]

MC Mong Edit

On 11 April 2011, rapper MC Mong was cleared of intentionally pulling out healthy teeth to be exempted from military duty but was sentenced to a suspended jail term of 6 months, probation for one year, and 120 hours of community service, for deliberately delaying enlistment on false grounds.[33] The court acknowledged that there was a delay in his military enlistment; however, they were unable to determine whether he was guilty of extracting teeth for the purpose of avoiding his military draft. In September 2011, it was reported that Mong has been banned by Korean Broadcasting System (KBS) and Munhwa Broadcasting Corporation (MBC) from appearing in its TV shows, for draft dodging.[34]

Kim Mu-yeol Edit

In June 2012 Kim Mu-yeol came under growing public criticism over allegations he dodged his compulsory military service. In a report released by the Korean Board of Audit and Inspection (BAI), Kim was deemed fit to serve in active duty as a level two recruit after a March 2001 physical examination. However, throughout 2007 to 2009, Kim was granted postponement on the grounds that he was taking civil service examinations or had been admitted to a work training facility, neither of which took place. During this time he reportedly earned approximately ₩300 million from films, musicals and television work. In December 2009, he received his final notice for enlistment, having used up the 730 days allowed for postponement. He submitted a request to change his military status in January 2010 because of a knee injury, which was rejected. Finally, a valid exemption was granted on the grounds that he was a "low-income individual" and the sole provider for his family. BAI's contention was that Kim's income is substantially higher than the standard for disqualification due to poverty; thus, the Military Manpower Administration was negligent in their duties by granting the exemption.[35][36][37]

Kim's agency Prain TPC defended him, stating that Kim had been supporting his family by working as a security guard, construction worker and at a mobile phone factory since his late teens. When his father collapsed from a cerebral hemorrhage and was diagnosed with cancer in 2008, the treatments incurred a lot of debt for the family. Their worsening financial condition caused them to become totally dependent on Kim, resulting in his said filing for an exemption in 2010.[38] Given the publicity, a reinvestigation into the case was launched and Kim was asked by the production company to leave the film 11 A.M. (he was replaced by Choi Daniel).[39][40] On 4 October 2012, Kim released a statement that though there was no wrongdoing on his part, he had decided to voluntarily enter the army "to recover his honor damaged by the rumors."[41][42]

T.O.P Edit

T.O.P began his two-year mandatory military service on February 9, 2017 as a conscripted police officer, where he was set to be discharged on November 8, 2018 after completing the requirements.[43] However, it was announced in June that he would be prosecuted without detention for use of marijuana.[44] He was subsequently transferred to a different police division to await notice of prosecution, and was suspended from police duty pending verdict on his case.[45] A few days after the announcement, T.O.P was found unconscious in police barracks due to a suspected anti-anxiety medicine overdose of prescribed benzodiazepine,[46] and was hospitalized.[47] On June 8, T.O.P's mother confirmed that her son had opened his eyes and was recovering.[48]

On June 29, T.O.P faced his first trial for the marijuana usage charges at the Seoul Central District Court.[49] He pleaded guilty to the charges against him and admitted that he did smoke marijuana on two out of the four instances.[50] T.O.P received two years of probation, with a possibility of ten months' jail time if he violates any terms.[51] At the second court hearing the following month, T.O.P was sentenced to 10 months in prison suspended for two years for illegal marijuana use.[52] He acknowledged all guilty charges. After undergoing a disciplinary review by the police to decide if T.O.P could return as a conscripted policeman or will complete his service as a public service officer,[53] the Seoul Metropolitan Police Agency reviewed T.O.P's current condition and decided T.O.P is unfit to resume service in his previous position.[54][55] A request was made to Army headquarters for a new position for T.O.P to determine either to serve as a public service worker of a full-time reserve soldier to complete his mandatory service.[56][57] T.O.P was eventually assigned reservist status by the Ministry of National Defense and transferred from police department.[58] He will complete his mandatory service as a public service worker.[59] The time T.O.P had been dismissed from duty during his prosecution will not count towards his total service.[60][61]

Conscientious objection Edit

The right to conscientious objection is not recognised in South Korea.[62] Usually, over 400 people are imprisoned at any one time for refusing military service, for political or religious reasons. This is contrary to international human rights standards and the government of Korea have been repeatedly criticised for not allowing those whose conscience prevents them from joining the military to undertake some kind of substitute service, rather than imprisoning them.

See also Edit

Republic of Korea Armed Forces

Republic of Korea Army

Republic of Korea Marine Corps

Republic of Korea Navy

Republic of Korea Air Force

References Edit

^ "병역이행안내 - 개요(총괄)" [Military Service Implementation Guide - General Overview]. Military Manpower Organization (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-12-28.

^ a b Lee, Namhee (2007). The Making of Minjung: Democracy and the Politics of Representation in South Korea. Cornell University Press. p. 91. ISBN 0801445663.

^ "S. Korea to expand women's role in military". Yonhap News Agency. 2017-12-20. Retrieved 2017-12-28.

^ "Constitution of the Republic of Korea" (PDF). 1987. p. 12. Retrieved 2017-12-27.

^ Kim, Jongcheol (2012). "Constitutional Law". Introduction to Korean Law. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 78. ISBN 3642316891.

^ a b "Military Service Act, Article 8". Korean Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-29.

^ "History". Military Manpower Administration. Retrieved 2017-12-29.

^ "Military Service Act, Article 5". Korean Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-29.

^ "Military Service Act, Articles 10-14". Korean Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-29.

^ Lent, Jesse (2016-04-01). "'Descendants Of The Sun' Star Song Joong Ki Discusses His Time In The South Korean Army". Korea Portal. Retrieved 2017-12-30.

^ "Military Service Act, Article 18". Korea Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-30.

^ "Military Service Act, Articles 26-43". Korea Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-30.

^ "Conscription 'Should Be Phased Out Slowly'". Chosun Ilbo. 2010-07-06. Retrieved 2017-12-30.

^ Kim, Christine (2010-12-22). "Plan to cut compulsory military service scrapped". Korea JoongAng Daily. Retrieved 2017-12-30.

^ "제68조의11(예술ㆍ체육요원의 추천 등) [Article 68-11: Recommendation of arts and sports personnel, etc.]". 병역법 시행령 [Military Service Act Implementation Rules]. South Korea: Ministry of Government Legislation. 29 November 2016. Retrieved 6 April 2018. 법 제33조의7제1항 전단에서 "대통령령으로 정하는 예술·체육 분야의 특기를 가진 사람"이란 다음 각 호의 어느 하나에 해당하는 사람을 말한다. ... 4. 올림픽대회에서 3위 이상으로 입상한 사람(단체경기종목의 경우에는 실제로 출전한 선수만 해당한다) 5. 아시아경기대회에서 1위로 입상한 사람(단체경기종목의 경우에는 실제로 출전한 선수만 해당한다). [In Article 33, Paragraph 7, Subparagraph 2 of the Act, 'a person having special talents in arts and athletics fields, as defined by presidential order' refers to persons to whom are applicable any one of the provisions of the following subparagraphs. ... 4. A person who received a prize for ranked third or above at the Olympics (in the case of team events, only applicable to athletes who actually participated). 5. A person who received a prize for ranking first at the Asian Games (in the case of team events, only applicable to athletes who actually participated).]

^ "리우에서도 떠오른 축구대표팀 '병역특례'".

^ "Footballer to Be Spared Military Service Despite IOC Probe". Chosun Ilbo. 14 August 2012. Retrieved 2 October 2012.

^ "Medal instead of military service". The Hankyoreh. 11 August 2012. Retrieved 25 February 2013.

^ "들쭉날쭉 병역특례기준 '형평성' 논란…병무청 '누적점수제' 추진" (in Korean). Yonhap News Agency. September 30, 2016.

^ "Park Tae-hwan Enters Army Boot Camp". Chosun Ilbo. 5 October 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2012.

^ "Star Swimmer Says Army Boot Camp Helped Him Grow". Chosun Ilbo. 1 November 2012. Retrieved 4 April 2013.

^ "Hyeon Chung Participates In Korean Military Training - ATP World Tour - Tennis - ATP World Tour - Tennis".

^ 공무원보수규정 '별표 13' 군인의 봉급표(제5조 및 별표 1 관련) . Korea Ministry of Government Legislation (in Korean). Retrieved 28 April 2015.

^ 조, 기호 (18 July 2012). "운동화 한 켤레 못 주는 군(軍)!". Seoul Broadcasting System. Retrieved 4 August 2012.

^ "[보도자료] 예산 없다던 국방부, 사관생도에게는 고가 외국브랜드 운동화 지급". Retrieved 4 August 2012.[dead link]

^ "FAQs-Dual Citizens | U.S. Embassy & Consulate in Korea". U.S. Embassy & Consulate in Korea. Retrieved 2017-10-12.

^ "South Korean singer Rain reports for military service". BBC News. 11 October 2011. Retrieved 2011-10-14.

^ Park, Eun-jee (16 January 2013). "Military service mischief a losing battle". Joongang Daily. Archived from the original on 29 June 2013. Retrieved 4 April 2013.

^ Seo, Ji-eun "Steve Yoo isn’t coming back to Korea" Archived 6 January 2013 at the Wayback Machine. Joongang Daily. 20 October 2011. retrieved 2011-11-08

^ (in Korean) "최지우, '승헌이에게 말 걸어볼까?"[permanent dead link] SSTV. 30 June 2009. Retrieved 2011-11-06

^ "Song Seung-heon, Jang Hyeok Discharged from Military" HanCinema. 16 November 2011. Retrieved 2011-10-14

^ (in Korean) "Song Seung-heon discharged from the army"Yahoo News Korea, 2006-11-18. Archived 14 June 2011 at the Wayback Machine.

^ "Rapper Gets Suspended Jail Term for Draft Dodging" Chosun Ilbo. 12 April 2011. Retrieved 2011-10-14

^ "KBS, MBC release list of 36 banned entertainers" Dong-A Ilbo. 28 September 2011. 2011-10-14

^ Sunwoo, Carla (22 June 2012). "Actor Kim Moo-yul was poor enough to dodge military service". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 27 January 2013. Retrieved 6 October 2012.

^ Lee, In-kyung (21 June 2012). "Kim Moo Yul Involved in Military Scandal after Avoiding Duties". enewsWorld. Retrieved 2012-10-06.

^ "High-Paid Actor Exempted from Draft for Poverty". The Chosun Ilbo. 22 June 2012. Retrieved 2012-10-06.

^ Moon, Gwang-lip (25 June 2012). "Agent says Kim Moo-yul's family situation was 'nearly impossible'". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 11 August 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2012.

^ Sunwoo, Carla (10 July 2012). "Kim Moo-yul kicked off movie set". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 26 January 2013. Retrieved 6 October 2012.

^ Sunwoo, Carla (11 July 2012). "Choi Daniel to replace Kim Moo-yul". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 5 August 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2012.

^ Lee, Hye-ji (5 October 2012). "Kim Moo-yeol to Enter Army, Cleaning out Exemption Rumors". 10Asia. Retrieved 2012-11-18.

^ Sunwoo, Carla (11 October 2011). "Kim Moo-yul enlists after rumors". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 26 October 2012. Retrieved 18 November 2012.

^ "BIGBANG's T.O.P confirms military enlistment date". Yibada. November 22, 2016.

^ "The Full Story Behind T.O.P's Drug Scandal, And The Mysterious Trainee Woman". June 2, 2017. Retrieved June 8, 2017.

^ Jun, R. "BIGBANG's T.O.P To Be Dismissed From Duty For Duration of Prosecution". Soompi. Retrieved 8 June 2017.

^ "Medical expert comments on T.O.P's benzodiazepine overdose | allkpop.com". allkpop. Retrieved 2017-06-09.

^ "BIGBANG's T.O.P hospitalized for drug overdose". YonhapNews. June 6, 2017. Retrieved June 6, 2017.

^ "K-pop superstar T.O.P. in intensive care after overdose". BBC. June 8, 2017. Retrieved June 28, 2017.

^ Kim Jung-kyoon (June 30, 2017). "T.O.P admits to all charges at first hearing". Korea JoongAng Daily. Retrieved July 19, 2017.

^ "Big Bang's T.O.P pleads guilty to pot charges". The Jakarta Post. June 30, 2017. Retrieved 2017-07-19.

^ Park Hyeong-taek (June 29, 2017). "[SC현장] 탑, 대마초 4회 흡연 시인…"공소사실 모두 인정"" [[SC scene] Top, smoking four po ... "All the facts of the charges"]. Sports Chosun (in Korean). Retrieved July 19, 2017.

^ Riddhiman Mukhopadhyay (July 20, 2017). "Rapper T.O.P sentenced at final trial: Apologizes to fans for his actions". International Business Times. Retrieved July 21, 2017.

^ "(LEAD) BIGBANG's T.O.P. gets suspended sentence for marijuana use". Yonhap News Agency. July 20, 2017. Retrieved July 20, 2017.

^ "빅뱅 탑, 재복무심사에서 부적합 결론… 의경신분 박탈" [Big Bang tower is inadequate in re-examination ... Deprivation of state]. Sports Chosun (in Korean). July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.

^ "BIGBANG's T.O.P to lose police post after drug conviction". Yonhap News Agency. July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.

^ "탑, 의경 신분 박탈 '재복무 심사서 부적합 판정'" [Top, disqualification of state of rehabilitation]. Starin E-Daily (in Korean). July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.

^ "BigBang rapper T.O.P cannot continue serving military duty as a policeman". Starits Times. July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.

^ Lee Young-jae (August 28, 2017). "'대마초 흡연' 빅뱅 탑, 의경에서 사회복무 요원 됐다". Korea JoongAng Daily (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.

^ Kim Ji-heon (August 28, 2017). "'대마초' 빅뱅 탑, 오늘 의경 전역…사회복무요원으로 근무". Yonhap News Agency (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.

^ Kim Yoo-jin (August 28, 2017). "'대마초 논란' 탑, 보충역 통보받고 오늘 전역…사회복무요원으로 전환". Herald Economy (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.

^ Hae Kyung Heon (August 28, 2017). "대마초 집유판결 탑 결국 사회복무요원으로, 누리꾼 반응 '냉랭'". Sports Khan (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.

^ "Country report and updates: Korea, South - War Resisters' International". www.wri-irg.org.

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Date: May 28th, 2018 11:43 PM
Author: The Sheer Entitled Caucasity

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Conscription in South Korea

Conscription in South Korea has existed since 1957 and requires male citizens between the ages of 18 and 35 to perform about two years of compulsory military service.[1][2] Women are not required to perform military service, but may voluntarily enlist.[3]

Establishment Edit

The basis for military conscription in South Korea is the Constitution of the Republic of Korea, which was promulgated on July 17, 1948. The constitution states in Article 39, "All citizens shall have the duty of national defense under the conditions as prescribed by Act."[4][5] The Military Service Act of 1949, which was implemented in 1957, specified that compulsory military service is required for men ages 18 or older.[6][2] Conscription is managed by the Military Manpower Administration, which was created in 1948.[7]

Requirements Edit

Enlistment and physical exam Edit

By law, when a Korean man turns 18 years old, he is enlisted for "first citizen service," meaning he is liable for military duty, but is not yet required to serve.[6][8] When he turns 19 years old (or, in some instances, 20 years old), he is required to undergo a physical exam to determine whether he is suitable for military service. The table below shows the physical exam's possible grades and their outcomes, according to the Military Service Act.[9]

Grade Description Outcome

1, 2, 3, 4 "Those whose physical and psychological constitution is healthy enough to perform active or supplemental service." "To be enlisted for active duty service, supplemental service or the second citizen service, based on their qualifications, such as educational background and age."

5 "Those incapable of entering active or supplemental service, but capable of entering the second citizen service." "To be enlisted for the second citizen service."

6 "Those incapable of performing military service due to any disease or mental or physical incompetence." "To be exempted from military service."

7 "Those unable to be graded...due to any disease or mental or physical incompetence." "To undergo a follow-up physical examination" within two years.

Service types and length Edit

The length of compulsory military service in South Korea varies based on military branch.[10] Active duty soldiers serve 21 months in the Army or Marine Corps, 23 months in the Navy, and 24 months in the Air Force.[11] After conscripts finish their military service, they are automatically placed on the reserve roster and are obligated to attend a few days of annual military training for 6 years.[citation needed]

Non-active duty personnel, or "supplemental service" personnel serve for various lengths: 24 months for social work personnel or international cooperation service personnel; 34 months for arts and sports personnel or industrial technical personnel; and 36 months for public health doctors, lawyers, veterinarians, or expert researchers.[12]

South Korea currently has among the longest military service periods in the world, ranked behind Israel, Singapore, and North Korea.[citation needed] In 2010, there was growing public pressure to either shorten the length of conscription or to switch to voluntary military service, and calls from experts for a gradual phasing out of conscription rather than complete abolition.[13] However, in December 2010, after taking into consideration of the 2010 ROKS Cheonan sinking and Bombardment of Yeonpyeong incidents, the South Korean government said it would not reduce service periods.[14]

Exemptions for Olympic medalists Edit

Current conscription regulations stipulate that athletes who win medals in the Olympic Games or gold medals in the Asian Games are granted exemptions from military service and are placed in Grade 4.[15] They are required to do four weeks of basic military training and engage in sports field for 34 months. After that, they are automatically placed on the reserve roster, and are obligated to attend a few days of annual military training for six years. In practice, after athletes finish their four weeks of basic military training, they are able to continue their own sports career during the 34 months of duty.[16]

Notable athletes who have been granted exemptions from military service are the bronze medal-winning football team at the 2012 Summer Olympics,[17][18] 2008 Olympic gold medalists badminton player Lee Yong-dae[19] and swimmer Park Tae-hwan[20][21] and 2014 Asian Games gold medalist tennis player Hyeon Chung.[22]

Compensation Edit

The following data is from 'Regulation on Public Servant Compensation', implemented on 1 January 2017.[23] Exchange rate as of 2 May 2018 (₩1077 to $1.00USD)

Private (이등병) Private first class (일등병) Corporal (상등병) Sergeant (병장)

₩163,000

$151.35 (approx) per month ₩176,400

$163.79 (approx) per month ₩195,000

$181.06 (approx) per month ₩216,000

$200.56 (approx) per month

Equipment Edit

The Ministry of National Defense has revealed that it has failed to provide sneakers to 7,411 recruits who joined the military from 22 May to 4 June 2012, after the budget was insufficient for need. The Defense ministry originally projected the cost of each pair of sneakers to be 11,000 KRW. However, the actual cost turned out to be 15,000 KRW.[24]

The office of National Assembly member Kim Kwang-jin of Democratic United Party revealed that cadets in Korea Military Academy were provided with sneakers worth 60,000 KRW and tennis shoes. Cadets in Korea Army Academy at Yeongcheon were provided with sneakers worth 64,250 KRW, in addition to running shoes and soccer shoes.[25]

Dual citizens Edit

For dual citizens, or those with multiple citizenships, male South Koreans must choose their citizenship by the time they turn 18, before March 31 of that year. If these males choose to revoke their South Korean citizenship, they will not be required to complete their mandatory military service. However, if they fail to choose their citizenship by their 18th year, they will be subjected to fulfill their mandatory military service.[26] If males choose to renounce their citizenship by their 18th year, they are ineligible to gain a Korean work visa (F series) until after they turn 40 years of age. It may still be possible to gain an E series visa.

Controversies Edit

The South Korean public is sensitive towards the country's mandatory military service, but also has a low tolerance towards those who attempt to dodge or receive special treatment, especially after scandals of wealthy families caught trying to avoid their national duty. Those found or accused of draft dodging and negligence of duty often face harsh penalties and public backlash. According to Ha Jae-keun, a South Korean pop columnist, "The mood against draft-dodgers and negligence of duty is so hostile that nowadays entertainers feel it's better to get it over and done with".[27][28]

Steve Yoo Edit

In 2002, right before Korean American pop singer Steve Yoo was due to be drafted for his military service, he gave up his Korean nationality and became a naturalized U.S. citizen. He was born in Seoul and migrated to the United States at the age of 13. The South Korean government considered it an act of desertion and deported him, banning him from entering the country permanently.[29]

Song Seung-heon Edit

In late 2004, it was revealed that actor Song Seung-heon had avoided his draft by taking medication to fail the military physical examination. Song had previously been exempted by claiming to have severe diabetes and high blood pressure, but that was found by the South Korean government to be false.[30] Amidst press coverage and public outcry, Song publicly apologized and agreed to immediately serve his two-year term in the military. Song was discharged on 15 November 2006 with the rank of Corporal.[31][32]

MC Mong Edit

On 11 April 2011, rapper MC Mong was cleared of intentionally pulling out healthy teeth to be exempted from military duty but was sentenced to a suspended jail term of 6 months, probation for one year, and 120 hours of community service, for deliberately delaying enlistment on false grounds.[33] The court acknowledged that there was a delay in his military enlistment; however, they were unable to determine whether he was guilty of extracting teeth for the purpose of avoiding his military draft. In September 2011, it was reported that Mong has been banned by Korean Broadcasting System (KBS) and Munhwa Broadcasting Corporation (MBC) from appearing in its TV shows, for draft dodging.[34]

Kim Mu-yeol Edit

In June 2012 Kim Mu-yeol came under growing public criticism over allegations he dodged his compulsory military service. In a report released by the Korean Board of Audit and Inspection (BAI), Kim was deemed fit to serve in active duty as a level two recruit after a March 2001 physical examination. However, throughout 2007 to 2009, Kim was granted postponement on the grounds that he was taking civil service examinations or had been admitted to a work training facility, neither of which took place. During this time he reportedly earned approximately ₩300 million from films, musicals and television work. In December 2009, he received his final notice for enlistment, having used up the 730 days allowed for postponement. He submitted a request to change his military status in January 2010 because of a knee injury, which was rejected. Finally, a valid exemption was granted on the grounds that he was a "low-income individual" and the sole provider for his family. BAI's contention was that Kim's income is substantially higher than the standard for disqualification due to poverty; thus, the Military Manpower Administration was negligent in their duties by granting the exemption.[35][36][37]

Kim's agency Prain TPC defended him, stating that Kim had been supporting his family by working as a security guard, construction worker and at a mobile phone factory since his late teens. When his father collapsed from a cerebral hemorrhage and was diagnosed with cancer in 2008, the treatments incurred a lot of debt for the family. Their worsening financial condition caused them to become totally dependent on Kim, resulting in his said filing for an exemption in 2010.[38] Given the publicity, a reinvestigation into the case was launched and Kim was asked by the production company to leave the film 11 A.M. (he was replaced by Choi Daniel).[39][40] On 4 October 2012, Kim released a statement that though there was no wrongdoing on his part, he had decided to voluntarily enter the army "to recover his honor damaged by the rumors."[41][42]

T.O.P Edit

T.O.P began his two-year mandatory military service on February 9, 2017 as a conscripted police officer, where he was set to be discharged on November 8, 2018 after completing the requirements.[43] However, it was announced in June that he would be prosecuted without detention for use of marijuana.[44] He was subsequently transferred to a different police division to await notice of prosecution, and was suspended from police duty pending verdict on his case.[45] A few days after the announcement, T.O.P was found unconscious in police barracks due to a suspected anti-anxiety medicine overdose of prescribed benzodiazepine,[46] and was hospitalized.[47] On June 8, T.O.P's mother confirmed that her son had opened his eyes and was recovering.[48]

On June 29, T.O.P faced his first trial for the marijuana usage charges at the Seoul Central District Court.[49] He pleaded guilty to the charges against him and admitted that he did smoke marijuana on two out of the four instances.[50] T.O.P received two years of probation, with a possibility of ten months' jail time if he violates any terms.[51] At the second court hearing the following month, T.O.P was sentenced to 10 months in prison suspended for two years for illegal marijuana use.[52] He acknowledged all guilty charges. After undergoing a disciplinary review by the police to decide if T.O.P could return as a conscripted policeman or will complete his service as a public service officer,[53] the Seoul Metropolitan Police Agency reviewed T.O.P's current condition and decided T.O.P is unfit to resume service in his previous position.[54][55] A request was made to Army headquarters for a new position for T.O.P to determine either to serve as a public service worker of a full-time reserve soldier to complete his mandatory service.[56][57] T.O.P was eventually assigned reservist status by the Ministry of National Defense and transferred from police department.[58] He will complete his mandatory service as a public service worker.[59] The time T.O.P had been dismissed from duty during his prosecution will not count towards his total service.[60][61]

Conscientious objection Edit

The right to conscientious objection is not recognised in South Korea.[62] Usually, over 400 people are imprisoned at any one time for refusing military service, for political or religious reasons. This is contrary to international human rights standards and the government of Korea have been repeatedly criticised for not allowing those whose conscience prevents them from joining the military to undertake some kind of substitute service, rather than imprisoning them.

See also Edit

Republic of Korea Armed Forces

Republic of Korea Army

Republic of Korea Marine Corps

Republic of Korea Navy

Republic of Korea Air Force

References Edit

^ "병역이행안내 - 개요(총괄)" [Military Service Implementation Guide - General Overview]. Military Manpower Organization (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-12-28.

^ a b Lee, Namhee (2007). The Making of Minjung: Democracy and the Politics of Representation in South Korea. Cornell University Press. p. 91. ISBN 0801445663.

^ "S. Korea to expand women's role in military". Yonhap News Agency. 2017-12-20. Retrieved 2017-12-28.

^ "Constitution of the Republic of Korea" (PDF). 1987. p. 12. Retrieved 2017-12-27.

^ Kim, Jongcheol (2012). "Constitutional Law". Introduction to Korean Law. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 78. ISBN 3642316891.

^ a b "Military Service Act, Article 8". Korean Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-29.

^ "History". Military Manpower Administration. Retrieved 2017-12-29.

^ "Military Service Act, Article 5". Korean Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-29.

^ "Military Service Act, Articles 10-14". Korean Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-29.

^ Lent, Jesse (2016-04-01). "'Descendants Of The Sun' Star Song Joong Ki Discusses His Time In The South Korean Army". Korea Portal. Retrieved 2017-12-30.

^ "Military Service Act, Article 18". Korea Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-30.

^ "Military Service Act, Articles 26-43". Korea Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-30.

^ "Conscription 'Should Be Phased Out Slowly'". Chosun Ilbo. 2010-07-06. Retrieved 2017-12-30.

^ Kim, Christine (2010-12-22). "Plan to cut compulsory military service scrapped". Korea JoongAng Daily. Retrieved 2017-12-30.

^ "제68조의11(예술ㆍ체육요원의 추천 등) [Article 68-11: Recommendation of arts and sports personnel, etc.]". 병역법 시행령 [Military Service Act Implementation Rules]. South Korea: Ministry of Government Legislation. 29 November 2016. Retrieved 6 April 2018. 법 제33조의7제1항 전단에서 "대통령령으로 정하는 예술·체육 분야의 특기를 가진 사람"이란 다음 각 호의 어느 하나에 해당하는 사람을 말한다. ... 4. 올림픽대회에서 3위 이상으로 입상한 사람(단체경기종목의 경우에는 실제로 출전한 선수만 해당한다) 5. 아시아경기대회에서 1위로 입상한 사람(단체경기종목의 경우에는 실제로 출전한 선수만 해당한다). [In Article 33, Paragraph 7, Subparagraph 2 of the Act, 'a person having special talents in arts and athletics fields, as defined by presidential order' refers to persons to whom are applicable any one of the provisions of the following subparagraphs. ... 4. A person who received a prize for ranked third or above at the Olympics (in the case of team events, only applicable to athletes who actually participated). 5. A person who received a prize for ranking first at the Asian Games (in the case of team events, only applicable to athletes who actually participated).]

^ "리우에서도 떠오른 축구대표팀 '병역특례'".

^ "Footballer to Be Spared Military Service Despite IOC Probe". Chosun Ilbo. 14 August 2012. Retrieved 2 October 2012.

^ "Medal instead of military service". The Hankyoreh. 11 August 2012. Retrieved 25 February 2013.

^ "들쭉날쭉 병역특례기준 '형평성' 논란…병무청 '누적점수제' 추진" (in Korean). Yonhap News Agency. September 30, 2016.

^ "Park Tae-hwan Enters Army Boot Camp". Chosun Ilbo. 5 October 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2012.

^ "Star Swimmer Says Army Boot Camp Helped Him Grow". Chosun Ilbo. 1 November 2012. Retrieved 4 April 2013.

^ "Hyeon Chung Participates In Korean Military Training - ATP World Tour - Tennis - ATP World Tour - Tennis".

^ 공무원보수규정 '별표 13' 군인의 봉급표(제5조 및 별표 1 관련) . Korea Ministry of Government Legislation (in Korean). Retrieved 28 April 2015.

^ 조, 기호 (18 July 2012). "운동화 한 켤레 못 주는 군(軍)!". Seoul Broadcasting System. Retrieved 4 August 2012.

^ "[보도자료] 예산 없다던 국방부, 사관생도에게는 고가 외국브랜드 운동화 지급". Retrieved 4 August 2012.[dead link]

^ "FAQs-Dual Citizens | U.S. Embassy & Consulate in Korea". U.S. Embassy & Consulate in Korea. Retrieved 2017-10-12.

^ "South Korean singer Rain reports for military service". BBC News. 11 October 2011. Retrieved 2011-10-14.

^ Park, Eun-jee (16 January 2013). "Military service mischief a losing battle". Joongang Daily. Archived from the original on 29 June 2013. Retrieved 4 April 2013.

^ Seo, Ji-eun "Steve Yoo isn’t coming back to Korea" Archived 6 January 2013 at the Wayback Machine. Joongang Daily. 20 October 2011. retrieved 2011-11-08

^ (in Korean) "최지우, '승헌이에게 말 걸어볼까?"[permanent dead link] SSTV. 30 June 2009. Retrieved 2011-11-06

^ "Song Seung-heon, Jang Hyeok Discharged from Military" HanCinema. 16 November 2011. Retrieved 2011-10-14

^ (in Korean) "Song Seung-heon discharged from the army"Yahoo News Korea, 2006-11-18. Archived 14 June 2011 at the Wayback Machine.

^ "Rapper Gets Suspended Jail Term for Draft Dodging" Chosun Ilbo. 12 April 2011. Retrieved 2011-10-14

^ "KBS, MBC release list of 36 banned entertainers" Dong-A Ilbo. 28 September 2011. 2011-10-14

^ Sunwoo, Carla (22 June 2012). "Actor Kim Moo-yul was poor enough to dodge military service". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 27 January 2013. Retrieved 6 October 2012.

^ Lee, In-kyung (21 June 2012). "Kim Moo Yul Involved in Military Scandal after Avoiding Duties". enewsWorld. Retrieved 2012-10-06.

^ "High-Paid Actor Exempted from Draft for Poverty". The Chosun Ilbo. 22 June 2012. Retrieved 2012-10-06.

^ Moon, Gwang-lip (25 June 2012). "Agent says Kim Moo-yul's family situation was 'nearly impossible'". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 11 August 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2012.

^ Sunwoo, Carla (10 July 2012). "Kim Moo-yul kicked off movie set". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 26 January 2013. Retrieved 6 October 2012.

^ Sunwoo, Carla (11 July 2012). "Choi Daniel to replace Kim Moo-yul". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 5 August 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2012.

^ Lee, Hye-ji (5 October 2012). "Kim Moo-yeol to Enter Army, Cleaning out Exemption Rumors". 10Asia. Retrieved 2012-11-18.

^ Sunwoo, Carla (11 October 2011). "Kim Moo-yul enlists after rumors". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 26 October 2012. Retrieved 18 November 2012.

^ "BIGBANG's T.O.P confirms military enlistment date". Yibada. November 22, 2016.

^ "The Full Story Behind T.O.P's Drug Scandal, And The Mysterious Trainee Woman". June 2, 2017. Retrieved June 8, 2017.

^ Jun, R. "BIGBANG's T.O.P To Be Dismissed From Duty For Duration of Prosecution". Soompi. Retrieved 8 June 2017.

^ "Medical expert comments on T.O.P's benzodiazepine overdose | allkpop.com". allkpop. Retrieved 2017-06-09.

^ "BIGBANG's T.O.P hospitalized for drug overdose". YonhapNews. June 6, 2017. Retrieved June 6, 2017.

^ "K-pop superstar T.O.P. in intensive care after overdose". BBC. June 8, 2017. Retrieved June 28, 2017.

^ Kim Jung-kyoon (June 30, 2017). "T.O.P admits to all charges at first hearing". Korea JoongAng Daily. Retrieved July 19, 2017.

^ "Big Bang's T.O.P pleads guilty to pot charges". The Jakarta Post. June 30, 2017. Retrieved 2017-07-19.

^ Park Hyeong-taek (June 29, 2017). "[SC현장] 탑, 대마초 4회 흡연 시인…"공소사실 모두 인정"" [[SC scene] Top, smoking four po ... "All the facts of the charges"]. Sports Chosun (in Korean). Retrieved July 19, 2017.

^ Riddhiman Mukhopadhyay (July 20, 2017). "Rapper T.O.P sentenced at final trial: Apologizes to fans for his actions". International Business Times. Retrieved July 21, 2017.

^ "(LEAD) BIGBANG's T.O.P. gets suspended sentence for marijuana use". Yonhap News Agency. July 20, 2017. Retrieved July 20, 2017.

^ "빅뱅 탑, 재복무심사에서 부적합 결론… 의경신분 박탈" [Big Bang tower is inadequate in re-examination ... Deprivation of state]. Sports Chosun (in Korean). July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.

^ "BIGBANG's T.O.P to lose police post after drug conviction". Yonhap News Agency. July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.

^ "탑, 의경 신분 박탈 '재복무 심사서 부적합 판정'" [Top, disqualification of state of rehabilitation]. Starin E-Daily (in Korean). July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.

^ "BigBang rapper T.O.P cannot continue serving military duty as a policeman". Starits Times. July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.

^ Lee Young-jae (August 28, 2017). "'대마초 흡연' 빅뱅 탑, 의경에서 사회복무 요원 됐다". Korea JoongAng Daily (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.

^ Kim Ji-heon (August 28, 2017). "'대마초' 빅뱅 탑, 오늘 의경 전역…사회복무요원으로 근무". Yonhap News Agency (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.

^ Kim Yoo-jin (August 28, 2017). "'대마초 논란' 탑, 보충역 통보받고 오늘 전역…사회복무요원으로 전환". Herald Economy (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.

^ Hae Kyung Heon (August 28, 2017). "대마초 집유판결 탑 결국 사회복무요원으로, 누리꾼 반응 '냉랭'". Sports Khan (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.

^ "Country report and updates: Korea, South - War Resisters' International". www.wri-irg.org.

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Conscription in South Korea

Conscription in South Korea has existed since 1957 and requires male citizens between the ages of 18 and 35 to perform about two years of compulsory military service.[1][2] Women are not required to perform military service, but may voluntarily enlist.[3]

Establishment Edit

The basis for military conscription in South Korea is the Constitution of the Republic of Korea, which was promulgated on July 17, 1948. The constitution states in Article 39, "All citizens shall have the duty of national defense under the conditions as prescribed by Act."[4][5] The Military Service Act of 1949, which was implemented in 1957, specified that compulsory military service is required for men ages 18 or older.[6][2] Conscription is managed by the Military Manpower Administration, which was created in 1948.[7]

Requirements Edit

Enlistment and physical exam Edit

By law, when a Korean man turns 18 years old, he is enlisted for "first citizen service," meaning he is liable for military duty, but is not yet required to serve.[6][8] When he turns 19 years old (or, in some instances, 20 years old), he is required to undergo a physical exam to determine whether he is suitable for military service. The table below shows the physical exam's possible grades and their outcomes, according to the Military Service Act.[9]

Grade Description Outcome

1, 2, 3, 4 "Those whose physical and psychological constitution is healthy enough to perform active or supplemental service." "To be enlisted for active duty service, supplemental service or the second citizen service, based on their qualifications, such as educational background and age."

5 "Those incapable of entering active or supplemental service, but capable of entering the second citizen service." "To be enlisted for the second citizen service."

6 "Those incapable of performing military service due to any disease or mental or physical incompetence." "To be exempted from military service."

7 "Those unable to be graded...due to any disease or mental or physical incompetence." "To undergo a follow-up physical examination" within two years.

Service types and length Edit

The length of compulsory military service in South Korea varies based on military branch.[10] Active duty soldiers serve 21 months in the Army or Marine Corps, 23 months in the Navy, and 24 months in the Air Force.[11] After conscripts finish their military service, they are automatically placed on the reserve roster and are obligated to attend a few days of annual military training for 6 years.[citation needed]

Non-active duty personnel, or "supplemental service" personnel serve for various lengths: 24 months for social work personnel or international cooperation service personnel; 34 months for arts and sports personnel or industrial technical personnel; and 36 months for public health doctors, lawyers, veterinarians, or expert researchers.[12]

South Korea currently has among the longest military service periods in the world, ranked behind Israel, Singapore, and North Korea.[citation needed] In 2010, there was growing public pressure to either shorten the length of conscription or to switch to voluntary military service, and calls from experts for a gradual phasing out of conscription rather than complete abolition.[13] However, in December 2010, after taking into consideration of the 2010 ROKS Cheonan sinking and Bombardment of Yeonpyeong incidents, the South Korean government said it would not reduce service periods.[14]

Exemptions for Olympic medalists Edit

Current conscription regulations stipulate that athletes who win medals in the Olympic Games or gold medals in the Asian Games are granted exemptions from military service and are placed in Grade 4.[15] They are required to do four weeks of basic military training and engage in sports field for 34 months. After that, they are automatically placed on the reserve roster, and are obligated to attend a few days of annual military training for six years. In practice, after athletes finish their four weeks of basic military training, they are able to continue their own sports career during the 34 months of duty.[16]

Notable athletes who have been granted exemptions from military service are the bronze medal-winning football team at the 2012 Summer Olympics,[17][18] 2008 Olympic gold medalists badminton player Lee Yong-dae[19] and swimmer Park Tae-hwan[20][21] and 2014 Asian Games gold medalist tennis player Hyeon Chung.[22]

Compensation Edit

The following data is from 'Regulation on Public Servant Compensation', implemented on 1 January 2017.[23] Exchange rate as of 2 May 2018 (₩1077 to $1.00USD)

Private (이등병) Private first class (일등병) Corporal (상등병) Sergeant (병장)

₩163,000

$151.35 (approx) per month ₩176,400

$163.79 (approx) per month ₩195,000

$181.06 (approx) per month ₩216,000

$200.56 (approx) per month

Equipment Edit

The Ministry of National Defense has revealed that it has failed to provide sneakers to 7,411 recruits who joined the military from 22 May to 4 June 2012, after the budget was insufficient for need. The Defense ministry originally projected the cost of each pair of sneakers to be 11,000 KRW. However, the actual cost turned out to be 15,000 KRW.[24]

The office of National Assembly member Kim Kwang-jin of Democratic United Party revealed that cadets in Korea Military Academy were provided with sneakers worth 60,000 KRW and tennis shoes. Cadets in Korea Army Academy at Yeongcheon were provided with sneakers worth 64,250 KRW, in addition to running shoes and soccer shoes.[25]

Dual citizens Edit

For dual citizens, or those with multiple citizenships, male South Koreans must choose their citizenship by the time they turn 18, before March 31 of that year. If these males choose to revoke their South Korean citizenship, they will not be required to complete their mandatory military service. However, if they fail to choose their citizenship by their 18th year, they will be subjected to fulfill their mandatory military service.[26] If males choose to renounce their citizenship by their 18th year, they are ineligible to gain a Korean work visa (F series) until after they turn 40 years of age. It may still be possible to gain an E series visa.

Controversies Edit

The South Korean public is sensitive towards the country's mandatory military service, but also has a low tolerance towards those who attempt to dodge or receive special treatment, especially after scandals of wealthy families caught trying to avoid their national duty. Those found or accused of draft dodging and negligence of duty often face harsh penalties and public backlash. According to Ha Jae-keun, a South Korean pop columnist, "The mood against draft-dodgers and negligence of duty is so hostile that nowadays entertainers feel it's better to get it over and done with".[27][28]

Steve Yoo Edit

In 2002, right before Korean American pop singer Steve Yoo was due to be drafted for his military service, he gave up his Korean nationality and became a naturalized U.S. citizen. He was born in Seoul and migrated to the United States at the age of 13. The South Korean government considered it an act of desertion and deported him, banning him from entering the country permanently.[29]

Song Seung-heon Edit

In late 2004, it was revealed that actor Song Seung-heon had avoided his draft by taking medication to fail the military physical examination. Song had previously been exempted by claiming to have severe diabetes and high blood pressure, but that was found by the South Korean government to be false.[30] Amidst press coverage and public outcry, Song publicly apologized and agreed to immediately serve his two-year term in the military. Song was discharged on 15 November 2006 with the rank of Corporal.[31][32]

MC Mong Edit

On 11 April 2011, rapper MC Mong was cleared of intentionally pulling out healthy teeth to be exempted from military duty but was sentenced to a suspended jail term of 6 months, probation for one year, and 120 hours of community service, for deliberately delaying enlistment on false grounds.[33] The court acknowledged that there was a delay in his military enlistment; however, they were unable to determine whether he was guilty of extracting teeth for the purpose of avoiding his military draft. In September 2011, it was reported that Mong has been banned by Korean Broadcasting System (KBS) and Munhwa Broadcasting Corporation (MBC) from appearing in its TV shows, for draft dodging.[34]

Kim Mu-yeol Edit

In June 2012 Kim Mu-yeol came under growing public criticism over allegations he dodged his compulsory military service. In a report released by the Korean Board of Audit and Inspection (BAI), Kim was deemed fit to serve in active duty as a level two recruit after a March 2001 physical examination. However, throughout 2007 to 2009, Kim was granted postponement on the grounds that he was taking civil service examinations or had been admitted to a work training facility, neither of which took place. During this time he reportedly earned approximately ₩300 million from films, musicals and television work. In December 2009, he received his final notice for enlistment, having used up the 730 days allowed for postponement. He submitted a request to change his military status in January 2010 because of a knee injury, which was rejected. Finally, a valid exemption was granted on the grounds that he was a "low-income individual" and the sole provider for his family. BAI's contention was that Kim's income is substantially higher than the standard for disqualification due to poverty; thus, the Military Manpower Administration was negligent in their duties by granting the exemption.[35][36][37]

Kim's agency Prain TPC defended him, stating that Kim had been supporting his family by working as a security guard, construction worker and at a mobile phone factory since his late teens. When his father collapsed from a cerebral hemorrhage and was diagnosed with cancer in 2008, the treatments incurred a lot of debt for the family. Their worsening financial condition caused them to become totally dependent on Kim, resulting in his said filing for an exemption in 2010.[38] Given the publicity, a reinvestigation into the case was launched and Kim was asked by the production company to leave the film 11 A.M. (he was replaced by Choi Daniel).[39][40] On 4 October 2012, Kim released a statement that though there was no wrongdoing on his part, he had decided to voluntarily enter the army "to recover his honor damaged by the rumors."[41][42]

T.O.P Edit

T.O.P began his two-year mandatory military service on February 9, 2017 as a conscripted police officer, where he was set to be discharged on November 8, 2018 after completing the requirements.[43] However, it was announced in June that he would be prosecuted without detention for use of marijuana.[44] He was subsequently transferred to a different police division to await notice of prosecution, and was suspended from police duty pending verdict on his case.[45] A few days after the announcement, T.O.P was found unconscious in police barracks due to a suspected anti-anxiety medicine overdose of prescribed benzodiazepine,[46] and was hospitalized.[47] On June 8, T.O.P's mother confirmed that her son had opened his eyes and was recovering.[48]

On June 29, T.O.P faced his first trial for the marijuana usage charges at the Seoul Central District Court.[49] He pleaded guilty to the charges against him and admitted that he did smoke marijuana on two out of the four instances.[50] T.O.P received two years of probation, with a possibility of ten months' jail time if he violates any terms.[51] At the second court hearing the following month, T.O.P was sentenced to 10 months in prison suspended for two years for illegal marijuana use.[52] He acknowledged all guilty charges. After undergoing a disciplinary review by the police to decide if T.O.P could return as a conscripted policeman or will complete his service as a public service officer,[53] the Seoul Metropolitan Police Agency reviewed T.O.P's current condition and decided T.O.P is unfit to resume service in his previous position.[54][55] A request was made to Army headquarters for a new position for T.O.P to determine either to serve as a public service worker of a full-time reserve soldier to complete his mandatory service.[56][57] T.O.P was eventually assigned reservist status by the Ministry of National Defense and transferred from police department.[58] He will complete his mandatory service as a public service worker.[59] The time T.O.P had been dismissed from duty during his prosecution will not count towards his total service.[60][61]

Conscientious objection Edit

The right to conscientious objection is not recognised in South Korea.[62] Usually, over 400 people are imprisoned at any one time for refusing military service, for political or religious reasons. This is contrary to international human rights standards and the government of Korea have been repeatedly criticised for not allowing those whose conscience prevents them from joining the military to undertake some kind of substitute service, rather than imprisoning them.

See also Edit

Republic of Korea Armed Forces

Republic of Korea Army

Republic of Korea Marine Corps

Republic of Korea Navy

Republic of Korea Air Force

References Edit

^ "병역이행안내 - 개요(총괄)" [Military Service Implementation Guide - General Overview]. Military Manpower Organization (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-12-28.

^ a b Lee, Namhee (2007). The Making of Minjung: Democracy and the Politics of Representation in South Korea. Cornell University Press. p. 91. ISBN 0801445663.

^ "S. Korea to expand women's role in military". Yonhap News Agency. 2017-12-20. Retrieved 2017-12-28.

^ "Constitution of the Republic of Korea" (PDF). 1987. p. 12. Retrieved 2017-12-27.

^ Kim, Jongcheol (2012). "Constitutional Law". Introduction to Korean Law. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 78. ISBN 3642316891.

^ a b "Military Service Act, Article 8". Korean Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-29.

^ "History". Military Manpower Administration. Retrieved 2017-12-29.

^ "Military Service Act, Article 5". Korean Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-29.

^ "Military Service Act, Articles 10-14". Korean Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-29.

^ Lent, Jesse (2016-04-01). "'Descendants Of The Sun' Star Song Joong Ki Discusses His Time In The South Korean Army". Korea Portal. Retrieved 2017-12-30.

^ "Military Service Act, Article 18". Korea Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-30.

^ "Military Service Act, Articles 26-43". Korea Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-30.

^ "Conscription 'Should Be Phased Out Slowly'". Chosun Ilbo. 2010-07-06. Retrieved 2017-12-30.

^ Kim, Christine (2010-12-22). "Plan to cut compulsory military service scrapped". Korea JoongAng Daily. Retrieved 2017-12-30.

^ "제68조의11(예술ㆍ체육요원의 추천 등) [Article 68-11: Recommendation of arts and sports personnel, etc.]". 병역법 시행령 [Military Service Act Implementation Rules]. South Korea: Ministry of Government Legislation. 29 November 2016. Retrieved 6 April 2018. 법 제33조의7제1항 전단에서 "대통령령으로 정하는 예술·체육 분야의 특기를 가진 사람"이란 다음 각 호의 어느 하나에 해당하는 사람을 말한다. ... 4. 올림픽대회에서 3위 이상으로 입상한 사람(단체경기종목의 경우에는 실제로 출전한 선수만 해당한다) 5. 아시아경기대회에서 1위로 입상한 사람(단체경기종목의 경우에는 실제로 출전한 선수만 해당한다). [In Article 33, Paragraph 7, Subparagraph 2 of the Act, 'a person having special talents in arts and athletics fields, as defined by presidential order' refers to persons to whom are applicable any one of the provisions of the following subparagraphs. ... 4. A person who received a prize for ranked third or above at the Olympics (in the case of team events, only applicable to athletes who actually participated). 5. A person who received a prize for ranking first at the Asian Games (in the case of team events, only applicable to athletes who actually participated).]

^ "리우에서도 떠오른 축구대표팀 '병역특례'".

^ "Footballer to Be Spared Military Service Despite IOC Probe". Chosun Ilbo. 14 August 2012. Retrieved 2 October 2012.

^ "Medal instead of military service". The Hankyoreh. 11 August 2012. Retrieved 25 February 2013.

^ "들쭉날쭉 병역특례기준 '형평성' 논란…병무청 '누적점수제' 추진" (in Korean). Yonhap News Agency. September 30, 2016.

^ "Park Tae-hwan Enters Army Boot Camp". Chosun Ilbo. 5 October 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2012.

^ "Star Swimmer Says Army Boot Camp Helped Him Grow". Chosun Ilbo. 1 November 2012. Retrieved 4 April 2013.

^ "Hyeon Chung Participates In Korean Military Training - ATP World Tour - Tennis - ATP World Tour - Tennis".

^ 공무원보수규정 '별표 13' 군인의 봉급표(제5조 및 별표 1 관련) . Korea Ministry of Government Legislation (in Korean). Retrieved 28 April 2015.

^ 조, 기호 (18 July 2012). "운동화 한 켤레 못 주는 군(軍)!". Seoul Broadcasting System. Retrieved 4 August 2012.

^ "[보도자료] 예산 없다던 국방부, 사관생도에게는 고가 외국브랜드 운동화 지급". Retrieved 4 August 2012.[dead link]

^ "FAQs-Dual Citizens | U.S. Embassy & Consulate in Korea". U.S. Embassy & Consulate in Korea. Retrieved 2017-10-12.

^ "South Korean singer Rain reports for military service". BBC News. 11 October 2011. Retrieved 2011-10-14.

^ Park, Eun-jee (16 January 2013). "Military service mischief a losing battle". Joongang Daily. Archived from the original on 29 June 2013. Retrieved 4 April 2013.

^ Seo, Ji-eun "Steve Yoo isn’t coming back to Korea" Archived 6 January 2013 at the Wayback Machine. Joongang Daily. 20 October 2011. retrieved 2011-11-08

^ (in Korean) "최지우, '승헌이에게 말 걸어볼까?"[permanent dead link] SSTV. 30 June 2009. Retrieved 2011-11-06

^ "Song Seung-heon, Jang Hyeok Discharged from Military" HanCinema. 16 November 2011. Retrieved 2011-10-14

^ (in Korean) "Song Seung-heon discharged from the army"Yahoo News Korea, 2006-11-18. Archived 14 June 2011 at the Wayback Machine.

^ "Rapper Gets Suspended Jail Term for Draft Dodging" Chosun Ilbo. 12 April 2011. Retrieved 2011-10-14

^ "KBS, MBC release list of 36 banned entertainers" Dong-A Ilbo. 28 September 2011. 2011-10-14

^ Sunwoo, Carla (22 June 2012). "Actor Kim Moo-yul was poor enough to dodge military service". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 27 January 2013. Retrieved 6 October 2012.

^ Lee, In-kyung (21 June 2012). "Kim Moo Yul Involved in Military Scandal after Avoiding Duties". enewsWorld. Retrieved 2012-10-06.

^ "High-Paid Actor Exempted from Draft for Poverty". The Chosun Ilbo. 22 June 2012. Retrieved 2012-10-06.

^ Moon, Gwang-lip (25 June 2012). "Agent says Kim Moo-yul's family situation was 'nearly impossible'". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 11 August 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2012.

^ Sunwoo, Carla (10 July 2012). "Kim Moo-yul kicked off movie set". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 26 January 2013. Retrieved 6 October 2012.

^ Sunwoo, Carla (11 July 2012). "Choi Daniel to replace Kim Moo-yul". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 5 August 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2012.

^ Lee, Hye-ji (5 October 2012). "Kim Moo-yeol to Enter Army, Cleaning out Exemption Rumors". 10Asia. Retrieved 2012-11-18.

^ Sunwoo, Carla (11 October 2011). "Kim Moo-yul enlists after rumors". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 26 October 2012. Retrieved 18 November 2012.

^ "BIGBANG's T.O.P confirms military enlistment date". Yibada. November 22, 2016.

^ "The Full Story Behind T.O.P's Drug Scandal, And The Mysterious Trainee Woman". June 2, 2017. Retrieved June 8, 2017.

^ Jun, R. "BIGBANG's T.O.P To Be Dismissed From Duty For Duration of Prosecution". Soompi. Retrieved 8 June 2017.

^ "Medical expert comments on T.O.P's benzodiazepine overdose | allkpop.com". allkpop. Retrieved 2017-06-09.

^ "BIGBANG's T.O.P hospitalized for drug overdose". YonhapNews. June 6, 2017. Retrieved June 6, 2017.

^ "K-pop superstar T.O.P. in intensive care after overdose". BBC. June 8, 2017. Retrieved June 28, 2017.

^ Kim Jung-kyoon (June 30, 2017). "T.O.P admits to all charges at first hearing". Korea JoongAng Daily. Retrieved July 19, 2017.

^ "Big Bang's T.O.P pleads guilty to pot charges". The Jakarta Post. June 30, 2017. Retrieved 2017-07-19.

^ Park Hyeong-taek (June 29, 2017). "[SC현장] 탑, 대마초 4회 흡연 시인…"공소사실 모두 인정"" [[SC scene] Top, smoking four po ... "All the facts of the charges"]. Sports Chosun (in Korean). Retrieved July 19, 2017.

^ Riddhiman Mukhopadhyay (July 20, 2017). "Rapper T.O.P sentenced at final trial: Apologizes to fans for his actions". International Business Times. Retrieved July 21, 2017.

^ "(LEAD) BIGBANG's T.O.P. gets suspended sentence for marijuana use". Yonhap News Agency. July 20, 2017. Retrieved July 20, 2017.

^ "빅뱅 탑, 재복무심사에서 부적합 결론… 의경신분 박탈" [Big Bang tower is inadequate in re-examination ... Deprivation of state]. Sports Chosun (in Korean). July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.

^ "BIGBANG's T.O.P to lose police post after drug conviction". Yonhap News Agency. July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.

^ "탑, 의경 신분 박탈 '재복무 심사서 부적합 판정'" [Top, disqualification of state of rehabilitation]. Starin E-Daily (in Korean). July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.

^ "BigBang rapper T.O.P cannot continue serving military duty as a policeman". Starits Times. July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.

^ Lee Young-jae (August 28, 2017). "'대마초 흡연' 빅뱅 탑, 의경에서 사회복무 요원 됐다". Korea JoongAng Daily (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.

^ Kim Ji-heon (August 28, 2017). "'대마초' 빅뱅 탑, 오늘 의경 전역…사회복무요원으로 근무". Yonhap News Agency (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.

^ Kim Yoo-jin (August 28, 2017). "'대마초 논란' 탑, 보충역 통보받고 오늘 전역…사회복무요원으로 전환". Herald Economy (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.

^ Hae Kyung Heon (August 28, 2017). "대마초 집유판결 탑 결국 사회복무요원으로, 누리꾼 반응 '냉랭'". Sports Khan (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.

^ "Country report and updates: Korea, South - War Resisters' International". www.wri-irg.org.

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(http://www.autoadmit.com/thread.php?thread_id=3345436&forum_id=2#36142776)



Reply Favorite

Date: September 8th, 2016 9:49 PM
Author: playing with fire

Interesting

(http://www.autoadmit.com/thread.php?thread_id=3345436&forum_id=2#31364734)



Reply Favorite

Date: September 8th, 2016 9:53 PM
Author: nyuug (18 yr old American girl ridin dat Yellow Monster Gangnam Style)

feel free to ask me any questions about my app game

(http://www.autoadmit.com/thread.php?thread_id=3345436&forum_id=2#31364772)



Reply Favorite

Date: September 8th, 2016 9:59 PM
Author: \'\"\'\"\"\'\"

what apps do you use?

(http://www.autoadmit.com/thread.php?thread_id=3345436&forum_id=2#31364840)



Reply Favorite

Date: September 8th, 2016 10:06 PM
Author: nyuug (18 yr old American girl ridin dat Yellow Monster Gangnam Style)

i use a mix of korean and non-korean ones

(http://www.autoadmit.com/thread.php?thread_id=3345436&forum_id=2#31364907)



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Date: May 28th, 2018 11:43 PM
Author: The Sheer Entitled Caucasity

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Conscription in South Korea

Conscription in South Korea has existed since 1957 and requires male citizens between the ages of 18 and 35 to perform about two years of compulsory military service.[1][2] Women are not required to perform military service, but may voluntarily enlist.[3]

Establishment Edit

The basis for military conscription in South Korea is the Constitution of the Republic of Korea, which was promulgated on July 17, 1948. The constitution states in Article 39, "All citizens shall have the duty of national defense under the conditions as prescribed by Act."[4][5] The Military Service Act of 1949, which was implemented in 1957, specified that compulsory military service is required for men ages 18 or older.[6][2] Conscription is managed by the Military Manpower Administration, which was created in 1948.[7]

Requirements Edit

Enlistment and physical exam Edit

By law, when a Korean man turns 18 years old, he is enlisted for "first citizen service," meaning he is liable for military duty, but is not yet required to serve.[6][8] When he turns 19 years old (or, in some instances, 20 years old), he is required to undergo a physical exam to determine whether he is suitable for military service. The table below shows the physical exam's possible grades and their outcomes, according to the Military Service Act.[9]

Grade Description Outcome

1, 2, 3, 4 "Those whose physical and psychological constitution is healthy enough to perform active or supplemental service." "To be enlisted for active duty service, supplemental service or the second citizen service, based on their qualifications, such as educational background and age."

5 "Those incapable of entering active or supplemental service, but capable of entering the second citizen service." "To be enlisted for the second citizen service."

6 "Those incapable of performing military service due to any disease or mental or physical incompetence." "To be exempted from military service."

7 "Those unable to be graded...due to any disease or mental or physical incompetence." "To undergo a follow-up physical examination" within two years.

Service types and length Edit

The length of compulsory military service in South Korea varies based on military branch.[10] Active duty soldiers serve 21 months in the Army or Marine Corps, 23 months in the Navy, and 24 months in the Air Force.[11] After conscripts finish their military service, they are automatically placed on the reserve roster and are obligated to attend a few days of annual military training for 6 years.[citation needed]

Non-active duty personnel, or "supplemental service" personnel serve for various lengths: 24 months for social work personnel or international cooperation service personnel; 34 months for arts and sports personnel or industrial technical personnel; and 36 months for public health doctors, lawyers, veterinarians, or expert researchers.[12]

South Korea currently has among the longest military service periods in the world, ranked behind Israel, Singapore, and North Korea.[citation needed] In 2010, there was growing public pressure to either shorten the length of conscription or to switch to voluntary military service, and calls from experts for a gradual phasing out of conscription rather than complete abolition.[13] However, in December 2010, after taking into consideration of the 2010 ROKS Cheonan sinking and Bombardment of Yeonpyeong incidents, the South Korean government said it would not reduce service periods.[14]

Exemptions for Olympic medalists Edit

Current conscription regulations stipulate that athletes who win medals in the Olympic Games or gold medals in the Asian Games are granted exemptions from military service and are placed in Grade 4.[15] They are required to do four weeks of basic military training and engage in sports field for 34 months. After that, they are automatically placed on the reserve roster, and are obligated to attend a few days of annual military training for six years. In practice, after athletes finish their four weeks of basic military training, they are able to continue their own sports career during the 34 months of duty.[16]

Notable athletes who have been granted exemptions from military service are the bronze medal-winning football team at the 2012 Summer Olympics,[17][18] 2008 Olympic gold medalists badminton player Lee Yong-dae[19] and swimmer Park Tae-hwan[20][21] and 2014 Asian Games gold medalist tennis player Hyeon Chung.[22]

Compensation Edit

The following data is from 'Regulation on Public Servant Compensation', implemented on 1 January 2017.[23] Exchange rate as of 2 May 2018 (₩1077 to $1.00USD)

Private (이등병) Private first class (일등병) Corporal (상등병) Sergeant (병장)

₩163,000

$151.35 (approx) per month ₩176,400

$163.79 (approx) per month ₩195,000

$181.06 (approx) per month ₩216,000

$200.56 (approx) per month

Equipment Edit

The Ministry of National Defense has revealed that it has failed to provide sneakers to 7,411 recruits who joined the military from 22 May to 4 June 2012, after the budget was insufficient for need. The Defense ministry originally projected the cost of each pair of sneakers to be 11,000 KRW. However, the actual cost turned out to be 15,000 KRW.[24]

The office of National Assembly member Kim Kwang-jin of Democratic United Party revealed that cadets in Korea Military Academy were provided with sneakers worth 60,000 KRW and tennis shoes. Cadets in Korea Army Academy at Yeongcheon were provided with sneakers worth 64,250 KRW, in addition to running shoes and soccer shoes.[25]

Dual citizens Edit

For dual citizens, or those with multiple citizenships, male South Koreans must choose their citizenship by the time they turn 18, before March 31 of that year. If these males choose to revoke their South Korean citizenship, they will not be required to complete their mandatory military service. However, if they fail to choose their citizenship by their 18th year, they will be subjected to fulfill their mandatory military service.[26] If males choose to renounce their citizenship by their 18th year, they are ineligible to gain a Korean work visa (F series) until after they turn 40 years of age. It may still be possible to gain an E series visa.

Controversies Edit

The South Korean public is sensitive towards the country's mandatory military service, but also has a low tolerance towards those who attempt to dodge or receive special treatment, especially after scandals of wealthy families caught trying to avoid their national duty. Those found or accused of draft dodging and negligence of duty often face harsh penalties and public backlash. According to Ha Jae-keun, a South Korean pop columnist, "The mood against draft-dodgers and negligence of duty is so hostile that nowadays entertainers feel it's better to get it over and done with".[27][28]

Steve Yoo Edit

In 2002, right before Korean American pop singer Steve Yoo was due to be drafted for his military service, he gave up his Korean nationality and became a naturalized U.S. citizen. He was born in Seoul and migrated to the United States at the age of 13. The South Korean government considered it an act of desertion and deported him, banning him from entering the country permanently.[29]

Song Seung-heon Edit

In late 2004, it was revealed that actor Song Seung-heon had avoided his draft by taking medication to fail the military physical examination. Song had previously been exempted by claiming to have severe diabetes and high blood pressure, but that was found by the South Korean government to be false.[30] Amidst press coverage and public outcry, Song publicly apologized and agreed to immediately serve his two-year term in the military. Song was discharged on 15 November 2006 with the rank of Corporal.[31][32]

MC Mong Edit

On 11 April 2011, rapper MC Mong was cleared of intentionally pulling out healthy teeth to be exempted from military duty but was sentenced to a suspended jail term of 6 months, probation for one year, and 120 hours of community service, for deliberately delaying enlistment on false grounds.[33] The court acknowledged that there was a delay in his military enlistment; however, they were unable to determine whether he was guilty of extracting teeth for the purpose of avoiding his military draft. In September 2011, it was reported that Mong has been banned by Korean Broadcasting System (KBS) and Munhwa Broadcasting Corporation (MBC) from appearing in its TV shows, for draft dodging.[34]

Kim Mu-yeol Edit

In June 2012 Kim Mu-yeol came under growing public criticism over allegations he dodged his compulsory military service. In a report released by the Korean Board of Audit and Inspection (BAI), Kim was deemed fit to serve in active duty as a level two recruit after a March 2001 physical examination. However, throughout 2007 to 2009, Kim was granted postponement on the grounds that he was taking civil service examinations or had been admitted to a work training facility, neither of which took place. During this time he reportedly earned approximately ₩300 million from films, musicals and television work. In December 2009, he received his final notice for enlistment, having used up the 730 days allowed for postponement. He submitted a request to change his military status in January 2010 because of a knee injury, which was rejected. Finally, a valid exemption was granted on the grounds that he was a "low-income individual" and the sole provider for his family. BAI's contention was that Kim's income is substantially higher than the standard for disqualification due to poverty; thus, the Military Manpower Administration was negligent in their duties by granting the exemption.[35][36][37]

Kim's agency Prain TPC defended him, stating that Kim had been supporting his family by working as a security guard, construction worker and at a mobile phone factory since his late teens. When his father collapsed from a cerebral hemorrhage and was diagnosed with cancer in 2008, the treatments incurred a lot of debt for the family. Their worsening financial condition caused them to become totally dependent on Kim, resulting in his said filing for an exemption in 2010.[38] Given the publicity, a reinvestigation into the case was launched and Kim was asked by the production company to leave the film 11 A.M. (he was replaced by Choi Daniel).[39][40] On 4 October 2012, Kim released a statement that though there was no wrongdoing on his part, he had decided to voluntarily enter the army "to recover his honor damaged by the rumors."[41][42]

T.O.P Edit

T.O.P began his two-year mandatory military service on February 9, 2017 as a conscripted police officer, where he was set to be discharged on November 8, 2018 after completing the requirements.[43] However, it was announced in June that he would be prosecuted without detention for use of marijuana.[44] He was subsequently transferred to a different police division to await notice of prosecution, and was suspended from police duty pending verdict on his case.[45] A few days after the announcement, T.O.P was found unconscious in police barracks due to a suspected anti-anxiety medicine overdose of prescribed benzodiazepine,[46] and was hospitalized.[47] On June 8, T.O.P's mother confirmed that her son had opened his eyes and was recovering.[48]

On June 29, T.O.P faced his first trial for the marijuana usage charges at the Seoul Central District Court.[49] He pleaded guilty to the charges against him and admitted that he did smoke marijuana on two out of the four instances.[50] T.O.P received two years of probation, with a possibility of ten months' jail time if he violates any terms.[51] At the second court hearing the following month, T.O.P was sentenced to 10 months in prison suspended for two years for illegal marijuana use.[52] He acknowledged all guilty charges. After undergoing a disciplinary review by the police to decide if T.O.P could return as a conscripted policeman or will complete his service as a public service officer,[53] the Seoul Metropolitan Police Agency reviewed T.O.P's current condition and decided T.O.P is unfit to resume service in his previous position.[54][55] A request was made to Army headquarters for a new position for T.O.P to determine either to serve as a public service worker of a full-time reserve soldier to complete his mandatory service.[56][57] T.O.P was eventually assigned reservist status by the Ministry of National Defense and transferred from police department.[58] He will complete his mandatory service as a public service worker.[59] The time T.O.P had been dismissed from duty during his prosecution will not count towards his total service.[60][61]

Conscientious objection Edit

The right to conscientious objection is not recognised in South Korea.[62] Usually, over 400 people are imprisoned at any one time for refusing military service, for political or religious reasons. This is contrary to international human rights standards and the government of Korea have been repeatedly criticised for not allowing those whose conscience prevents them from joining the military to undertake some kind of substitute service, rather than imprisoning them.

See also Edit

Republic of Korea Armed Forces

Republic of Korea Army

Republic of Korea Marine Corps

Republic of Korea Navy

Republic of Korea Air Force

References Edit

^ "병역이행안내 - 개요(총괄)" [Military Service Implementation Guide - General Overview]. Military Manpower Organization (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-12-28.

^ a b Lee, Namhee (2007). The Making of Minjung: Democracy and the Politics of Representation in South Korea. Cornell University Press. p. 91. ISBN 0801445663.

^ "S. Korea to expand women's role in military". Yonhap News Agency. 2017-12-20. Retrieved 2017-12-28.

^ "Constitution of the Republic of Korea" (PDF). 1987. p. 12. Retrieved 2017-12-27.

^ Kim, Jongcheol (2012). "Constitutional Law". Introduction to Korean Law. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 78. ISBN 3642316891.

^ a b "Military Service Act, Article 8". Korean Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-29.

^ "History". Military Manpower Administration. Retrieved 2017-12-29.

^ "Military Service Act, Article 5". Korean Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-29.

^ "Military Service Act, Articles 10-14". Korean Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-29.

^ Lent, Jesse (2016-04-01). "'Descendants Of The Sun' Star Song Joong Ki Discusses His Time In The South Korean Army". Korea Portal. Retrieved 2017-12-30.

^ "Military Service Act, Article 18". Korea Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-30.

^ "Military Service Act, Articles 26-43". Korea Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-30.

^ "Conscription 'Should Be Phased Out Slowly'". Chosun Ilbo. 2010-07-06. Retrieved 2017-12-30.

^ Kim, Christine (2010-12-22). "Plan to cut compulsory military service scrapped". Korea JoongAng Daily. Retrieved 2017-12-30.

^ "제68조의11(예술ㆍ체육요원의 추천 등) [Article 68-11: Recommendation of arts and sports personnel, etc.]". 병역법 시행령 [Military Service Act Implementation Rules]. South Korea: Ministry of Government Legislation. 29 November 2016. Retrieved 6 April 2018. 법 제33조의7제1항 전단에서 "대통령령으로 정하는 예술·체육 분야의 특기를 가진 사람"이란 다음 각 호의 어느 하나에 해당하는 사람을 말한다. ... 4. 올림픽대회에서 3위 이상으로 입상한 사람(단체경기종목의 경우에는 실제로 출전한 선수만 해당한다) 5. 아시아경기대회에서 1위로 입상한 사람(단체경기종목의 경우에는 실제로 출전한 선수만 해당한다). [In Article 33, Paragraph 7, Subparagraph 2 of the Act, 'a person having special talents in arts and athletics fields, as defined by presidential order' refers to persons to whom are applicable any one of the provisions of the following subparagraphs. ... 4. A person who received a prize for ranked third or above at the Olympics (in the case of team events, only applicable to athletes who actually participated). 5. A person who received a prize for ranking first at the Asian Games (in the case of team events, only applicable to athletes who actually participated).]

^ "리우에서도 떠오른 축구대표팀 '병역특례'".

^ "Footballer to Be Spared Military Service Despite IOC Probe". Chosun Ilbo. 14 August 2012. Retrieved 2 October 2012.

^ "Medal instead of military service". The Hankyoreh. 11 August 2012. Retrieved 25 February 2013.

^ "들쭉날쭉 병역특례기준 '형평성' 논란…병무청 '누적점수제' 추진" (in Korean). Yonhap News Agency. September 30, 2016.

^ "Park Tae-hwan Enters Army Boot Camp". Chosun Ilbo. 5 October 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2012.

^ "Star Swimmer Says Army Boot Camp Helped Him Grow". Chosun Ilbo. 1 November 2012. Retrieved 4 April 2013.

^ "Hyeon Chung Participates In Korean Military Training - ATP World Tour - Tennis - ATP World Tour - Tennis".

^ 공무원보수규정 '별표 13' 군인의 봉급표(제5조 및 별표 1 관련) . Korea Ministry of Government Legislation (in Korean). Retrieved 28 April 2015.

^ 조, 기호 (18 July 2012). "운동화 한 켤레 못 주는 군(軍)!". Seoul Broadcasting System. Retrieved 4 August 2012.

^ "[보도자료] 예산 없다던 국방부, 사관생도에게는 고가 외국브랜드 운동화 지급". Retrieved 4 August 2012.[dead link]

^ "FAQs-Dual Citizens | U.S. Embassy & Consulate in Korea". U.S. Embassy & Consulate in Korea. Retrieved 2017-10-12.

^ "South Korean singer Rain reports for military service". BBC News. 11 October 2011. Retrieved 2011-10-14.

^ Park, Eun-jee (16 January 2013). "Military service mischief a losing battle". Joongang Daily. Archived from the original on 29 June 2013. Retrieved 4 April 2013.

^ Seo, Ji-eun "Steve Yoo isn’t coming back to Korea" Archived 6 January 2013 at the Wayback Machine. Joongang Daily. 20 October 2011. retrieved 2011-11-08

^ (in Korean) "최지우, '승헌이에게 말 걸어볼까?"[permanent dead link] SSTV. 30 June 2009. Retrieved 2011-11-06

^ "Song Seung-heon, Jang Hyeok Discharged from Military" HanCinema. 16 November 2011. Retrieved 2011-10-14

^ (in Korean) "Song Seung-heon discharged from the army"Yahoo News Korea, 2006-11-18. Archived 14 June 2011 at the Wayback Machine.

^ "Rapper Gets Suspended Jail Term for Draft Dodging" Chosun Ilbo. 12 April 2011. Retrieved 2011-10-14

^ "KBS, MBC release list of 36 banned entertainers" Dong-A Ilbo. 28 September 2011. 2011-10-14

^ Sunwoo, Carla (22 June 2012). "Actor Kim Moo-yul was poor enough to dodge military service". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 27 January 2013. Retrieved 6 October 2012.

^ Lee, In-kyung (21 June 2012). "Kim Moo Yul Involved in Military Scandal after Avoiding Duties". enewsWorld. Retrieved 2012-10-06.

^ "High-Paid Actor Exempted from Draft for Poverty". The Chosun Ilbo. 22 June 2012. Retrieved 2012-10-06.

^ Moon, Gwang-lip (25 June 2012). "Agent says Kim Moo-yul's family situation was 'nearly impossible'". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 11 August 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2012.

^ Sunwoo, Carla (10 July 2012). "Kim Moo-yul kicked off movie set". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 26 January 2013. Retrieved 6 October 2012.

^ Sunwoo, Carla (11 July 2012). "Choi Daniel to replace Kim Moo-yul". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 5 August 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2012.

^ Lee, Hye-ji (5 October 2012). "Kim Moo-yeol to Enter Army, Cleaning out Exemption Rumors". 10Asia. Retrieved 2012-11-18.

^ Sunwoo, Carla (11 October 2011). "Kim Moo-yul enlists after rumors". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 26 October 2012. Retrieved 18 November 2012.

^ "BIGBANG's T.O.P confirms military enlistment date". Yibada. November 22, 2016.

^ "The Full Story Behind T.O.P's Drug Scandal, And The Mysterious Trainee Woman". June 2, 2017. Retrieved June 8, 2017.

^ Jun, R. "BIGBANG's T.O.P To Be Dismissed From Duty For Duration of Prosecution". Soompi. Retrieved 8 June 2017.

^ "Medical expert comments on T.O.P's benzodiazepine overdose | allkpop.com". allkpop. Retrieved 2017-06-09.

^ "BIGBANG's T.O.P hospitalized for drug overdose". YonhapNews. June 6, 2017. Retrieved June 6, 2017.

^ "K-pop superstar T.O.P. in intensive care after overdose". BBC. June 8, 2017. Retrieved June 28, 2017.

^ Kim Jung-kyoon (June 30, 2017). "T.O.P admits to all charges at first hearing". Korea JoongAng Daily. Retrieved July 19, 2017.

^ "Big Bang's T.O.P pleads guilty to pot charges". The Jakarta Post. June 30, 2017. Retrieved 2017-07-19.

^ Park Hyeong-taek (June 29, 2017). "[SC현장] 탑, 대마초 4회 흡연 시인…"공소사실 모두 인정"" [[SC scene] Top, smoking four po ... "All the facts of the charges"]. Sports Chosun (in Korean). Retrieved July 19, 2017.

^ Riddhiman Mukhopadhyay (July 20, 2017). "Rapper T.O.P sentenced at final trial: Apologizes to fans for his actions". International Business Times. Retrieved July 21, 2017.

^ "(LEAD) BIGBANG's T.O.P. gets suspended sentence for marijuana use". Yonhap News Agency. July 20, 2017. Retrieved July 20, 2017.

^ "빅뱅 탑, 재복무심사에서 부적합 결론… 의경신분 박탈" [Big Bang tower is inadequate in re-examination ... Deprivation of state]. Sports Chosun (in Korean). July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.

^ "BIGBANG's T.O.P to lose police post after drug conviction". Yonhap News Agency. July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.

^ "탑, 의경 신분 박탈 '재복무 심사서 부적합 판정'" [Top, disqualification of state of rehabilitation]. Starin E-Daily (in Korean). July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.

^ "BigBang rapper T.O.P cannot continue serving military duty as a policeman". Starits Times. July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.

^ Lee Young-jae (August 28, 2017). "'대마초 흡연' 빅뱅 탑, 의경에서 사회복무 요원 됐다". Korea JoongAng Daily (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.

^ Kim Ji-heon (August 28, 2017). "'대마초' 빅뱅 탑, 오늘 의경 전역…사회복무요원으로 근무". Yonhap News Agency (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.

^ Kim Yoo-jin (August 28, 2017). "'대마초 논란' 탑, 보충역 통보받고 오늘 전역…사회복무요원으로 전환". Herald Economy (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.

^ Hae Kyung Heon (August 28, 2017). "대마초 집유판결 탑 결국 사회복무요원으로, 누리꾼 반응 '냉랭'". Sports Khan (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.

^ "Country report and updates: Korea, South - War Resisters' International". www.wri-irg.org.

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Conscription in South Korea

Conscription in South Korea has existed since 1957 and requires male citizens between the ages of 18 and 35 to perform about two years of compulsory military service.[1][2] Women are not required to perform military service, but may voluntarily enlist.[3]

Establishment Edit

The basis for military conscription in South Korea is the Constitution of the Republic of Korea, which was promulgated on July 17, 1948. The constitution states in Article 39, "All citizens shall have the duty of national defense under the conditions as prescribed by Act."[4][5] The Military Service Act of 1949, which was implemented in 1957, specified that compulsory military service is required for men ages 18 or older.[6][2] Conscription is managed by the Military Manpower Administration, which was created in 1948.[7]

Requirements Edit

Enlistment and physical exam Edit

By law, when a Korean man turns 18 years old, he is enlisted for "first citizen service," meaning he is liable for military duty, but is not yet required to serve.[6][8] When he turns 19 years old (or, in some instances, 20 years old), he is required to undergo a physical exam to determine whether he is suitable for military service. The table below shows the physical exam's possible grades and their outcomes, according to the Military Service Act.[9]

Grade Description Outcome

1, 2, 3, 4 "Those whose physical and psychological constitution is healthy enough to perform active or supplemental service." "To be enlisted for active duty service, supplemental service or the second citizen service, based on their qualifications, such as educational background and age."

5 "Those incapable of entering active or supplemental service, but capable of entering the second citizen service." "To be enlisted for the second citizen service."

6 "Those incapable of performing military service due to any disease or mental or physical incompetence." "To be exempted from military service."

7 "Those unable to be graded...due to any disease or mental or physical incompetence." "To undergo a follow-up physical examination" within two years.

Service types and length Edit

The length of compulsory military service in South Korea varies based on military branch.[10] Active duty soldiers serve 21 months in the Army or Marine Corps, 23 months in the Navy, and 24 months in the Air Force.[11] After conscripts finish their military service, they are automatically placed on the reserve roster and are obligated to attend a few days of annual military training for 6 years.[citation needed]

Non-active duty personnel, or "supplemental service" personnel serve for various lengths: 24 months for social work personnel or international cooperation service personnel; 34 months for arts and sports personnel or industrial technical personnel; and 36 months for public health doctors, lawyers, veterinarians, or expert researchers.[12]

South Korea currently has among the longest military service periods in the world, ranked behind Israel, Singapore, and North Korea.[citation needed] In 2010, there was growing public pressure to either shorten the length of conscription or to switch to voluntary military service, and calls from experts for a gradual phasing out of conscription rather than complete abolition.[13] However, in December 2010, after taking into consideration of the 2010 ROKS Cheonan sinking and Bombardment of Yeonpyeong incidents, the South Korean government said it would not reduce service periods.[14]

Exemptions for Olympic medalists Edit

Current conscription regulations stipulate that athletes who win medals in the Olympic Games or gold medals in the Asian Games are granted exemptions from military service and are placed in Grade 4.[15] They are required to do four weeks of basic military training and engage in sports field for 34 months. After that, they are automatically placed on the reserve roster, and are obligated to attend a few days of annual military training for six years. In practice, after athletes finish their four weeks of basic military training, they are able to continue their own sports career during the 34 months of duty.[16]

Notable athletes who have been granted exemptions from military service are the bronze medal-winning football team at the 2012 Summer Olympics,[17][18] 2008 Olympic gold medalists badminton player Lee Yong-dae[19] and swimmer Park Tae-hwan[20][21] and 2014 Asian Games gold medalist tennis player Hyeon Chung.[22]

Compensation Edit

The following data is from 'Regulation on Public Servant Compensation', implemented on 1 January 2017.[23] Exchange rate as of 2 May 2018 (₩1077 to $1.00USD)

Private (이등병) Private first class (일등병) Corporal (상등병) Sergeant (병장)

₩163,000

$151.35 (approx) per month ₩176,400

$163.79 (approx) per month ₩195,000

$181.06 (approx) per month ₩216,000

$200.56 (approx) per month

Equipment Edit

The Ministry of National Defense has revealed that it has failed to provide sneakers to 7,411 recruits who joined the military from 22 May to 4 June 2012, after the budget was insufficient for need. The Defense ministry originally projected the cost of each pair of sneakers to be 11,000 KRW. However, the actual cost turned out to be 15,000 KRW.[24]

The office of National Assembly member Kim Kwang-jin of Democratic United Party revealed that cadets in Korea Military Academy were provided with sneakers worth 60,000 KRW and tennis shoes. Cadets in Korea Army Academy at Yeongcheon were provided with sneakers worth 64,250 KRW, in addition to running shoes and soccer shoes.[25]

Dual citizens Edit

For dual citizens, or those with multiple citizenships, male South Koreans must choose their citizenship by the time they turn 18, before March 31 of that year. If these males choose to revoke their South Korean citizenship, they will not be required to complete their mandatory military service. However, if they fail to choose their citizenship by their 18th year, they will be subjected to fulfill their mandatory military service.[26] If males choose to renounce their citizenship by their 18th year, they are ineligible to gain a Korean work visa (F series) until after they turn 40 years of age. It may still be possible to gain an E series visa.

Controversies Edit

The South Korean public is sensitive towards the country's mandatory military service, but also has a low tolerance towards those who attempt to dodge or receive special treatment, especially after scandals of wealthy families caught trying to avoid their national duty. Those found or accused of draft dodging and negligence of duty often face harsh penalties and public backlash. According to Ha Jae-keun, a South Korean pop columnist, "The mood against draft-dodgers and negligence of duty is so hostile that nowadays entertainers feel it's better to get it over and done with".[27][28]

Steve Yoo Edit

In 2002, right before Korean American pop singer Steve Yoo was due to be drafted for his military service, he gave up his Korean nationality and became a naturalized U.S. citizen. He was born in Seoul and migrated to the United States at the age of 13. The South Korean government considered it an act of desertion and deported him, banning him from entering the country permanently.[29]

Song Seung-heon Edit

In late 2004, it was revealed that actor Song Seung-heon had avoided his draft by taking medication to fail the military physical examination. Song had previously been exempted by claiming to have severe diabetes and high blood pressure, but that was found by the South Korean government to be false.[30] Amidst press coverage and public outcry, Song publicly apologized and agreed to immediately serve his two-year term in the military. Song was discharged on 15 November 2006 with the rank of Corporal.[31][32]

MC Mong Edit

On 11 April 2011, rapper MC Mong was cleared of intentionally pulling out healthy teeth to be exempted from military duty but was sentenced to a suspended jail term of 6 months, probation for one year, and 120 hours of community service, for deliberately delaying enlistment on false grounds.[33] The court acknowledged that there was a delay in his military enlistment; however, they were unable to determine whether he was guilty of extracting teeth for the purpose of avoiding his military draft. In September 2011, it was reported that Mong has been banned by Korean Broadcasting System (KBS) and Munhwa Broadcasting Corporation (MBC) from appearing in its TV shows, for draft dodging.[34]

Kim Mu-yeol Edit

In June 2012 Kim Mu-yeol came under growing public criticism over allegations he dodged his compulsory military service. In a report released by the Korean Board of Audit and Inspection (BAI), Kim was deemed fit to serve in active duty as a level two recruit after a March 2001 physical examination. However, throughout 2007 to 2009, Kim was granted postponement on the grounds that he was taking civil service examinations or had been admitted to a work training facility, neither of which took place. During this time he reportedly earned approximately ₩300 million from films, musicals and television work. In December 2009, he received his final notice for enlistment, having used up the 730 days allowed for postponement. He submitted a request to change his military status in January 2010 because of a knee injury, which was rejected. Finally, a valid exemption was granted on the grounds that he was a "low-income individual" and the sole provider for his family. BAI's contention was that Kim's income is substantially higher than the standard for disqualification due to poverty; thus, the Military Manpower Administration was negligent in their duties by granting the exemption.[35][36][37]

Kim's agency Prain TPC defended him, stating that Kim had been supporting his family by working as a security guard, construction worker and at a mobile phone factory since his late teens. When his father collapsed from a cerebral hemorrhage and was diagnosed with cancer in 2008, the treatments incurred a lot of debt for the family. Their worsening financial condition caused them to become totally dependent on Kim, resulting in his said filing for an exemption in 2010.[38] Given the publicity, a reinvestigation into the case was launched and Kim was asked by the production company to leave the film 11 A.M. (he was replaced by Choi Daniel).[39][40] On 4 October 2012, Kim released a statement that though there was no wrongdoing on his part, he had decided to voluntarily enter the army "to recover his honor damaged by the rumors."[41][42]

T.O.P Edit

T.O.P began his two-year mandatory military service on February 9, 2017 as a conscripted police officer, where he was set to be discharged on November 8, 2018 after completing the requirements.[43] However, it was announced in June that he would be prosecuted without detention for use of marijuana.[44] He was subsequently transferred to a different police division to await notice of prosecution, and was suspended from police duty pending verdict on his case.[45] A few days after the announcement, T.O.P was found unconscious in police barracks due to a suspected anti-anxiety medicine overdose of prescribed benzodiazepine,[46] and was hospitalized.[47] On June 8, T.O.P's mother confirmed that her son had opened his eyes and was recovering.[48]

On June 29, T.O.P faced his first trial for the marijuana usage charges at the Seoul Central District Court.[49] He pleaded guilty to the charges against him and admitted that he did smoke marijuana on two out of the four instances.[50] T.O.P received two years of probation, with a possibility of ten months' jail time if he violates any terms.[51] At the second court hearing the following month, T.O.P was sentenced to 10 months in prison suspended for two years for illegal marijuana use.[52] He acknowledged all guilty charges. After undergoing a disciplinary review by the police to decide if T.O.P could return as a conscripted policeman or will complete his service as a public service officer,[53] the Seoul Metropolitan Police Agency reviewed T.O.P's current condition and decided T.O.P is unfit to resume service in his previous position.[54][55] A request was made to Army headquarters for a new position for T.O.P to determine either to serve as a public service worker of a full-time reserve soldier to complete his mandatory service.[56][57] T.O.P was eventually assigned reservist status by the Ministry of National Defense and transferred from police department.[58] He will complete his mandatory service as a public service worker.[59] The time T.O.P had been dismissed from duty during his prosecution will not count towards his total service.[60][61]

Conscientious objection Edit

The right to conscientious objection is not recognised in South Korea.[62] Usually, over 400 people are imprisoned at any one time for refusing military service, for political or religious reasons. This is contrary to international human rights standards and the government of Korea have been repeatedly criticised for not allowing those whose conscience prevents them from joining the military to undertake some kind of substitute service, rather than imprisoning them.

See also Edit

Republic of Korea Armed Forces

Republic of Korea Army

Republic of Korea Marine Corps

Republic of Korea Navy

Republic of Korea Air Force

References Edit

^ "병역이행안내 - 개요(총괄)" [Military Service Implementation Guide - General Overview]. Military Manpower Organization (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-12-28.

^ a b Lee, Namhee (2007). The Making of Minjung: Democracy and the Politics of Representation in South Korea. Cornell University Press. p. 91. ISBN 0801445663.

^ "S. Korea to expand women's role in military". Yonhap News Agency. 2017-12-20. Retrieved 2017-12-28.

^ "Constitution of the Republic of Korea" (PDF). 1987. p. 12. Retrieved 2017-12-27.

^ Kim, Jongcheol (2012). "Constitutional Law". Introduction to Korean Law. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 78. ISBN 3642316891.

^ a b "Military Service Act, Article 8". Korean Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-29.

^ "History". Military Manpower Administration. Retrieved 2017-12-29.

^ "Military Service Act, Article 5". Korean Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-29.

^ "Military Service Act, Articles 10-14". Korean Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-29.

^ Lent, Jesse (2016-04-01). "'Descendants Of The Sun' Star Song Joong Ki Discusses His Time In The South Korean Army". Korea Portal. Retrieved 2017-12-30.

^ "Military Service Act, Article 18". Korea Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-30.

^ "Military Service Act, Articles 26-43". Korea Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-30.

^ "Conscription 'Should Be Phased Out Slowly'". Chosun Ilbo. 2010-07-06. Retrieved 2017-12-30.

^ Kim, Christine (2010-12-22). "Plan to cut compulsory military service scrapped". Korea JoongAng Daily. Retrieved 2017-12-30.

^ "제68조의11(예술ㆍ체육요원의 추천 등) [Article 68-11: Recommendation of arts and sports personnel, etc.]". 병역법 시행령 [Military Service Act Implementation Rules]. South Korea: Ministry of Government Legislation. 29 November 2016. Retrieved 6 April 2018. 법 제33조의7제1항 전단에서 "대통령령으로 정하는 예술·체육 분야의 특기를 가진 사람"이란 다음 각 호의 어느 하나에 해당하는 사람을 말한다. ... 4. 올림픽대회에서 3위 이상으로 입상한 사람(단체경기종목의 경우에는 실제로 출전한 선수만 해당한다) 5. 아시아경기대회에서 1위로 입상한 사람(단체경기종목의 경우에는 실제로 출전한 선수만 해당한다). [In Article 33, Paragraph 7, Subparagraph 2 of the Act, 'a person having special talents in arts and athletics fields, as defined by presidential order' refers to persons to whom are applicable any one of the provisions of the following subparagraphs. ... 4. A person who received a prize for ranked third or above at the Olympics (in the case of team events, only applicable to athletes who actually participated). 5. A person who received a prize for ranking first at the Asian Games (in the case of team events, only applicable to athletes who actually participated).]

^ "리우에서도 떠오른 축구대표팀 '병역특례'".

^ "Footballer to Be Spared Military Service Despite IOC Probe". Chosun Ilbo. 14 August 2012. Retrieved 2 October 2012.

^ "Medal instead of military service". The Hankyoreh. 11 August 2012. Retrieved 25 February 2013.

^ "들쭉날쭉 병역특례기준 '형평성' 논란…병무청 '누적점수제' 추진" (in Korean). Yonhap News Agency. September 30, 2016.

^ "Park Tae-hwan Enters Army Boot Camp". Chosun Ilbo. 5 October 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2012.

^ "Star Swimmer Says Army Boot Camp Helped Him Grow". Chosun Ilbo. 1 November 2012. Retrieved 4 April 2013.

^ "Hyeon Chung Participates In Korean Military Training - ATP World Tour - Tennis - ATP World Tour - Tennis".

^ 공무원보수규정 '별표 13' 군인의 봉급표(제5조 및 별표 1 관련) . Korea Ministry of Government Legislation (in Korean). Retrieved 28 April 2015.

^ 조, 기호 (18 July 2012). "운동화 한 켤레 못 주는 군(軍)!". Seoul Broadcasting System. Retrieved 4 August 2012.

^ "[보도자료] 예산 없다던 국방부, 사관생도에게는 고가 외국브랜드 운동화 지급". Retrieved 4 August 2012.[dead link]

^ "FAQs-Dual Citizens | U.S. Embassy & Consulate in Korea". U.S. Embassy & Consulate in Korea. Retrieved 2017-10-12.

^ "South Korean singer Rain reports for military service". BBC News. 11 October 2011. Retrieved 2011-10-14.

^ Park, Eun-jee (16 January 2013). "Military service mischief a losing battle". Joongang Daily. Archived from the original on 29 June 2013. Retrieved 4 April 2013.

^ Seo, Ji-eun "Steve Yoo isn’t coming back to Korea" Archived 6 January 2013 at the Wayback Machine. Joongang Daily. 20 October 2011. retrieved 2011-11-08

^ (in Korean) "최지우, '승헌이에게 말 걸어볼까?"[permanent dead link] SSTV. 30 June 2009. Retrieved 2011-11-06

^ "Song Seung-heon, Jang Hyeok Discharged from Military" HanCinema. 16 November 2011. Retrieved 2011-10-14

^ (in Korean) "Song Seung-heon discharged from the army"Yahoo News Korea, 2006-11-18. Archived 14 June 2011 at the Wayback Machine.

^ "Rapper Gets Suspended Jail Term for Draft Dodging" Chosun Ilbo. 12 April 2011. Retrieved 2011-10-14

^ "KBS, MBC release list of 36 banned entertainers" Dong-A Ilbo. 28 September 2011. 2011-10-14

^ Sunwoo, Carla (22 June 2012). "Actor Kim Moo-yul was poor enough to dodge military service". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 27 January 2013. Retrieved 6 October 2012.

^ Lee, In-kyung (21 June 2012). "Kim Moo Yul Involved in Military Scandal after Avoiding Duties". enewsWorld. Retrieved 2012-10-06.

^ "High-Paid Actor Exempted from Draft for Poverty". The Chosun Ilbo. 22 June 2012. Retrieved 2012-10-06.

^ Moon, Gwang-lip (25 June 2012). "Agent says Kim Moo-yul's family situation was 'nearly impossible'". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 11 August 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2012.

^ Sunwoo, Carla (10 July 2012). "Kim Moo-yul kicked off movie set". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 26 January 2013. Retrieved 6 October 2012.

^ Sunwoo, Carla (11 July 2012). "Choi Daniel to replace Kim Moo-yul". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 5 August 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2012.

^ Lee, Hye-ji (5 October 2012). "Kim Moo-yeol to Enter Army, Cleaning out Exemption Rumors". 10Asia. Retrieved 2012-11-18.

^ Sunwoo, Carla (11 October 2011). "Kim Moo-yul enlists after rumors". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 26 October 2012. Retrieved 18 November 2012.

^ "BIGBANG's T.O.P confirms military enlistment date". Yibada. November 22, 2016.

^ "The Full Story Behind T.O.P's Drug Scandal, And The Mysterious Trainee Woman". June 2, 2017. Retrieved June 8, 2017.

^ Jun, R. "BIGBANG's T.O.P To Be Dismissed From Duty For Duration of Prosecution". Soompi. Retrieved 8 June 2017.

^ "Medical expert comments on T.O.P's benzodiazepine overdose | allkpop.com". allkpop. Retrieved 2017-06-09.

^ "BIGBANG's T.O.P hospitalized for drug overdose". YonhapNews. June 6, 2017. Retrieved June 6, 2017.

^ "K-pop superstar T.O.P. in intensive care after overdose". BBC. June 8, 2017. Retrieved June 28, 2017.

^ Kim Jung-kyoon (June 30, 2017). "T.O.P admits to all charges at first hearing". Korea JoongAng Daily. Retrieved July 19, 2017.

^ "Big Bang's T.O.P pleads guilty to pot charges". The Jakarta Post. June 30, 2017. Retrieved 2017-07-19.

^ Park Hyeong-taek (June 29, 2017). "[SC현장] 탑, 대마초 4회 흡연 시인…"공소사실 모두 인정"" [[SC scene] Top, smoking four po ... "All the facts of the charges"]. Sports Chosun (in Korean). Retrieved July 19, 2017.

^ Riddhiman Mukhopadhyay (July 20, 2017). "Rapper T.O.P sentenced at final trial: Apologizes to fans for his actions". International Business Times. Retrieved July 21, 2017.

^ "(LEAD) BIGBANG's T.O.P. gets suspended sentence for marijuana use". Yonhap News Agency. July 20, 2017. Retrieved July 20, 2017.

^ "빅뱅 탑, 재복무심사에서 부적합 결론… 의경신분 박탈" [Big Bang tower is inadequate in re-examination ... Deprivation of state]. Sports Chosun (in Korean). July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.

^ "BIGBANG's T.O.P to lose police post after drug conviction". Yonhap News Agency. July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.

^ "탑, 의경 신분 박탈 '재복무 심사서 부적합 판정'" [Top, disqualification of state of rehabilitation]. Starin E-Daily (in Korean). July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.

^ "BigBang rapper T.O.P cannot continue serving military duty as a policeman". Starits Times. July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.

^ Lee Young-jae (August 28, 2017). "'대마초 흡연' 빅뱅 탑, 의경에서 사회복무 요원 됐다". Korea JoongAng Daily (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.

^ Kim Ji-heon (August 28, 2017). "'대마초' 빅뱅 탑, 오늘 의경 전역…사회복무요원으로 근무". Yonhap News Agency (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.

^ Kim Yoo-jin (August 28, 2017). "'대마초 논란' 탑, 보충역 통보받고 오늘 전역…사회복무요원으로 전환". Herald Economy (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.

^ Hae Kyung Heon (August 28, 2017). "대마초 집유판결 탑 결국 사회복무요원으로, 누리꾼 반응 '냉랭'". Sports Khan (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.

^ "Country report and updates: Korea, South - War Resisters' International". www.wri-irg.org.

Exter

(http://www.autoadmit.com/thread.php?thread_id=3345436&forum_id=2#36142778)



Reply Favorite

Date: September 8th, 2016 9:49 PM
Author: The DJT USSF INTERGALACTIC JUGGERNAUT

"Now, pay close attention.

1. Ask where she lives, and if she takes incalls.

This is important because logistics are important. You can gauge how long a trip from her place to yours will take and, to some degree, her priority relative to your other prospects.

2. Tell her that you have an apartment in (Gangnam) and ask her hourly rate and time limit

This conveys status, and numerous other things. This lets her gauge distance as well.

3. Ask her when she is free during the week, and for how many hours

Find a date that works for the both of you. Red flag is if she is not available sometime in the next 7 days. This usually means she is meeting other guys and may be blown out (only if she has non-azn clients)

4. After confirming the date, tell her to meet at your neighborhood. Meet for "coffee" so your neighbors don't realize you're having prostitutes over to the building."

OH WHAT A NOWAG CASANOVA!

(http://www.autoadmit.com/thread.php?thread_id=3345436&forum_id=2#31364736)



Reply Favorite

Date: September 8th, 2016 9:50 PM
Author: my dog faces more systemic racism than I do (America First)



(http://www.autoadmit.com/thread.php?thread_id=3345436&forum_id=2#31364743)



Reply Favorite

Date: September 8th, 2016 9:51 PM
Author: lsd (C++)



(http://www.autoadmit.com/thread.php?thread_id=3345436&forum_id=2#31364756)



Reply Favorite

Date: September 8th, 2016 9:54 PM
Author: ...,.,.,.....,,,

Lol

(http://www.autoadmit.com/thread.php?thread_id=3345436&forum_id=2#31364782)



Reply Favorite

Date: September 8th, 2016 9:54 PM
Author: \'\"\'\"\"\'\"



(http://www.autoadmit.com/thread.php?thread_id=3345436&forum_id=2#31364787)



Reply Favorite

Date: September 8th, 2016 10:09 PM
Author: there's a wocket in my pocket (†)



(http://www.autoadmit.com/thread.php?thread_id=3345436&forum_id=2#31364935)



Reply Favorite

Date: February 6th, 2017 11:52 PM
Author: Pumonymous

casanowag

(http://www.autoadmit.com/thread.php?thread_id=3345436&forum_id=2#32563020)



Reply Favorite

Date: November 29th, 2019 12:35 AM
Author: north atlantid



(http://www.autoadmit.com/thread.php?thread_id=3345436&forum_id=2#39188490)



Reply Favorite

Date: November 29th, 2019 12:36 AM
Author: nyuug (1000 girls. GG.)

i am xoxo's #1 sex-threader and have been since i came back to xoxo in 2015

not a single poster has given more useful sex advice than i. and its not even close.

(http://www.autoadmit.com/thread.php?thread_id=3345436&forum_id=2#39188495)



Reply Favorite

Date: September 8th, 2016 9:52 PM
Author: \'\'\"\'\"\"\"\'\'\'\'
Subject: Saved for posterity

Reply Favorite

Date: September 8th, 2016 9:47 PM

Author: nyuug (18 yr old American girl ridin dat Yellow Monster Gangnam Style)

In this series, I am going to give random snippets of said Gangnam WGWAG Playboy lifestyle.

****APP MASTERMAN****

The smartphone has changed the pussy game for those of us who know how to exploit it.

Traditional dating was always limited by one factor: time. Apps have essentially eliminated this element, allowing for an infinite number of new girls. One way you can view online dating vis a vis regular dating is house poker games vs online poker.

During any given house game, you can go through maybe a couple dozen hands depending on the number of players, pace, etc. In online poker, you can 12 table, track players, etc - essentially you can play an unlimited number of hands.

Now, when you are playing online poker, you have certain algorithms that you follow in order to manage such high volume and still win overall, despite massive swings at times. Online dating is exactly the same, and the key is to know how to filter DTF girls from non-DTF girls.

So how does it work? Simple. Just follow these guidelines:

As a general rule, get her number upon initial contact or no more than 10 minutes after initial contact. Kakao ID is an acceptable substitute, depending on the circumstance.

After getting the #, load her Kakao profile by refreshing immediately after adding her # and establish contact on Kakao. If at any point after getting her #, you suspect that she is fake, ask to voice confirm.

Now, pay close attention.

1. Ask where she lives.

This is important because logistics are important. You can gauge how long a trip from her place to yours will take and, to some degree, her priority relative to your other prospects.

2. Tell her that you have an apartment in (Gangnam).

This conveys status, amongst other things. This lets her gauge distance as well.

3. Ask her when she is free during the week.

Find a date that works for the both of you. Red flag is if she is not available sometime in the next 7 days. This usually means she is meeting other guys and keeping you on the backburner.

4. After confirming the date, tell her to meet at your neighborhood.

This is probably the most important step: if a girl is not willing to come to your neighborhood, she is playing games and the probability of you fucking is near zero.

Essentially, if a girl agrees to come to YOU, it means you are fucking. Plain and simple. Girls will travel for guys they want to fuck.

5. If a girl says she does not want to meet you at your neighborhood you have two choices: walk, or up the ante.

There may be a million reasons why you feel pursuing a particular girl is not worth it. If so, let her go and move on.

But if you feel she is worth pursuing up the ante. Say, "Okay. Since you do not want to come to my neighborhood, I will go ahead and pick you up and we can cab it back to my neighborhood."

If she says no, then you know she was bullshitting from the start. If she says yes, then congratulations. Bite the bullet and pay the cab fare back to your place.

There are a number of other filters but this is the most essential.

Online dating and apps have truly changed the name of the game.

(http://www.autoadmit.com/thread.php?thread_id=3345436&forum_id=2#31364715)



(http://www.autoadmit.com/thread.php?thread_id=3345436&forum_id=2#31364764)



Reply Favorite

Date: September 8th, 2016 9:54 PM
Author: \'\"\'\"\"\'\"

what app did you use for the 18 year old American girl?

(http://www.autoadmit.com/thread.php?thread_id=3345436&forum_id=2#31364788)



Reply Favorite

Date: September 8th, 2016 9:57 PM
Author: nyuug (18 yr old American girl ridin dat Yellow Monster Gangnam Style)

i use about 6-7 different apps. not going to name which ones i use specifically

(http://www.autoadmit.com/thread.php?thread_id=3345436&forum_id=2#31364808)



Reply Favorite

Date: September 8th, 2016 9:58 PM
Author: The DJT USSF INTERGALACTIC JUGGERNAUT

Yea, that might out you!

(http://www.autoadmit.com/thread.php?thread_id=3345436&forum_id=2#31364824)



Reply Favorite

Date: September 8th, 2016 10:02 PM
Author: nyuug (18 yr old American girl ridin dat Yellow Monster Gangnam Style)

it very well may might. so non-disclosure is the safest option

(http://www.autoadmit.com/thread.php?thread_id=3345436&forum_id=2#31364873)



Reply Favorite

Date: September 8th, 2016 10:04 PM
Author: .,.,...,.,,..,:,,:,...,:;:,...,:,.,:....:.,:.::,


Yep, the name of a dating app will definitely do more to out you than *pictures of yourself and the women you've been fucking*.

(http://www.autoadmit.com/thread.php?thread_id=3345436&forum_id=2#31364885)



Reply Favorite

Date: September 8th, 2016 10:06 PM
Author: The DJT USSF INTERGALACTIC JUGGERNAUT

LOLOLOLOLOL

(http://www.autoadmit.com/thread.php?thread_id=3345436&forum_id=2#31364912)



Reply Favorite

Date: September 8th, 2016 10:13 PM
Author: american space force



(http://www.autoadmit.com/thread.php?thread_id=3345436&forum_id=2#31364976)



Reply Favorite

Date: September 9th, 2016 1:29 PM
Author: \'\"\'\"\"\'\"



(http://www.autoadmit.com/thread.php?thread_id=3345436&forum_id=2#31368369)



Reply Favorite

Date: September 8th, 2016 9:58 PM
Author: \'\"\'\"\"\'\"

lol 6-7 apps. you won';t answer this question because you are mentally ill and full of shit. hth

(http://www.autoadmit.com/thread.php?thread_id=3345436&forum_id=2#31364831)



Reply Favorite

Date: September 8th, 2016 9:57 PM
Author: .,.,...,.,,..,:,,:,...,:;:,...,:,.,:....:.,:.::,


You will never receive an answer on this. Not ever.

(http://www.autoadmit.com/thread.php?thread_id=3345436&forum_id=2#31364820)



Reply Favorite

Date: September 8th, 2016 9:59 PM
Author: \'\"\'\"\"\'\"

odd case. this is the biggest red flag to me

(http://www.autoadmit.com/thread.php?thread_id=3345436&forum_id=2#31364837)



Reply Favorite

Date: September 8th, 2016 10:00 PM
Author: .,.,...,.,,..,:,,:,...,:;:,...,:,.,:....:.,:.::,


"We met online you aspie lol. :)"

(http://www.autoadmit.com/thread.php?thread_id=3345436&forum_id=2#31364848)



Reply Favorite

Date: September 8th, 2016 10:00 PM
Author: ;;;..;....;......,,,

Extremely beta to ask when she's free rather than asking for a specific time and place

(http://www.autoadmit.com/thread.php?thread_id=3345436&forum_id=2#31364851)



Reply Favorite

Date: September 8th, 2016 10:03 PM
Author: nyuug (18 yr old American girl ridin dat Yellow Monster Gangnam Style)

You can do it this way too. The problem with this method is that often times you suggest a date and she says shes not free on said date. Then you suggest a different date and you end up asking the same shit multiple times.

Gets tiring. I just let her pick the date and schedule her in. If theres any conflicts, find a different date that works for the both of you.

(http://www.autoadmit.com/thread.php?thread_id=3345436&forum_id=2#31364883)



Reply Favorite

Date: September 8th, 2016 10:26 PM
Author: lsd (C++)

pretty good but we're waiting for the episode where you discuss tactics on how to negotiate the hourly rate, limits

(http://www.autoadmit.com/thread.php?thread_id=3345436&forum_id=2#31365083)



Reply Favorite

Date: September 8th, 2016 10:27 PM
Author: nyuug (18 yr old American girl ridin dat Yellow Monster Gangnam Style)

C++. so incredulous.

(http://www.autoadmit.com/thread.php?thread_id=3345436&forum_id=2#31365092)



Reply Favorite

Date: May 28th, 2018 11:47 PM
Author: The Sheer Entitled Caucasity

Wikipedia Search

EditWatch this pageRead in another language

Conscription in South Korea

Conscription in South Korea has existed since 1957 and requires male citizens between the ages of 18 and 35 to perform about two years of compulsory military service.[1][2] Women are not required to perform military service, but may voluntarily enlist.[3]

Establishment Edit

The basis for military conscription in South Korea is the Constitution of the Republic of Korea, which was promulgated on July 17, 1948. The constitution states in Article 39, "All citizens shall have the duty of national defense under the conditions as prescribed by Act."[4][5] The Military Service Act of 1949, which was implemented in 1957, specified that compulsory military service is required for men ages 18 or older.[6][2] Conscription is managed by the Military Manpower Administration, which was created in 1948.[7]

Requirements Edit

Enlistment and physical exam Edit

By law, when a Korean man turns 18 years old, he is enlisted for "first citizen service," meaning he is liable for military duty, but is not yet required to serve.[6][8] When he turns 19 years old (or, in some instances, 20 years old), he is required to undergo a physical exam to determine whether he is suitable for military service. The table below shows the physical exam's possible grades and their outcomes, according to the Military Service Act.[9]

Grade Description Outcome

1, 2, 3, 4 "Those whose physical and psychological constitution is healthy enough to perform active or supplemental service." "To be enlisted for active duty service, supplemental service or the second citizen service, based on their qualifications, such as educational background and age."

5 "Those incapable of entering active or supplemental service, but capable of entering the second citizen service." "To be enlisted for the second citizen service."

6 "Those incapable of performing military service due to any disease or mental or physical incompetence." "To be exempted from military service."

7 "Those unable to be graded...due to any disease or mental or physical incompetence." "To undergo a follow-up physical examination" within two years.

Service types and length Edit

The length of compulsory military service in South Korea varies based on military branch.[10] Active duty soldiers serve 21 months in the Army or Marine Corps, 23 months in the Navy, and 24 months in the Air Force.[11] After conscripts finish their military service, they are automatically placed on the reserve roster and are obligated to attend a few days of annual military training for 6 years.[citation needed]

Non-active duty personnel, or "supplemental service" personnel serve for various lengths: 24 months for social work personnel or international cooperation service personnel; 34 months for arts and sports personnel or industrial technical personnel; and 36 months for public health doctors, lawyers, veterinarians, or expert researchers.[12]

South Korea currently has among the longest military service periods in the world, ranked behind Israel, Singapore, and North Korea.[citation needed] In 2010, there was growing public pressure to either shorten the length of conscription or to switch to voluntary military service, and calls from experts for a gradual phasing out of conscription rather than complete abolition.[13] However, in December 2010, after taking into consideration of the 2010 ROKS Cheonan sinking and Bombardment of Yeonpyeong incidents, the South Korean government said it would not reduce service periods.[14]

Exemptions for Olympic medalists Edit

Current conscription regulations stipulate that athletes who win medals in the Olympic Games or gold medals in the Asian Games are granted exemptions from military service and are placed in Grade 4.[15] They are required to do four weeks of basic military training and engage in sports field for 34 months. After that, they are automatically placed on the reserve roster, and are obligated to attend a few days of annual military training for six years. In practice, after athletes finish their four weeks of basic military training, they are able to continue their own sports career during the 34 months of duty.[16]

Notable athletes who have been granted exemptions from military service are the bronze medal-winning football team at the 2012 Summer Olympics,[17][18] 2008 Olympic gold medalists badminton player Lee Yong-dae[19] and swimmer Park Tae-hwan[20][21] and 2014 Asian Games gold medalist tennis player Hyeon Chung.[22]

Compensation Edit

The following data is from 'Regulation on Public Servant Compensation', implemented on 1 January 2017.[23] Exchange rate as of 2 May 2018 (₩1077 to $1.00USD)

Private (이등병) Private first class (일등병) Corporal (상등병) Sergeant (병장)

₩163,000

$151.35 (approx) per month ₩176,400

$163.79 (approx) per month ₩195,000

$181.06 (approx) per month ₩216,000

$200.56 (approx) per month

Equipment Edit

The Ministry of National Defense has revealed that it has failed to provide sneakers to 7,411 recruits who joined the military from 22 May to 4 June 2012, after the budget was insufficient for need. The Defense ministry originally projected the cost of each pair of sneakers to be 11,000 KRW. However, the actual cost turned out to be 15,000 KRW.[24]

The office of National Assembly member Kim Kwang-jin of Democratic United Party revealed that cadets in Korea Military Academy were provided with sneakers worth 60,000 KRW and tennis shoes. Cadets in Korea Army Academy at Yeongcheon were provided with sneakers worth 64,250 KRW, in addition to running shoes and soccer shoes.[25]

Dual citizens Edit

For dual citizens, or those with multiple citizenships, male South Koreans must choose their citizenship by the time they turn 18, before March 31 of that year. If these males choose to revoke their South Korean citizenship, they will not be required to complete their mandatory military service. However, if they fail to choose their citizenship by their 18th year, they will be subjected to fulfill their mandatory military service.[26] If males choose to renounce their citizenship by their 18th year, they are ineligible to gain a Korean work visa (F series) until after they turn 40 years of age. It may still be possible to gain an E series visa.

Controversies Edit

The South Korean public is sensitive towards the country's mandatory military service, but also has a low tolerance towards those who attempt to dodge or receive special treatment, especially after scandals of wealthy families caught trying to avoid their national duty. Those found or accused of draft dodging and negligence of duty often face harsh penalties and public backlash. According to Ha Jae-keun, a South Korean pop columnist, "The mood against draft-dodgers and negligence of duty is so hostile that nowadays entertainers feel it's better to get it over and done with".[27][28]

Steve Yoo Edit

In 2002, right before Korean American pop singer Steve Yoo was due to be drafted for his military service, he gave up his Korean nationality and became a naturalized U.S. citizen. He was born in Seoul and migrated to the United States at the age of 13. The South Korean government considered it an act of desertion and deported him, banning him from entering the country permanently.[29]

Song Seung-heon Edit

In late 2004, it was revealed that actor Song Seung-heon had avoided his draft by taking medication to fail the military physical examination. Song had previously been exempted by claiming to have severe diabetes and high blood pressure, but that was found by the South Korean government to be false.[30] Amidst press coverage and public outcry, Song publicly apologized and agreed to immediately serve his two-year term in the military. Song was discharged on 15 November 2006 with the rank of Corporal.[31][32]

MC Mong Edit

On 11 April 2011, rapper MC Mong was cleared of intentionally pulling out healthy teeth to be exempted from military duty but was sentenced to a suspended jail term of 6 months, probation for one year, and 120 hours of community service, for deliberately delaying enlistment on false grounds.[33] The court acknowledged that there was a delay in his military enlistment; however, they were unable to determine whether he was guilty of extracting teeth for the purpose of avoiding his military draft. In September 2011, it was reported that Mong has been banned by Korean Broadcasting System (KBS) and Munhwa Broadcasting Corporation (MBC) from appearing in its TV shows, for draft dodging.[34]

Kim Mu-yeol Edit

In June 2012 Kim Mu-yeol came under growing public criticism over allegations he dodged his compulsory military service. In a report released by the Korean Board of Audit and Inspection (BAI), Kim was deemed fit to serve in active duty as a level two recruit after a March 2001 physical examination. However, throughout 2007 to 2009, Kim was granted postponement on the grounds that he was taking civil service examinations or had been admitted to a work training facility, neither of which took place. During this time he reportedly earned approximately ₩300 million from films, musicals and television work. In December 2009, he received his final notice for enlistment, having used up the 730 days allowed for postponement. He submitted a request to change his military status in January 2010 because of a knee injury, which was rejected. Finally, a valid exemption was granted on the grounds that he was a "low-income individual" and the sole provider for his family. BAI's contention was that Kim's income is substantially higher than the standard for disqualification due to poverty; thus, the Military Manpower Administration was negligent in their duties by granting the exemption.[35][36][37]

Kim's agency Prain TPC defended him, stating that Kim had been supporting his family by working as a security guard, construction worker and at a mobile phone factory since his late teens. When his father collapsed from a cerebral hemorrhage and was diagnosed with cancer in 2008, the treatments incurred a lot of debt for the family. Their worsening financial condition caused them to become totally dependent on Kim, resulting in his said filing for an exemption in 2010.[38] Given the publicity, a reinvestigation into the case was launched and Kim was asked by the production company to leave the film 11 A.M. (he was replaced by Choi Daniel).[39][40] On 4 October 2012, Kim released a statement that though there was no wrongdoing on his part, he had decided to voluntarily enter the army "to recover his honor damaged by the rumors."[41][42]

T.O.P Edit

T.O.P began his two-year mandatory military service on February 9, 2017 as a conscripted police officer, where he was set to be discharged on November 8, 2018 after completing the requirements.[43] However, it was announced in June that he would be prosecuted without detention for use of marijuana.[44] He was subsequently transferred to a different police division to await notice of prosecution, and was suspended from police duty pending verdict on his case.[45] A few days after the announcement, T.O.P was found unconscious in police barracks due to a suspected anti-anxiety medicine overdose of prescribed benzodiazepine,[46] and was hospitalized.[47] On June 8, T.O.P's mother confirmed that her son had opened his eyes and was recovering.[48]

On June 29, T.O.P faced his first trial for the marijuana usage charges at the Seoul Central District Court.[49] He pleaded guilty to the charges against him and admitted that he did smoke marijuana on two out of the four instances.[50] T.O.P received two years of probation, with a possibility of ten months' jail time if he violates any terms.[51] At the second court hearing the following month, T.O.P was sentenced to 10 months in prison suspended for two years for illegal marijuana use.[52] He acknowledged all guilty charges. After undergoing a disciplinary review by the police to decide if T.O.P could return as a conscripted policeman or will complete his service as a public service officer,[53] the Seoul Metropolitan Police Agency reviewed T.O.P's current condition and decided T.O.P is unfit to resume service in his previous position.[54][55] A request was made to Army headquarters for a new position for T.O.P to determine either to serve as a public service worker of a full-time reserve soldier to complete his mandatory service.[56][57] T.O.P was eventually assigned reservist status by the Ministry of National Defense and transferred from police department.[58] He will complete his mandatory service as a public service worker.[59] The time T.O.P had been dismissed from duty during his prosecution will not count towards his total service.[60][61]

Conscientious objection Edit

The right to conscientious objection is not recognised in South Korea.[62] Usually, over 400 people are imprisoned at any one time for refusing military service, for political or religious reasons. This is contrary to international human rights standards and the government of Korea have been repeatedly criticised for not allowing those whose conscience prevents them from joining the military to undertake some kind of substitute service, rather than imprisoning them.

See also Edit

Republic of Korea Armed Forces

Republic of Korea Army

Republic of Korea Marine Corps

Republic of Korea Navy

Republic of Korea Air Force

References Edit

^ "병역이행안내 - 개요(총괄)" [Military Service Implementation Guide - General Overview]. Military Manpower Organization (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-12-28.

^ a b Lee, Namhee (2007). The Making of Minjung: Democracy and the Politics of Representation in South Korea. Cornell University Press. p. 91. ISBN 0801445663.

^ "S. Korea to expand women's role in military". Yonhap News Agency. 2017-12-20. Retrieved 2017-12-28.

^ "Constitution of the Republic of Korea" (PDF). 1987. p. 12. Retrieved 2017-12-27.

^ Kim, Jongcheol (2012). "Constitutional Law". Introduction to Korean Law. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 78. ISBN 3642316891.

^ a b "Military Service Act, Article 8". Korean Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-29.

^ "History". Military Manpower Administration. Retrieved 2017-12-29.

^ "Military Service Act, Article 5". Korean Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-29.

^ "Military Service Act, Articles 10-14". Korean Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-29.

^ Lent, Jesse (2016-04-01). "'Descendants Of The Sun' Star Song Joong Ki Discusses His Time In The South Korean Army". Korea Portal. Retrieved 2017-12-30.

^ "Military Service Act, Article 18". Korea Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-30.

^ "Military Service Act, Articles 26-43". Korea Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-30.

^ "Conscription 'Should Be Phased Out Slowly'". Chosun Ilbo. 2010-07-06. Retrieved 2017-12-30.

^ Kim, Christine (2010-12-22). "Plan to cut compulsory military service scrapped". Korea JoongAng Daily. Retrieved 2017-12-30.

^ "제68조의11(예술ㆍ체육요원의 추천 등) [Article 68-11: Recommendation of arts and sports personnel, etc.]". 병역법 시행령 [Military Service Act Implementation Rules]. South Korea: Ministry of Government Legislation. 29 November 2016. Retrieved 6 April 2018. 법 제33조의7제1항 전단에서 "대통령령으로 정하는 예술·체육 분야의 특기를 가진 사람"이란 다음 각 호의 어느 하나에 해당하는 사람을 말한다. ... 4. 올림픽대회에서 3위 이상으로 입상한 사람(단체경기종목의 경우에는 실제로 출전한 선수만 해당한다) 5. 아시아경기대회에서 1위로 입상한 사람(단체경기종목의 경우에는 실제로 출전한 선수만 해당한다). [In Article 33, Paragraph 7, Subparagraph 2 of the Act, 'a person having special talents in arts and athletics fields, as defined by presidential order' refers to persons to whom are applicable any one of the provisions of the following subparagraphs. ... 4. A person who received a prize for ranked third or above at the Olympics (in the case of team events, only applicable to athletes who actually participated). 5. A person who received a prize for ranking first at the Asian Games (in the case of team events, only applicable to athletes who actually participated).]

^ "리우에서도 떠오른 축구대표팀 '병역특례'".

^ "Footballer to Be Spared Military Service Despite IOC Probe". Chosun Ilbo. 14 August 2012. Retrieved 2 October 2012.

^ "Medal instead of military service". The Hankyoreh. 11 August 2012. Retrieved 25 February 2013.

^ "들쭉날쭉 병역특례기준 '형평성' 논란…병무청 '누적점수제' 추진" (in Korean). Yonhap News Agency. September 30, 2016.

^ "Park Tae-hwan Enters Army Boot Camp". Chosun Ilbo. 5 October 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2012.

^ "Star Swimmer Says Army Boot Camp Helped Him Grow". Chosun Ilbo. 1 November 2012. Retrieved 4 April 2013.

^ "Hyeon Chung Participates In Korean Military Training - ATP World Tour - Tennis - ATP World Tour - Tennis".

^ 공무원보수규정 '별표 13' 군인의 봉급표(제5조 및 별표 1 관련) . Korea Ministry of Government Legislation (in Korean). Retrieved 28 April 2015.

^ 조, 기호 (18 July 2012). "운동화 한 켤레 못 주는 군(軍)!". Seoul Broadcasting System. Retrieved 4 August 2012.

^ "[보도자료] 예산 없다던 국방부, 사관생도에게는 고가 외국브랜드 운동화 지급". Retrieved 4 August 2012.[dead link]

^ "FAQs-Dual Citizens | U.S. Embassy & Consulate in Korea". U.S. Embassy & Consulate in Korea. Retrieved 2017-10-12.

^ "South Korean singer Rain reports for military service". BBC News. 11 October 2011. Retrieved 2011-10-14.

^ Park, Eun-jee (16 January 2013). "Military service mischief a losing battle". Joongang Daily. Archived from the original on 29 June 2013. Retrieved 4 April 2013.

^ Seo, Ji-eun "Steve Yoo isn’t coming back to Korea" Archived 6 January 2013 at the Wayback Machine. Joongang Daily. 20 October 2011. retrieved 2011-11-08

^ (in Korean) "최지우, '승헌이에게 말 걸어볼까?"[permanent dead link] SSTV. 30 June 2009. Retrieved 2011-11-06

^ "Song Seung-heon, Jang Hyeok Discharged from Military" HanCinema. 16 November 2011. Retrieved 2011-10-14

^ (in Korean) "Song Seung-heon discharged from the army"Yahoo News Korea, 2006-11-18. Archived 14 June 2011 at the Wayback Machine.

^ "Rapper Gets Suspended Jail Term for Draft Dodging" Chosun Ilbo. 12 April 2011. Retrieved 2011-10-14

^ "KBS, MBC release list of 36 banned entertainers" Dong-A Ilbo. 28 September 2011. 2011-10-14

^ Sunwoo, Carla (22 June 2012). "Actor Kim Moo-yul was poor enough to dodge military service". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 27 January 2013. Retrieved 6 October 2012.

^ Lee, In-kyung (21 June 2012). "Kim Moo Yul Involved in Military Scandal after Avoiding Duties". enewsWorld. Retrieved 2012-10-06.

^ "High-Paid Actor Exempted from Draft for Poverty". The Chosun Ilbo. 22 June 2012. Retrieved 2012-10-06.

^ Moon, Gwang-lip (25 June 2012). "Agent says Kim Moo-yul's family situation was 'nearly impossible'". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 11 August 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2012.

^ Sunwoo, Carla (10 July 2012). "Kim Moo-yul kicked off movie set". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 26 January 2013. Retrieved 6 October 2012.

^ Sunwoo, Carla (11 July 2012). "Choi Daniel to replace Kim Moo-yul". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 5 August 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2012.

^ Lee, Hye-ji (5 October 2012). "Kim Moo-yeol to Enter Army, Cleaning out Exemption Rumors". 10Asia. Retrieved 2012-11-18.

^ Sunwoo, Carla (11 October 2011). "Kim Moo-yul enlists after rumors". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 26 October 2012. Retrieved 18 November 2012.

^ "BIGBANG's T.O.P confirms military enlistment date". Yibada. November 22, 2016.

^ "The Full Story Behind T.O.P's Drug Scandal, And The Mysterious Trainee Woman". June 2, 2017. Retrieved June 8, 2017.

^ Jun, R. "BIGBANG's T.O.P To Be Dismissed From Duty For Duration of Prosecution". Soompi. Retrieved 8 June 2017.

^ "Medical expert comments on T.O.P's benzodiazepine overdose | allkpop.com". allkpop. Retrieved 2017-06-09.

^ "BIGBANG's T.O.P hospitalized for drug overdose". YonhapNews. June 6, 2017. Retrieved June 6, 2017.

^ "K-pop superstar T.O.P. in intensive care after overdose". BBC. June 8, 2017. Retrieved June 28, 2017.

^ Kim Jung-kyoon (June 30, 2017). "T.O.P admits to all charges at first hearing". Korea JoongAng Daily. Retrieved July 19, 2017.

^ "Big Bang's T.O.P pleads guilty to pot charges". The Jakarta Post. June 30, 2017. Retrieved 2017-07-19.

^ Park Hyeong-taek (June 29, 2017). "[SC현장] 탑, 대마초 4회 흡연 시인…"공소사실 모두 인정"" [[SC scene] Top, smoking four po ... "All the facts of the charges"]. Sports Chosun (in Korean). Retrieved July 19, 2017.

^ Riddhiman Mukhopadhyay (July 20, 2017). "Rapper T.O.P sentenced at final trial: Apologizes to fans for his actions". International Business Times. Retrieved July 21, 2017.

^ "(LEAD) BIGBANG's T.O.P. gets suspended sentence for marijuana use". Yonhap News Agency. July 20, 2017. Retrieved July 20, 2017.

^ "빅뱅 탑, 재복무심사에서 부적합 결론… 의경신분 박탈" [Big Bang tower is inadequate in re-examination ... Deprivation of state]. Sports Chosun (in Korean). July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.

^ "BIGBANG's T.O.P to lose police post after drug conviction". Yonhap News Agency. July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.

^ "탑, 의경 신분 박탈 '재복무 심사서 부적합 판정'" [Top, disqualification of state of rehabilitation]. Starin E-Daily (in Korean). July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.

^ "BigBang rapper T.O.P cannot continue serving military duty as a policeman". Starits Times. July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.

^ Lee Young-jae (August 28, 2017). "'대마초 흡연' 빅뱅 탑, 의경에서 사회복무 요원 됐다". Korea JoongAng Daily (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.

^ Kim Ji-heon (August 28, 2017). "'대마초' 빅뱅 탑, 오늘 의경 전역…사회복무요원으로 근무". Yonhap News Agency (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.

^ Kim Yoo-jin (August 28, 2017). "'대마초 논란' 탑, 보충역 통보받고 오늘 전역…사회복무요원으로 전환". Herald Economy (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.

^ Hae Kyung Heon (August 28, 2017). "대마초 집유판결 탑 결국 사회복무요원으로, 누리꾼 반응 '냉랭'". Sports Khan (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.

^ "Country report and updates: Korea, South - War Resisters' International". www.wri-irg.org.

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Conscription in South Korea

Conscription in South Korea has existed since 1957 and requires male citizens between the ages of 18 and 35 to perform about two years of compulsory military service.[1][2] Women are not required to perform military service, but may voluntarily enlist.[3]

Establishment Edit

The basis for military conscription in South Korea is the Constitution of the Republic of Korea, which was promulgated on July 17, 1948. The constitution states in Article 39, "All citizens shall have the duty of national defense under the conditions as prescribed by Act."[4][5] The Military Service Act of 1949, which was implemented in 1957, specified that compulsory military service is required for men ages 18 or older.[6][2] Conscription is managed by the Military Manpower Administration, which was created in 1948.[7]

Requirements Edit

Enlistment and physical exam Edit

By law, when a Korean man turns 18 years old, he is enlisted for "first citizen service," meaning he is liable for military duty, but is not yet required to serve.[6][8] When he turns 19 years old (or, in some instances, 20 years old), he is required to undergo a physical exam to determine whether he is suitable for military service. The table below shows the physical exam's possible grades and their outcomes, according to the Military Service Act.[9]

Grade Description Outcome

1, 2, 3, 4 "Those whose physical and psychological constitution is healthy enough to perform active or supplemental service." "To be enlisted for active duty service, supplemental service or the second citizen service, based on their qualifications, such as educational background and age."

5 "Those incapable of entering active or supplemental service, but capable of entering the second citizen service." "To be enlisted for the second citizen service."

6 "Those incapable of performing military service due to any disease or mental or physical incompetence." "To be exempted from military service."

7 "Those unable to be graded...due to any disease or mental or physical incompetence." "To undergo a follow-up physical examination" within two years.

Service types and length Edit

The length of compulsory military service in South Korea varies based on military branch.[10] Active duty soldiers serve 21 months in the Army or Marine Corps, 23 months in the Navy, and 24 months in the Air Force.[11] After conscripts finish their military service, they are automatically placed on the reserve roster and are obligated to attend a few days of annual military training for 6 years.[citation needed]

Non-active duty personnel, or "supplemental service" personnel serve for various lengths: 24 months for social work personnel or international cooperation service personnel; 34 months for arts and sports personnel or industrial technical personnel; and 36 months for public health doctors, lawyers, veterinarians, or expert researchers.[12]

South Korea currently has among the longest military service periods in the world, ranked behind Israel, Singapore, and North Korea.[citation needed] In 2010, there was growing public pressure to either shorten the length of conscription or to switch to voluntary military service, and calls from experts for a gradual phasing out of conscription rather than complete abolition.[13] However, in December 2010, after taking into consideration of the 2010 ROKS Cheonan sinking and Bombardment of Yeonpyeong incidents, the South Korean government said it would not reduce service periods.[14]

Exemptions for Olympic medalists Edit

Current conscription regulations stipulate that athletes who win medals in the Olympic Games or gold medals in the Asian Games are granted exemptions from military service and are placed in Grade 4.[15] They are required to do four weeks of basic military training and engage in sports field for 34 months. After that, they are automatically placed on the reserve roster, and are obligated to attend a few days of annual military training for six years. In practice, after athletes finish their four weeks of basic military training, they are able to continue their own sports career during the 34 months of duty.[16]

Notable athletes who have been granted exemptions from military service are the bronze medal-winning football team at the 2012 Summer Olympics,[17][18] 2008 Olympic gold medalists badminton player Lee Yong-dae[19] and swimmer Park Tae-hwan[20][21] and 2014 Asian Games gold medalist tennis player Hyeon Chung.[22]

Compensation Edit

The following data is from 'Regulation on Public Servant Compensation', implemented on 1 January 2017.[23] Exchange rate as of 2 May 2018 (₩1077 to $1.00USD)

Private (이등병) Private first class (일등병) Corporal (상등병) Sergeant (병장)

₩163,000

$151.35 (approx) per month ₩176,400

$163.79 (approx) per month ₩195,000

$181.06 (approx) per month ₩216,000

$200.56 (approx) per month

Equipment Edit

The Ministry of National Defense has revealed that it has failed to provide sneakers to 7,411 recruits who joined the military from 22 May to 4 June 2012, after the budget was insufficient for need. The Defense ministry originally projected the cost of each pair of sneakers to be 11,000 KRW. However, the actual cost turned out to be 15,000 KRW.[24]

The office of National Assembly member Kim Kwang-jin of Democratic United Party revealed that cadets in Korea Military Academy were provided with sneakers worth 60,000 KRW and tennis shoes. Cadets in Korea Army Academy at Yeongcheon were provided with sneakers worth 64,250 KRW, in addition to running shoes and soccer shoes.[25]

Dual citizens Edit

For dual citizens, or those with multiple citizenships, male South Koreans must choose their citizenship by the time they turn 18, before March 31 of that year. If these males choose to revoke their South Korean citizenship, they will not be required to complete their mandatory military service. However, if they fail to choose their citizenship by their 18th year, they will be subjected to fulfill their mandatory military service.[26] If males choose to renounce their citizenship by their 18th year, they are ineligible to gain a Korean work visa (F series) until after they turn 40 years of age. It may still be possible to gain an E series visa.

Controversies Edit

The South Korean public is sensitive towards the country's mandatory military service, but also has a low tolerance towards those who attempt to dodge or receive special treatment, especially after scandals of wealthy families caught trying to avoid their national duty. Those found or accused of draft dodging and negligence of duty often face harsh penalties and public backlash. According to Ha Jae-keun, a South Korean pop columnist, "The mood against draft-dodgers and negligence of duty is so hostile that nowadays entertainers feel it's better to get it over and done with".[27][28]

Steve Yoo Edit

In 2002, right before Korean American pop singer Steve Yoo was due to be drafted for his military service, he gave up his Korean nationality and became a naturalized U.S. citizen. He was born in Seoul and migrated to the United States at the age of 13. The South Korean government considered it an act of desertion and deported him, banning him from entering the country permanently.[29]

Song Seung-heon Edit

In late 2004, it was revealed that actor Song Seung-heon had avoided his draft by taking medication to fail the military physical examination. Song had previously been exempted by claiming to have severe diabetes and high blood pressure, but that was found by the South Korean government to be false.[30] Amidst press coverage and public outcry, Song publicly apologized and agreed to immediately serve his two-year term in the military. Song was discharged on 15 November 2006 with the rank of Corporal.[31][32]

MC Mong Edit

On 11 April 2011, rapper MC Mong was cleared of intentionally pulling out healthy teeth to be exempted from military duty but was sentenced to a suspended jail term of 6 months, probation for one year, and 120 hours of community service, for deliberately delaying enlistment on false grounds.[33] The court acknowledged that there was a delay in his military enlistment; however, they were unable to determine whether he was guilty of extracting teeth for the purpose of avoiding his military draft. In September 2011, it was reported that Mong has been banned by Korean Broadcasting System (KBS) and Munhwa Broadcasting Corporation (MBC) from appearing in its TV shows, for draft dodging.[34]

Kim Mu-yeol Edit

In June 2012 Kim Mu-yeol came under growing public criticism over allegations he dodged his compulsory military service. In a report released by the Korean Board of Audit and Inspection (BAI), Kim was deemed fit to serve in active duty as a level two recruit after a March 2001 physical examination. However, throughout 2007 to 2009, Kim was granted postponement on the grounds that he was taking civil service examinations or had been admitted to a work training facility, neither of which took place. During this time he reportedly earned approximately ₩300 million from films, musicals and television work. In December 2009, he received his final notice for enlistment, having used up the 730 days allowed for postponement. He submitted a request to change his military status in January 2010 because of a knee injury, which was rejected. Finally, a valid exemption was granted on the grounds that he was a "low-income individual" and the sole provider for his family. BAI's contention was that Kim's income is substantially higher than the standard for disqualification due to poverty; thus, the Military Manpower Administration was negligent in their duties by granting the exemption.[35][36][37]

Kim's agency Prain TPC defended him, stating that Kim had been supporting his family by working as a security guard, construction worker and at a mobile phone factory since his late teens. When his father collapsed from a cerebral hemorrhage and was diagnosed with cancer in 2008, the treatments incurred a lot of debt for the family. Their worsening financial condition caused them to become totally dependent on Kim, resulting in his said filing for an exemption in 2010.[38] Given the publicity, a reinvestigation into the case was launched and Kim was asked by the production company to leave the film 11 A.M. (he was replaced by Choi Daniel).[39][40] On 4 October 2012, Kim released a statement that though there was no wrongdoing on his part, he had decided to voluntarily enter the army "to recover his honor damaged by the rumors."[41][42]

T.O.P Edit

T.O.P began his two-year mandatory military service on February 9, 2017 as a conscripted police officer, where he was set to be discharged on November 8, 2018 after completing the requirements.[43] However, it was announced in June that he would be prosecuted without detention for use of marijuana.[44] He was subsequently transferred to a different police division to await notice of prosecution, and was suspended from police duty pending verdict on his case.[45] A few days after the announcement, T.O.P was found unconscious in police barracks due to a suspected anti-anxiety medicine overdose of prescribed benzodiazepine,[46] and was hospitalized.[47] On June 8, T.O.P's mother confirmed that her son had opened his eyes and was recovering.[48]

On June 29, T.O.P faced his first trial for the marijuana usage charges at the Seoul Central District Court.[49] He pleaded guilty to the charges against him and admitted that he did smoke marijuana on two out of the four instances.[50] T.O.P received two years of probation, with a possibility of ten months' jail time if he violates any terms.[51] At the second court hearing the following month, T.O.P was sentenced to 10 months in prison suspended for two years for illegal marijuana use.[52] He acknowledged all guilty charges. After undergoing a disciplinary review by the police to decide if T.O.P could return as a conscripted policeman or will complete his service as a public service officer,[53] the Seoul Metropolitan Police Agency reviewed T.O.P's current condition and decided T.O.P is unfit to resume service in his previous position.[54][55] A request was made to Army headquarters for a new position for T.O.P to determine either to serve as a public service worker of a full-time reserve soldier to complete his mandatory service.[56][57] T.O.P was eventually assigned reservist status by the Ministry of National Defense and transferred from police department.[58] He will complete his mandatory service as a public service worker.[59] The time T.O.P had been dismissed from duty during his prosecution will not count towards his total service.[60][61]

Conscientious objection Edit

The right to conscientious objection is not recognised in South Korea.[62] Usually, over 400 people are imprisoned at any one time for refusing military service, for political or religious reasons. This is contrary to international human rights standards and the government of Korea have been repeatedly criticised for not allowing those whose conscience prevents them from joining the military to undertake some kind of substitute service, rather than imprisoning them.

See also Edit

Republic of Korea Armed Forces

Republic of Korea Army

Republic of Korea Marine Corps

Republic of Korea Navy

Republic of Korea Air Force

References Edit

^ "병역이행안내 - 개요(총괄)" [Military Service Implementation Guide - General Overview]. Military Manpower Organization (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-12-28.

^ a b Lee, Namhee (2007). The Making of Minjung: Democracy and the Politics of Representation in South Korea. Cornell University Press. p. 91. ISBN 0801445663.

^ "S. Korea to expand women's role in military". Yonhap News Agency. 2017-12-20. Retrieved 2017-12-28.

^ "Constitution of the Republic of Korea" (PDF). 1987. p. 12. Retrieved 2017-12-27.

^ Kim, Jongcheol (2012). "Constitutional Law". Introduction to Korean Law. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 78. ISBN 3642316891.

^ a b "Military Service Act, Article 8". Korean Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-29.

^ "History". Military Manpower Administration. Retrieved 2017-12-29.

^ "Military Service Act, Article 5". Korean Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-29.

^ "Military Service Act, Articles 10-14". Korean Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-29.

^ Lent, Jesse (2016-04-01). "'Descendants Of The Sun' Star Song Joong Ki Discusses His Time In The South Korean Army". Korea Portal. Retrieved 2017-12-30.

^ "Military Service Act, Article 18". Korea Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-30.

^ "Military Service Act, Articles 26-43". Korea Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-30.

^ "Conscription 'Should Be Phased Out Slowly'". Chosun Ilbo. 2010-07-06. Retrieved 2017-12-30.

^ Kim, Christine (2010-12-22). "Plan to cut compulsory military service scrapped". Korea JoongAng Daily. Retrieved 2017-12-30.

^ "제68조의11(예술ㆍ체육요원의 추천 등) [Article 68-11: Recommendation of arts and sports personnel, etc.]". 병역법 시행령 [Military Service Act Implementation Rules]. South Korea: Ministry of Government Legislation. 29 November 2016. Retrieved 6 April 2018. 법 제33조의7제1항 전단에서 "대통령령으로 정하는 예술·체육 분야의 특기를 가진 사람"이란 다음 각 호의 어느 하나에 해당하는 사람을 말한다. ... 4. 올림픽대회에서 3위 이상으로 입상한 사람(단체경기종목의 경우에는 실제로 출전한 선수만 해당한다) 5. 아시아경기대회에서 1위로 입상한 사람(단체경기종목의 경우에는 실제로 출전한 선수만 해당한다). [In Article 33, Paragraph 7, Subparagraph 2 of the Act, 'a person having special talents in arts and athletics fields, as defined by presidential order' refers to persons to whom are applicable any one of the provisions of the following subparagraphs. ... 4. A person who received a prize for ranked third or above at the Olympics (in the case of team events, only applicable to athletes who actually participated). 5. A person who received a prize for ranking first at the Asian Games (in the case of team events, only applicable to athletes who actually participated).]

^ "리우에서도 떠오른 축구대표팀 '병역특례'".

^ "Footballer to Be Spared Military Service Despite IOC Probe". Chosun Ilbo. 14 August 2012. Retrieved 2 October 2012.

^ "Medal instead of military service". The Hankyoreh. 11 August 2012. Retrieved 25 February 2013.

^ "들쭉날쭉 병역특례기준 '형평성' 논란…병무청 '누적점수제' 추진" (in Korean). Yonhap News Agency. September 30, 2016.

^ "Park Tae-hwan Enters Army Boot Camp". Chosun Ilbo. 5 October 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2012.

^ "Star Swimmer Says Army Boot Camp Helped Him Grow". Chosun Ilbo. 1 November 2012. Retrieved 4 April 2013.

^ "Hyeon Chung Participates In Korean Military Training - ATP World Tour - Tennis - ATP World Tour - Tennis".

^ 공무원보수규정 '별표 13' 군인의 봉급표(제5조 및 별표 1 관련) . Korea Ministry of Government Legislation (in Korean). Retrieved 28 April 2015.

^ 조, 기호 (18 July 2012). "운동화 한 켤레 못 주는 군(軍)!". Seoul Broadcasting System. Retrieved 4 August 2012.

^ "[보도자료] 예산 없다던 국방부, 사관생도에게는 고가 외국브랜드 운동화 지급". Retrieved 4 August 2012.[dead link]

^ "FAQs-Dual Citizens | U.S. Embassy & Consulate in Korea". U.S. Embassy & Consulate in Korea. Retrieved 2017-10-12.

^ "South Korean singer Rain reports for military service". BBC News. 11 October 2011. Retrieved 2011-10-14.

^ Park, Eun-jee (16 January 2013). "Military service mischief a losing battle". Joongang Daily. Archived from the original on 29 June 2013. Retrieved 4 April 2013.

^ Seo, Ji-eun "Steve Yoo isn’t coming back to Korea" Archived 6 January 2013 at the Wayback Machine. Joongang Daily. 20 October 2011. retrieved 2011-11-08

^ (in Korean) "최지우, '승헌이에게 말 걸어볼까?"[permanent dead link] SSTV. 30 June 2009. Retrieved 2011-11-06

^ "Song Seung-heon, Jang Hyeok Discharged from Military" HanCinema. 16 November 2011. Retrieved 2011-10-14

^ (in Korean) "Song Seung-heon discharged from the army"Yahoo News Korea, 2006-11-18. Archived 14 June 2011 at the Wayback Machine.

^ "Rapper Gets Suspended Jail Term for Draft Dodging" Chosun Ilbo. 12 April 2011. Retrieved 2011-10-14

^ "KBS, MBC release list of 36 banned entertainers" Dong-A Ilbo. 28 September 2011. 2011-10-14

^ Sunwoo, Carla (22 June 2012). "Actor Kim Moo-yul was poor enough to dodge military service". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 27 January 2013. Retrieved 6 October 2012.

^ Lee, In-kyung (21 June 2012). "Kim Moo Yul Involved in Military Scandal after Avoiding Duties". enewsWorld. Retrieved 2012-10-06.

^ "High-Paid Actor Exempted from Draft for Poverty". The Chosun Ilbo. 22 June 2012. Retrieved 2012-10-06.

^ Moon, Gwang-lip (25 June 2012). "Agent says Kim Moo-yul's family situation was 'nearly impossible'". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 11 August 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2012.

^ Sunwoo, Carla (10 July 2012). "Kim Moo-yul kicked off movie set". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 26 January 2013. Retrieved 6 October 2012.

^ Sunwoo, Carla (11 July 2012). "Choi Daniel to replace Kim Moo-yul". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 5 August 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2012.

^ Lee, Hye-ji (5 October 2012). "Kim Moo-yeol to Enter Army, Cleaning out Exemption Rumors". 10Asia. Retrieved 2012-11-18.

^ Sunwoo, Carla (11 October 2011). "Kim Moo-yul enlists after rumors". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 26 October 2012. Retrieved 18 November 2012.

^ "BIGBANG's T.O.P confirms military enlistment date". Yibada. November 22, 2016.

^ "The Full Story Behind T.O.P's Drug Scandal, And The Mysterious Trainee Woman". June 2, 2017. Retrieved June 8, 2017.

^ Jun, R. "BIGBANG's T.O.P To Be Dismissed From Duty For Duration of Prosecution". Soompi. Retrieved 8 June 2017.

^ "Medical expert comments on T.O.P's benzodiazepine overdose | allkpop.com". allkpop. Retrieved 2017-06-09.

^ "BIGBANG's T.O.P hospitalized for drug overdose". YonhapNews. June 6, 2017. Retrieved June 6, 2017.

^ "K-pop superstar T.O.P. in intensive care after overdose". BBC. June 8, 2017. Retrieved June 28, 2017.

^ Kim Jung-kyoon (June 30, 2017). "T.O.P admits to all charges at first hearing". Korea JoongAng Daily. Retrieved July 19, 2017.

^ "Big Bang's T.O.P pleads guilty to pot charges". The Jakarta Post. June 30, 2017. Retrieved 2017-07-19.

^ Park Hyeong-taek (June 29, 2017). "[SC현장] 탑, 대마초 4회 흡연 시인…"공소사실 모두 인정"" [[SC scene] Top, smoking four po ... "All the facts of the charges"]. Sports Chosun (in Korean). Retrieved July 19, 2017.

^ Riddhiman Mukhopadhyay (July 20, 2017). "Rapper T.O.P sentenced at final trial: Apologizes to fans for his actions". International Business Times. Retrieved July 21, 2017.

^ "(LEAD) BIGBANG's T.O.P. gets suspended sentence for marijuana use". Yonhap News Agency. July 20, 2017. Retrieved July 20, 2017.

^ "빅뱅 탑, 재복무심사에서 부적합 결론… 의경신분 박탈" [Big Bang tower is inadequate in re-examination ... Deprivation of state]. Sports Chosun (in Korean). July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.

^ "BIGBANG's T.O.P to lose police post after drug conviction". Yonhap News Agency. July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.

^ "탑, 의경 신분 박탈 '재복무 심사서 부적합 판정'" [Top, disqualification of state of rehabilitation]. Starin E-Daily (in Korean). July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.

^ "BigBang rapper T.O.P cannot continue serving military duty as a policeman". Starits Times. July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.

^ Lee Young-jae (August 28, 2017). "'대마초 흡연' 빅뱅 탑, 의경에서 사회복무 요원 됐다". Korea JoongAng Daily (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.

^ Kim Ji-heon (August 28, 2017). "'대마초' 빅뱅 탑, 오늘 의경 전역…사회복무요원으로 근무". Yonhap News Agency (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.

^ Kim Yoo-jin (August 28, 2017). "'대마초 논란' 탑, 보충역 통보받고 오늘 전역…사회복무요원으로 전환". Herald Economy (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.

^ Hae Kyung Heon (August 28, 2017). "대마초 집유판결 탑 결국 사회복무요원으로, 누리꾼 반응 '냉랭'". Sports Khan (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.

^ "Country report and updates: Korea, South - War Resisters' International". www.wri-irg.org.

Exter

(http://www.autoadmit.com/thread.php?thread_id=3345436&forum_id=2#36142800)



Reply Favorite

Date: September 8th, 2016 10:34 PM
Author: Earl's lower back in fight of its life

*popcorns*

(http://www.autoadmit.com/thread.php?thread_id=3345436&forum_id=2#31365161)



Reply Favorite

Date: September 8th, 2016 10:35 PM
Author: The DJT USSF INTERGALACTIC JUGGERNAUT

*self deports*

(http://www.autoadmit.com/thread.php?thread_id=3345436&forum_id=2#31365173)



Reply Favorite

Date: September 8th, 2016 10:38 PM
Author: Earl's lower back in fight of its life

(ugly kike with small dick and big titties)

(http://www.autoadmit.com/thread.php?thread_id=3345436&forum_id=2#31365213)



Reply Favorite

Date: September 8th, 2016 10:39 PM
Author: The DJT USSF INTERGALACTIC JUGGERNAUT

(NOWAG virgin rejected by all 176 million women in N.America)

(http://www.autoadmit.com/thread.php?thread_id=3345436&forum_id=2#31365217)



Reply Favorite

Date: September 8th, 2016 10:39 PM
Author: american space force

Lol at you two faggots

(http://www.autoadmit.com/thread.php?thread_id=3345436&forum_id=2#31365226)



Reply Favorite

Date: September 8th, 2016 10:41 PM
Author: Earl's lower back in fight of its life

kikes gonna kike

(http://www.autoadmit.com/thread.php?thread_id=3345436&forum_id=2#31365243)



Reply Favorite

Date: September 8th, 2016 10:41 PM
Author: The DJT USSF INTERGALACTIC JUGGERNAUT

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(http://www.autoadmit.com/thread.php?thread_id=3345436&forum_id=2#31365247)



Reply Favorite

Date: September 9th, 2016 1:39 PM
Author: the gorgon

lol

(http://www.autoadmit.com/thread.php?thread_id=3345436&forum_id=2#31368452)



Reply Favorite

Date: September 23rd, 2016 12:02 AM
Author: nyuug (Swedish Schoolgirl K-Pop Cover Band "Limitless" WGWAG)

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(http://www.autoadmit.com/thread.php?thread_id=3345436&forum_id=2#31472127)



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Date: May 28th, 2018 11:47 PM
Author: The Sheer Entitled Caucasity

Wikipedia Search

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Conscription in South Korea

Conscription in South Korea has existed since 1957 and requires male citizens between the ages of 18 and 35 to perform about two years of compulsory military service.[1][2] Women are not required to perform military service, but may voluntarily enlist.[3]

Establishment Edit

The basis for military conscription in South Korea is the Constitution of the Republic of Korea, which was promulgated on July 17, 1948. The constitution states in Article 39, "All citizens shall have the duty of national defense under the conditions as prescribed by Act."[4][5] The Military Service Act of 1949, which was implemented in 1957, specified that compulsory military service is required for men ages 18 or older.[6][2] Conscription is managed by the Military Manpower Administration, which was created in 1948.[7]

Requirements Edit

Enlistment and physical exam Edit

By law, when a Korean man turns 18 years old, he is enlisted for "first citizen service," meaning he is liable for military duty, but is not yet required to serve.[6][8] When he turns 19 years old (or, in some instances, 20 years old), he is required to undergo a physical exam to determine whether he is suitable for military service. The table below shows the physical exam's possible grades and their outcomes, according to the Military Service Act.[9]

Grade Description Outcome

1, 2, 3, 4 "Those whose physical and psychological constitution is healthy enough to perform active or supplemental service." "To be enlisted for active duty service, supplemental service or the second citizen service, based on their qualifications, such as educational background and age."

5 "Those incapable of entering active or supplemental service, but capable of entering the second citizen service." "To be enlisted for the second citizen service."

6 "Those incapable of performing military service due to any disease or mental or physical incompetence." "To be exempted from military service."

7 "Those unable to be graded...due to any disease or mental or physical incompetence." "To undergo a follow-up physical examination" within two years.

Service types and length Edit

The length of compulsory military service in South Korea varies based on military branch.[10] Active duty soldiers serve 21 months in the Army or Marine Corps, 23 months in the Navy, and 24 months in the Air Force.[11] After conscripts finish their military service, they are automatically placed on the reserve roster and are obligated to attend a few days of annual military training for 6 years.[citation needed]

Non-active duty personnel, or "supplemental service" personnel serve for various lengths: 24 months for social work personnel or international cooperation service personnel; 34 months for arts and sports personnel or industrial technical personnel; and 36 months for public health doctors, lawyers, veterinarians, or expert researchers.[12]

South Korea currently has among the longest military service periods in the world, ranked behind Israel, Singapore, and North Korea.[citation needed] In 2010, there was growing public pressure to either shorten the length of conscription or to switch to voluntary military service, and calls from experts for a gradual phasing out of conscription rather than complete abolition.[13] However, in December 2010, after taking into consideration of the 2010 ROKS Cheonan sinking and Bombardment of Yeonpyeong incidents, the South Korean government said it would not reduce service periods.[14]

Exemptions for Olympic medalists Edit

Current conscription regulations stipulate that athletes who win medals in the Olympic Games or gold medals in the Asian Games are granted exemptions from military service and are placed in Grade 4.[15] They are required to do four weeks of basic military training and engage in sports field for 34 months. After that, they are automatically placed on the reserve roster, and are obligated to attend a few days of annual military training for six years. In practice, after athletes finish their four weeks of basic military training, they are able to continue their own sports career during the 34 months of duty.[16]

Notable athletes who have been granted exemptions from military service are the bronze medal-winning football team at the 2012 Summer Olympics,[17][18] 2008 Olympic gold medalists badminton player Lee Yong-dae[19] and swimmer Park Tae-hwan[20][21] and 2014 Asian Games gold medalist tennis player Hyeon Chung.[22]

Compensation Edit

The following data is from 'Regulation on Public Servant Compensation', implemented on 1 January 2017.[23] Exchange rate as of 2 May 2018 (₩1077 to $1.00USD)

Private (이등병) Private first class (일등병) Corporal (상등병) Sergeant (병장)

₩163,000

$151.35 (approx) per month ₩176,400

$163.79 (approx) per month ₩195,000

$181.06 (approx) per month ₩216,000

$200.56 (approx) per month

Equipment Edit

The Ministry of National Defense has revealed that it has failed to provide sneakers to 7,411 recruits who joined the military from 22 May to 4 June 2012, after the budget was insufficient for need. The Defense ministry originally projected the cost of each pair of sneakers to be 11,000 KRW. However, the actual cost turned out to be 15,000 KRW.[24]

The office of National Assembly member Kim Kwang-jin of Democratic United Party revealed that cadets in Korea Military Academy were provided with sneakers worth 60,000 KRW and tennis shoes. Cadets in Korea Army Academy at Yeongcheon were provided with sneakers worth 64,250 KRW, in addition to running shoes and soccer shoes.[25]

Dual citizens Edit

For dual citizens, or those with multiple citizenships, male South Koreans must choose their citizenship by the time they turn 18, before March 31 of that year. If these males choose to revoke their South Korean citizenship, they will not be required to complete their mandatory military service. However, if they fail to choose their citizenship by their 18th year, they will be subjected to fulfill their mandatory military service.[26] If males choose to renounce their citizenship by their 18th year, they are ineligible to gain a Korean work visa (F series) until after they turn 40 years of age. It may still be possible to gain an E series visa.

Controversies Edit

The South Korean public is sensitive towards the country's mandatory military service, but also has a low tolerance towards those who attempt to dodge or receive special treatment, especially after scandals of wealthy families caught trying to avoid their national duty. Those found or accused of draft dodging and negligence of duty often face harsh penalties and public backlash. According to Ha Jae-keun, a South Korean pop columnist, "The mood against draft-dodgers and negligence of duty is so hostile that nowadays entertainers feel it's better to get it over and done with".[27][28]

Steve Yoo Edit

In 2002, right before Korean American pop singer Steve Yoo was due to be drafted for his military service, he gave up his Korean nationality and became a naturalized U.S. citizen. He was born in Seoul and migrated to the United States at the age of 13. The South Korean government considered it an act of desertion and deported him, banning him from entering the country permanently.[29]

Song Seung-heon Edit

In late 2004, it was revealed that actor Song Seung-heon had avoided his draft by taking medication to fail the military physical examination. Song had previously been exempted by claiming to have severe diabetes and high blood pressure, but that was found by the South Korean government to be false.[30] Amidst press coverage and public outcry, Song publicly apologized and agreed to immediately serve his two-year term in the military. Song was discharged on 15 November 2006 with the rank of Corporal.[31][32]

MC Mong Edit

On 11 April 2011, rapper MC Mong was cleared of intentionally pulling out healthy teeth to be exempted from military duty but was sentenced to a suspended jail term of 6 months, probation for one year, and 120 hours of community service, for deliberately delaying enlistment on false grounds.[33] The court acknowledged that there was a delay in his military enlistment; however, they were unable to determine whether he was guilty of extracting teeth for the purpose of avoiding his military draft. In September 2011, it was reported that Mong has been banned by Korean Broadcasting System (KBS) and Munhwa Broadcasting Corporation (MBC) from appearing in its TV shows, for draft dodging.[34]

Kim Mu-yeol Edit

In June 2012 Kim Mu-yeol came under growing public criticism over allegations he dodged his compulsory military service. In a report released by the Korean Board of Audit and Inspection (BAI), Kim was deemed fit to serve in active duty as a level two recruit after a March 2001 physical examination. However, throughout 2007 to 2009, Kim was granted postponement on the grounds that he was taking civil service examinations or had been admitted to a work training facility, neither of which took place. During this time he reportedly earned approximately ₩300 million from films, musicals and television work. In December 2009, he received his final notice for enlistment, having used up the 730 days allowed for postponement. He submitted a request to change his military status in January 2010 because of a knee injury, which was rejected. Finally, a valid exemption was granted on the grounds that he was a "low-income individual" and the sole provider for his family. BAI's contention was that Kim's income is substantially higher than the standard for disqualification due to poverty; thus, the Military Manpower Administration was negligent in their duties by granting the exemption.[35][36][37]

Kim's agency Prain TPC defended him, stating that Kim had been supporting his family by working as a security guard, construction worker and at a mobile phone factory since his late teens. When his father collapsed from a cerebral hemorrhage and was diagnosed with cancer in 2008, the treatments incurred a lot of debt for the family. Their worsening financial condition caused them to become totally dependent on Kim, resulting in his said filing for an exemption in 2010.[38] Given the publicity, a reinvestigation into the case was launched and Kim was asked by the production company to leave the film 11 A.M. (he was replaced by Choi Daniel).[39][40] On 4 October 2012, Kim released a statement that though there was no wrongdoing on his part, he had decided to voluntarily enter the army "to recover his honor damaged by the rumors."[41][42]

T.O.P Edit

T.O.P began his two-year mandatory military service on February 9, 2017 as a conscripted police officer, where he was set to be discharged on November 8, 2018 after completing the requirements.[43] However, it was announced in June that he would be prosecuted without detention for use of marijuana.[44] He was subsequently transferred to a different police division to await notice of prosecution, and was suspended from police duty pending verdict on his case.[45] A few days after the announcement, T.O.P was found unconscious in police barracks due to a suspected anti-anxiety medicine overdose of prescribed benzodiazepine,[46] and was hospitalized.[47] On June 8, T.O.P's mother confirmed that her son had opened his eyes and was recovering.[48]

On June 29, T.O.P faced his first trial for the marijuana usage charges at the Seoul Central District Court.[49] He pleaded guilty to the charges against him and admitted that he did smoke marijuana on two out of the four instances.[50] T.O.P received two years of probation, with a possibility of ten months' jail time if he violates any terms.[51] At the second court hearing the following month, T.O.P was sentenced to 10 months in prison suspended for two years for illegal marijuana use.[52] He acknowledged all guilty charges. After undergoing a disciplinary review by the police to decide if T.O.P could return as a conscripted policeman or will complete his service as a public service officer,[53] the Seoul Metropolitan Police Agency reviewed T.O.P's current condition and decided T.O.P is unfit to resume service in his previous position.[54][55] A request was made to Army headquarters for a new position for T.O.P to determine either to serve as a public service worker of a full-time reserve soldier to complete his mandatory service.[56][57] T.O.P was eventually assigned reservist status by the Ministry of National Defense and transferred from police department.[58] He will complete his mandatory service as a public service worker.[59] The time T.O.P had been dismissed from duty during his prosecution will not count towards his total service.[60][61]

Conscientious objection Edit

The right to conscientious objection is not recognised in South Korea.[62] Usually, over 400 people are imprisoned at any one time for refusing military service, for political or religious reasons. This is contrary to international human rights standards and the government of Korea have been repeatedly criticised for not allowing those whose conscience prevents them from joining the military to undertake some kind of substitute service, rather than imprisoning them.

See also Edit

Republic of Korea Armed Forces

Republic of Korea Army

Republic of Korea Marine Corps

Republic of Korea Navy

Republic of Korea Air Force

References Edit

^ "병역이행안내 - 개요(총괄)" [Military Service Implementation Guide - General Overview]. Military Manpower Organization (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-12-28.

^ a b Lee, Namhee (2007). The Making of Minjung: Democracy and the Politics of Representation in South Korea. Cornell University Press. p. 91. ISBN 0801445663.

^ "S. Korea to expand women's role in military". Yonhap News Agency. 2017-12-20. Retrieved 2017-12-28.

^ "Constitution of the Republic of Korea" (PDF). 1987. p. 12. Retrieved 2017-12-27.

^ Kim, Jongcheol (2012). "Constitutional Law". Introduction to Korean Law. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 78. ISBN 3642316891.

^ a b "Military Service Act, Article 8". Korean Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-29.

^ "History". Military Manpower Administration. Retrieved 2017-12-29.

^ "Military Service Act, Article 5". Korean Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-29.

^ "Military Service Act, Articles 10-14". Korean Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-29.

^ Lent, Jesse (2016-04-01). "'Descendants Of The Sun' Star Song Joong Ki Discusses His Time In The South Korean Army". Korea Portal. Retrieved 2017-12-30.

^ "Military Service Act, Article 18". Korea Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-30.

^ "Military Service Act, Articles 26-43". Korea Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-30.

^ "Conscription 'Should Be Phased Out Slowly'". Chosun Ilbo. 2010-07-06. Retrieved 2017-12-30.

^ Kim, Christine (2010-12-22). "Plan to cut compulsory military service scrapped". Korea JoongAng Daily. Retrieved 2017-12-30.

^ "제68조의11(예술ㆍ체육요원의 추천 등) [Article 68-11: Recommendation of arts and sports personnel, etc.]". 병역법 시행령 [Military Service Act Implementation Rules]. South Korea: Ministry of Government Legislation. 29 November 2016. Retrieved 6 April 2018. 법 제33조의7제1항 전단에서 "대통령령으로 정하는 예술·체육 분야의 특기를 가진 사람"이란 다음 각 호의 어느 하나에 해당하는 사람을 말한다. ... 4. 올림픽대회에서 3위 이상으로 입상한 사람(단체경기종목의 경우에는 실제로 출전한 선수만 해당한다) 5. 아시아경기대회에서 1위로 입상한 사람(단체경기종목의 경우에는 실제로 출전한 선수만 해당한다). [In Article 33, Paragraph 7, Subparagraph 2 of the Act, 'a person having special talents in arts and athletics fields, as defined by presidential order' refers to persons to whom are applicable any one of the provisions of the following subparagraphs. ... 4. A person who received a prize for ranked third or above at the Olympics (in the case of team events, only applicable to athletes who actually participated). 5. A person who received a prize for ranking first at the Asian Games (in the case of team events, only applicable to athletes who actually participated).]

^ "리우에서도 떠오른 축구대표팀 '병역특례'".

^ "Footballer to Be Spared Military Service Despite IOC Probe". Chosun Ilbo. 14 August 2012. Retrieved 2 October 2012.

^ "Medal instead of military service". The Hankyoreh. 11 August 2012. Retrieved 25 February 2013.

^ "들쭉날쭉 병역특례기준 '형평성' 논란…병무청 '누적점수제' 추진" (in Korean). Yonhap News Agency. September 30, 2016.

^ "Park Tae-hwan Enters Army Boot Camp". Chosun Ilbo. 5 October 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2012.

^ "Star Swimmer Says Army Boot Camp Helped Him Grow". Chosun Ilbo. 1 November 2012. Retrieved 4 April 2013.

^ "Hyeon Chung Participates In Korean Military Training - ATP World Tour - Tennis - ATP World Tour - Tennis".

^ 공무원보수규정 '별표 13' 군인의 봉급표(제5조 및 별표 1 관련) . Korea Ministry of Government Legislation (in Korean). Retrieved 28 April 2015.

^ 조, 기호 (18 July 2012). "운동화 한 켤레 못 주는 군(軍)!". Seoul Broadcasting System. Retrieved 4 August 2012.

^ "[보도자료] 예산 없다던 국방부, 사관생도에게는 고가 외국브랜드 운동화 지급". Retrieved 4 August 2012.[dead link]

^ "FAQs-Dual Citizens | U.S. Embassy & Consulate in Korea". U.S. Embassy & Consulate in Korea. Retrieved 2017-10-12.

^ "South Korean singer Rain reports for military service". BBC News. 11 October 2011. Retrieved 2011-10-14.

^ Park, Eun-jee (16 January 2013). "Military service mischief a losing battle". Joongang Daily. Archived from the original on 29 June 2013. Retrieved 4 April 2013.

^ Seo, Ji-eun "Steve Yoo isn’t coming back to Korea" Archived 6 January 2013 at the Wayback Machine. Joongang Daily. 20 October 2011. retrieved 2011-11-08

^ (in Korean) "최지우, '승헌이에게 말 걸어볼까?"[permanent dead link] SSTV. 30 June 2009. Retrieved 2011-11-06

^ "Song Seung-heon, Jang Hyeok Discharged from Military" HanCinema. 16 November 2011. Retrieved 2011-10-14

^ (in Korean) "Song Seung-heon discharged from the army"Yahoo News Korea, 2006-11-18. Archived 14 June 2011 at the Wayback Machine.

^ "Rapper Gets Suspended Jail Term for Draft Dodging" Chosun Ilbo. 12 April 2011. Retrieved 2011-10-14

^ "KBS, MBC release list of 36 banned entertainers" Dong-A Ilbo. 28 September 2011. 2011-10-14

^ Sunwoo, Carla (22 June 2012). "Actor Kim Moo-yul was poor enough to dodge military service". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 27 January 2013. Retrieved 6 October 2012.

^ Lee, In-kyung (21 June 2012). "Kim Moo Yul Involved in Military Scandal after Avoiding Duties". enewsWorld. Retrieved 2012-10-06.

^ "High-Paid Actor Exempted from Draft for Poverty". The Chosun Ilbo. 22 June 2012. Retrieved 2012-10-06.

^ Moon, Gwang-lip (25 June 2012). "Agent says Kim Moo-yul's family situation was 'nearly impossible'". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 11 August 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2012.

^ Sunwoo, Carla (10 July 2012). "Kim Moo-yul kicked off movie set". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 26 January 2013. Retrieved 6 October 2012.

^ Sunwoo, Carla (11 July 2012). "Choi Daniel to replace Kim Moo-yul". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 5 August 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2012.

^ Lee, Hye-ji (5 October 2012). "Kim Moo-yeol to Enter Army, Cleaning out Exemption Rumors". 10Asia. Retrieved 2012-11-18.

^ Sunwoo, Carla (11 October 2011). "Kim Moo-yul enlists after rumors". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 26 October 2012. Retrieved 18 November 2012.

^ "BIGBANG's T.O.P confirms military enlistment date". Yibada. November 22, 2016.

^ "The Full Story Behind T.O.P's Drug Scandal, And The Mysterious Trainee Woman". June 2, 2017. Retrieved June 8, 2017.

^ Jun, R. "BIGBANG's T.O.P To Be Dismissed From Duty For Duration of Prosecution". Soompi. Retrieved 8 June 2017.

^ "Medical expert comments on T.O.P's benzodiazepine overdose | allkpop.com". allkpop. Retrieved 2017-06-09.

^ "BIGBANG's T.O.P hospitalized for drug overdose". YonhapNews. June 6, 2017. Retrieved June 6, 2017.

^ "K-pop superstar T.O.P. in intensive care after overdose". BBC. June 8, 2017. Retrieved June 28, 2017.

^ Kim Jung-kyoon (June 30, 2017). "T.O.P admits to all charges at first hearing". Korea JoongAng Daily. Retrieved July 19, 2017.

^ "Big Bang's T.O.P pleads guilty to pot charges". The Jakarta Post. June 30, 2017. Retrieved 2017-07-19.

^ Park Hyeong-taek (June 29, 2017). "[SC현장] 탑, 대마초 4회 흡연 시인…"공소사실 모두 인정"" [[SC scene] Top, smoking four po ... "All the facts of the charges"]. Sports Chosun (in Korean). Retrieved July 19, 2017.

^ Riddhiman Mukhopadhyay (July 20, 2017). "Rapper T.O.P sentenced at final trial: Apologizes to fans for his actions". International Business Times. Retrieved July 21, 2017.

^ "(LEAD) BIGBANG's T.O.P. gets suspended sentence for marijuana use". Yonhap News Agency. July 20, 2017. Retrieved July 20, 2017.

^ "빅뱅 탑, 재복무심사에서 부적합 결론… 의경신분 박탈" [Big Bang tower is inadequate in re-examination ... Deprivation of state]. Sports Chosun (in Korean). July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.

^ "BIGBANG's T.O.P to lose police post after drug conviction". Yonhap News Agency. July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.

^ "탑, 의경 신분 박탈 '재복무 심사서 부적합 판정'" [Top, disqualification of state of rehabilitation]. Starin E-Daily (in Korean). July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.

^ "BigBang rapper T.O.P cannot continue serving military duty as a policeman". Starits Times. July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.

^ Lee Young-jae (August 28, 2017). "'대마초 흡연' 빅뱅 탑, 의경에서 사회복무 요원 됐다". Korea JoongAng Daily (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.

^ Kim Ji-heon (August 28, 2017). "'대마초' 빅뱅 탑, 오늘 의경 전역…사회복무요원으로 근무". Yonhap News Agency (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.

^ Kim Yoo-jin (August 28, 2017). "'대마초 논란' 탑, 보충역 통보받고 오늘 전역…사회복무요원으로 전환". Herald Economy (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.

^ Hae Kyung Heon (August 28, 2017). "대마초 집유판결 탑 결국 사회복무요원으로, 누리꾼 반응 '냉랭'". Sports Khan (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.

^ "Country report and updates: Korea, South - War Resisters' International". www.wri-irg.org.

Exter

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Conscription in South Korea

Conscription in South Korea has existed since 1957 and requires male citizens between the ages of 18 and 35 to perform about two years of compulsory military service.[1][2] Women are not required to perform military service, but may voluntarily enlist.[3]

Establishment Edit

The basis for military conscription in South Korea is the Constitution of the Republic of Korea, which was promulgated on July 17, 1948. The constitution states in Article 39, "All citizens shall have the duty of national defense under the conditions as prescribed by Act."[4][5] The Military Service Act of 1949, which was implemented in 1957, specified that compulsory military service is required for men ages 18 or older.[6][2] Conscription is managed by the Military Manpower Administration, which was created in 1948.[7]

Requirements Edit

Enlistment and physical exam Edit

By law, when a Korean man turns 18 years old, he is enlisted for "first citizen service," meaning he is liable for military duty, but is not yet required to serve.[6][8] When he turns 19 years old (or, in some instances, 20 years old), he is required to undergo a physical exam to determine whether he is suitable for military service. The table below shows the physical exam's possible grades and their outcomes, according to the Military Service Act.[9]

Grade Description Outcome

1, 2, 3, 4 "Those whose physical and psychological constitution is healthy enough to perform active or supplemental service." "To be enlisted for active duty service, supplemental service or the second citizen service, based on their qualifications, such as educational background and age."

5 "Those incapable of entering active or supplemental service, but capable of entering the second citizen service." "To be enlisted for the second citizen service."

6 "Those incapable of performing military service due to any disease or mental or physical incompetence." "To be exempted from military service."

7 "Those unable to be graded...due to any disease or mental or physical incompetence." "To undergo a follow-up physical examination" within two years.

Service types and length Edit

The length of compulsory military service in South Korea varies based on military branch.[10] Active duty soldiers serve 21 months in the Army or Marine Corps, 23 months in the Navy, and 24 months in the Air Force.[11] After conscripts finish their military service, they are automatically placed on the reserve roster and are obligated to attend a few days of annual military training for 6 years.[citation needed]

Non-active duty personnel, or "supplemental service" personnel serve for various lengths: 24 months for social work personnel or international cooperation service personnel; 34 months for arts and sports personnel or industrial technical personnel; and 36 months for public health doctors, lawyers, veterinarians, or expert researchers.[12]

South Korea currently has among the longest military service periods in the world, ranked behind Israel, Singapore, and North Korea.[citation needed] In 2010, there was growing public pressure to either shorten the length of conscription or to switch to voluntary military service, and calls from experts for a gradual phasing out of conscription rather than complete abolition.[13] However, in December 2010, after taking into consideration of the 2010 ROKS Cheonan sinking and Bombardment of Yeonpyeong incidents, the South Korean government said it would not reduce service periods.[14]

Exemptions for Olympic medalists Edit

Current conscription regulations stipulate that athletes who win medals in the Olympic Games or gold medals in the Asian Games are granted exemptions from military service and are placed in Grade 4.[15] They are required to do four weeks of basic military training and engage in sports field for 34 months. After that, they are automatically placed on the reserve roster, and are obligated to attend a few days of annual military training for six years. In practice, after athletes finish their four weeks of basic military training, they are able to continue their own sports career during the 34 months of duty.[16]

Notable athletes who have been granted exemptions from military service are the bronze medal-winning football team at the 2012 Summer Olympics,[17][18] 2008 Olympic gold medalists badminton player Lee Yong-dae[19] and swimmer Park Tae-hwan[20][21] and 2014 Asian Games gold medalist tennis player Hyeon Chung.[22]

Compensation Edit

The following data is from 'Regulation on Public Servant Compensation', implemented on 1 January 2017.[23] Exchange rate as of 2 May 2018 (₩1077 to $1.00USD)

Private (이등병) Private first class (일등병) Corporal (상등병) Sergeant (병장)

₩163,000

$151.35 (approx) per month ₩176,400

$163.79 (approx) per month ₩195,000

$181.06 (approx) per month ₩216,000

$200.56 (approx) per month

Equipment Edit

The Ministry of National Defense has revealed that it has failed to provide sneakers to 7,411 recruits who joined the military from 22 May to 4 June 2012, after the budget was insufficient for need. The Defense ministry originally projected the cost of each pair of sneakers to be 11,000 KRW. However, the actual cost turned out to be 15,000 KRW.[24]

The office of National Assembly member Kim Kwang-jin of Democratic United Party revealed that cadets in Korea Military Academy were provided with sneakers worth 60,000 KRW and tennis shoes. Cadets in Korea Army Academy at Yeongcheon were provided with sneakers worth 64,250 KRW, in addition to running shoes and soccer shoes.[25]

Dual citizens Edit

For dual citizens, or those with multiple citizenships, male South Koreans must choose their citizenship by the time they turn 18, before March 31 of that year. If these males choose to revoke their South Korean citizenship, they will not be required to complete their mandatory military service. However, if they fail to choose their citizenship by their 18th year, they will be subjected to fulfill their mandatory military service.[26] If males choose to renounce their citizenship by their 18th year, they are ineligible to gain a Korean work visa (F series) until after they turn 40 years of age. It may still be possible to gain an E series visa.

Controversies Edit

The South Korean public is sensitive towards the country's mandatory military service, but also has a low tolerance towards those who attempt to dodge or receive special treatment, especially after scandals of wealthy families caught trying to avoid their national duty. Those found or accused of draft dodging and negligence of duty often face harsh penalties and public backlash. According to Ha Jae-keun, a South Korean pop columnist, "The mood against draft-dodgers and negligence of duty is so hostile that nowadays entertainers feel it's better to get it over and done with".[27][28]

Steve Yoo Edit

In 2002, right before Korean American pop singer Steve Yoo was due to be drafted for his military service, he gave up his Korean nationality and became a naturalized U.S. citizen. He was born in Seoul and migrated to the United States at the age of 13. The South Korean government considered it an act of desertion and deported him, banning him from entering the country permanently.[29]

Song Seung-heon Edit

In late 2004, it was revealed that actor Song Seung-heon had avoided his draft by taking medication to fail the military physical examination. Song had previously been exempted by claiming to have severe diabetes and high blood pressure, but that was found by the South Korean government to be false.[30] Amidst press coverage and public outcry, Song publicly apologized and agreed to immediately serve his two-year term in the military. Song was discharged on 15 November 2006 with the rank of Corporal.[31][32]

MC Mong Edit

On 11 April 2011, rapper MC Mong was cleared of intentionally pulling out healthy teeth to be exempted from military duty but was sentenced to a suspended jail term of 6 months, probation for one year, and 120 hours of community service, for deliberately delaying enlistment on false grounds.[33] The court acknowledged that there was a delay in his military enlistment; however, they were unable to determine whether he was guilty of extracting teeth for the purpose of avoiding his military draft. In September 2011, it was reported that Mong has been banned by Korean Broadcasting System (KBS) and Munhwa Broadcasting Corporation (MBC) from appearing in its TV shows, for draft dodging.[34]

Kim Mu-yeol Edit

In June 2012 Kim Mu-yeol came under growing public criticism over allegations he dodged his compulsory military service. In a report released by the Korean Board of Audit and Inspection (BAI), Kim was deemed fit to serve in active duty as a level two recruit after a March 2001 physical examination. However, throughout 2007 to 2009, Kim was granted postponement on the grounds that he was taking civil service examinations or had been admitted to a work training facility, neither of which took place. During this time he reportedly earned approximately ₩300 million from films, musicals and television work. In December 2009, he received his final notice for enlistment, having used up the 730 days allowed for postponement. He submitted a request to change his military status in January 2010 because of a knee injury, which was rejected. Finally, a valid exemption was granted on the grounds that he was a "low-income individual" and the sole provider for his family. BAI's contention was that Kim's income is substantially higher than the standard for disqualification due to poverty; thus, the Military Manpower Administration was negligent in their duties by granting the exemption.[35][36][37]

Kim's agency Prain TPC defended him, stating that Kim had been supporting his family by working as a security guard, construction worker and at a mobile phone factory since his late teens. When his father collapsed from a cerebral hemorrhage and was diagnosed with cancer in 2008, the treatments incurred a lot of debt for the family. Their worsening financial condition caused them to become totally dependent on Kim, resulting in his said filing for an exemption in 2010.[38] Given the publicity, a reinvestigation into the case was launched and Kim was asked by the production company to leave the film 11 A.M. (he was replaced by Choi Daniel).[39][40] On 4 October 2012, Kim released a statement that though there was no wrongdoing on his part, he had decided to voluntarily enter the army "to recover his honor damaged by the rumors."[41][42]

T.O.P Edit

T.O.P began his two-year mandatory military service on February 9, 2017 as a conscripted police officer, where he was set to be discharged on November 8, 2018 after completing the requirements.[43] However, it was announced in June that he would be prosecuted without detention for use of marijuana.[44] He was subsequently transferred to a different police division to await notice of prosecution, and was suspended from police duty pending verdict on his case.[45] A few days after the announcement, T.O.P was found unconscious in police barracks due to a suspected anti-anxiety medicine overdose of prescribed benzodiazepine,[46] and was hospitalized.[47] On June 8, T.O.P's mother confirmed that her son had opened his eyes and was recovering.[48]

On June 29, T.O.P faced his first trial for the marijuana usage charges at the Seoul Central District Court.[49] He pleaded guilty to the charges against him and admitted that he did smoke marijuana on two out of the four instances.[50] T.O.P received two years of probation, with a possibility of ten months' jail time if he violates any terms.[51] At the second court hearing the following month, T.O.P was sentenced to 10 months in prison suspended for two years for illegal marijuana use.[52] He acknowledged all guilty charges. After undergoing a disciplinary review by the police to decide if T.O.P could return as a conscripted policeman or will complete his service as a public service officer,[53] the Seoul Metropolitan Police Agency reviewed T.O.P's current condition and decided T.O.P is unfit to resume service in his previous position.[54][55] A request was made to Army headquarters for a new position for T.O.P to determine either to serve as a public service worker of a full-time reserve soldier to complete his mandatory service.[56][57] T.O.P was eventually assigned reservist status by the Ministry of National Defense and transferred from police department.[58] He will complete his mandatory service as a public service worker.[59] The time T.O.P had been dismissed from duty during his prosecution will not count towards his total service.[60][61]

Conscientious objection Edit

The right to conscientious objection is not recognised in South Korea.[62] Usually, over 400 people are imprisoned at any one time for refusing military service, for political or religious reasons. This is contrary to international human rights standards and the government of Korea have been repeatedly criticised for not allowing those whose conscience prevents them from joining the military to undertake some kind of substitute service, rather than imprisoning them.

See also Edit

Republic of Korea Armed Forces

Republic of Korea Army

Republic of Korea Marine Corps

Republic of Korea Navy

Republic of Korea Air Force

References Edit

^ "병역이행안내 - 개요(총괄)" [Military Service Implementation Guide - General Overview]. Military Manpower Organization (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-12-28.

^ a b Lee, Namhee (2007). The Making of Minjung: Democracy and the Politics of Representation in South Korea. Cornell University Press. p. 91. ISBN 0801445663.

^ "S. Korea to expand women's role in military". Yonhap News Agency. 2017-12-20. Retrieved 2017-12-28.

^ "Constitution of the Republic of Korea" (PDF). 1987. p. 12. Retrieved 2017-12-27.

^ Kim, Jongcheol (2012). "Constitutional Law". Introduction to Korean Law. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 78. ISBN 3642316891.

^ a b "Military Service Act, Article 8". Korean Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-29.

^ "History". Military Manpower Administration. Retrieved 2017-12-29.

^ "Military Service Act, Article 5". Korean Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-29.

^ "Military Service Act, Articles 10-14". Korean Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-29.

^ Lent, Jesse (2016-04-01). "'Descendants Of The Sun' Star Song Joong Ki Discusses His Time In The South Korean Army". Korea Portal. Retrieved 2017-12-30.

^ "Military Service Act, Article 18". Korea Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-30.

^ "Military Service Act, Articles 26-43". Korea Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-30.

^ "Conscription 'Should Be Phased Out Slowly'". Chosun Ilbo. 2010-07-06. Retrieved 2017-12-30.

^ Kim, Christine (2010-12-22). "Plan to cut compulsory military service scrapped". Korea JoongAng Daily. Retrieved 2017-12-30.

^ "제68조의11(예술ㆍ체육요원의 추천 등) [Article 68-11: Recommendation of arts and sports personnel, etc.]". 병역법 시행령 [Military Service Act Implementation Rules]. South Korea: Ministry of Government Legislation. 29 November 2016. Retrieved 6 April 2018. 법 제33조의7제1항 전단에서 "대통령령으로 정하는 예술·체육 분야의 특기를 가진 사람"이란 다음 각 호의 어느 하나에 해당하는 사람을 말한다. ... 4. 올림픽대회에서 3위 이상으로 입상한 사람(단체경기종목의 경우에는 실제로 출전한 선수만 해당한다) 5. 아시아경기대회에서 1위로 입상한 사람(단체경기종목의 경우에는 실제로 출전한 선수만 해당한다). [In Article 33, Paragraph 7, Subparagraph 2 of the Act, 'a person having special talents in arts and athletics fields, as defined by presidential order' refers to persons to whom are applicable any one of the provisions of the following subparagraphs. ... 4. A person who received a prize for ranked third or above at the Olympics (in the case of team events, only applicable to athletes who actually participated). 5. A person who received a prize for ranking first at the Asian Games (in the case of team events, only applicable to athletes who actually participated).]

^ "리우에서도 떠오른 축구대표팀 '병역특례'".

^ "Footballer to Be Spared Military Service Despite IOC Probe". Chosun Ilbo. 14 August 2012. Retrieved 2 October 2012.

^ "Medal instead of military service". The Hankyoreh. 11 August 2012. Retrieved 25 February 2013.

^ "들쭉날쭉 병역특례기준 '형평성' 논란…병무청 '누적점수제' 추진" (in Korean). Yonhap News Agency. September 30, 2016.

^ "Park Tae-hwan Enters Army Boot Camp". Chosun Ilbo. 5 October 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2012.

^ "Star Swimmer Says Army Boot Camp Helped Him Grow". Chosun Ilbo. 1 November 2012. Retrieved 4 April 2013.

^ "Hyeon Chung Participates In Korean Military Training - ATP World Tour - Tennis - ATP World Tour - Tennis".

^ 공무원보수규정 '별표 13' 군인의 봉급표(제5조 및 별표 1 관련) . Korea Ministry of Government Legislation (in Korean). Retrieved 28 April 2015.

^ 조, 기호 (18 July 2012). "운동화 한 켤레 못 주는 군(軍)!". Seoul Broadcasting System. Retrieved 4 August 2012.

^ "[보도자료] 예산 없다던 국방부, 사관생도에게는 고가 외국브랜드 운동화 지급". Retrieved 4 August 2012.[dead link]

^ "FAQs-Dual Citizens | U.S. Embassy & Consulate in Korea". U.S. Embassy & Consulate in Korea. Retrieved 2017-10-12.

^ "South Korean singer Rain reports for military service". BBC News. 11 October 2011. Retrieved 2011-10-14.

^ Park, Eun-jee (16 January 2013). "Military service mischief a losing battle". Joongang Daily. Archived from the original on 29 June 2013. Retrieved 4 April 2013.

^ Seo, Ji-eun "Steve Yoo isn’t coming back to Korea" Archived 6 January 2013 at the Wayback Machine. Joongang Daily. 20 October 2011. retrieved 2011-11-08

^ (in Korean) "최지우, '승헌이에게 말 걸어볼까?"[permanent dead link] SSTV. 30 June 2009. Retrieved 2011-11-06

^ "Song Seung-heon, Jang Hyeok Discharged from Military" HanCinema. 16 November 2011. Retrieved 2011-10-14

^ (in Korean) "Song Seung-heon discharged from the army"Yahoo News Korea, 2006-11-18. Archived 14 June 2011 at the Wayback Machine.

^ "Rapper Gets Suspended Jail Term for Draft Dodging" Chosun Ilbo. 12 April 2011. Retrieved 2011-10-14

^ "KBS, MBC release list of 36 banned entertainers" Dong-A Ilbo. 28 September 2011. 2011-10-14

^ Sunwoo, Carla (22 June 2012). "Actor Kim Moo-yul was poor enough to dodge military service". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 27 January 2013. Retrieved 6 October 2012.

^ Lee, In-kyung (21 June 2012). "Kim Moo Yul Involved in Military Scandal after Avoiding Duties". enewsWorld. Retrieved 2012-10-06.

^ "High-Paid Actor Exempted from Draft for Poverty". The Chosun Ilbo. 22 June 2012. Retrieved 2012-10-06.

^ Moon, Gwang-lip (25 June 2012). "Agent says Kim Moo-yul's family situation was 'nearly impossible'". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 11 August 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2012.

^ Sunwoo, Carla (10 July 2012). "Kim Moo-yul kicked off movie set". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 26 January 2013. Retrieved 6 October 2012.

^ Sunwoo, Carla (11 July 2012). "Choi Daniel to replace Kim Moo-yul". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 5 August 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2012.

^ Lee, Hye-ji (5 October 2012). "Kim Moo-yeol to Enter Army, Cleaning out Exemption Rumors". 10Asia. Retrieved 2012-11-18.

^ Sunwoo, Carla (11 October 2011). "Kim Moo-yul enlists after rumors". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 26 October 2012. Retrieved 18 November 2012.

^ "BIGBANG's T.O.P confirms military enlistment date". Yibada. November 22, 2016.

^ "The Full Story Behind T.O.P's Drug Scandal, And The Mysterious Trainee Woman". June 2, 2017. Retrieved June 8, 2017.

^ Jun, R. "BIGBANG's T.O.P To Be Dismissed From Duty For Duration of Prosecution". Soompi. Retrieved 8 June 2017.

^ "Medical expert comments on T.O.P's benzodiazepine overdose | allkpop.com". allkpop. Retrieved 2017-06-09.

^ "BIGBANG's T.O.P hospitalized for drug overdose". YonhapNews. June 6, 2017. Retrieved June 6, 2017.

^ "K-pop superstar T.O.P. in intensive care after overdose". BBC. June 8, 2017. Retrieved June 28, 2017.

^ Kim Jung-kyoon (June 30, 2017). "T.O.P admits to all charges at first hearing". Korea JoongAng Daily. Retrieved July 19, 2017.

^ "Big Bang's T.O.P pleads guilty to pot charges". The Jakarta Post. June 30, 2017. Retrieved 2017-07-19.

^ Park Hyeong-taek (June 29, 2017). "[SC현장] 탑, 대마초 4회 흡연 시인…"공소사실 모두 인정"" [[SC scene] Top, smoking four po ... "All the facts of the charges"]. Sports Chosun (in Korean). Retrieved July 19, 2017.

^ Riddhiman Mukhopadhyay (July 20, 2017). "Rapper T.O.P sentenced at final trial: Apologizes to fans for his actions". International Business Times. Retrieved July 21, 2017.

^ "(LEAD) BIGBANG's T.O.P. gets suspended sentence for marijuana use". Yonhap News Agency. July 20, 2017. Retrieved July 20, 2017.

^ "빅뱅 탑, 재복무심사에서 부적합 결론… 의경신분 박탈" [Big Bang tower is inadequate in re-examination ... Deprivation of state]. Sports Chosun (in Korean). July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.

^ "BIGBANG's T.O.P to lose police post after drug conviction". Yonhap News Agency. July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.

^ "탑, 의경 신분 박탈 '재복무 심사서 부적합 판정'" [Top, disqualification of state of rehabilitation]. Starin E-Daily (in Korean). July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.

^ "BigBang rapper T.O.P cannot continue serving military duty as a policeman". Starits Times. July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.

^ Lee Young-jae (August 28, 2017). "'대마초 흡연' 빅뱅 탑, 의경에서 사회복무 요원 됐다". Korea JoongAng Daily (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.

^ Kim Ji-heon (August 28, 2017). "'대마초' 빅뱅 탑, 오늘 의경 전역…사회복무요원으로 근무". Yonhap News Agency (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.

^ Kim Yoo-jin (August 28, 2017). "'대마초 논란' 탑, 보충역 통보받고 오늘 전역…사회복무요원으로 전환". Herald Economy (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.

^ Hae Kyung Heon (August 28, 2017). "대마초 집유판결 탑 결국 사회복무요원으로, 누리꾼 반응 '냉랭'". Sports Khan (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.

^ "Country report and updates: Korea, South - War Resisters' International". www.wri-irg.org.

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Date: October 3rd, 2016 11:12 PM
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Date: May 28th, 2018 11:47 PM
Author: The Sheer Entitled Caucasity

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Conscription in South Korea

Conscription in South Korea has existed since 1957 and requires male citizens between the ages of 18 and 35 to perform about two years of compulsory military service.[1][2] Women are not required to perform military service, but may voluntarily enlist.[3]

Establishment Edit

The basis for military conscription in South Korea is the Constitution of the Republic of Korea, which was promulgated on July 17, 1948. The constitution states in Article 39, "All citizens shall have the duty of national defense under the conditions as prescribed by Act."[4][5] The Military Service Act of 1949, which was implemented in 1957, specified that compulsory military service is required for men ages 18 or older.[6][2] Conscription is managed by the Military Manpower Administration, which was created in 1948.[7]

Requirements Edit

Enlistment and physical exam Edit

By law, when a Korean man turns 18 years old, he is enlisted for "first citizen service," meaning he is liable for military duty, but is not yet required to serve.[6][8] When he turns 19 years old (or, in some instances, 20 years old), he is required to undergo a physical exam to determine whether he is suitable for military service. The table below shows the physical exam's possible grades and their outcomes, according to the Military Service Act.[9]

Grade Description Outcome

1, 2, 3, 4 "Those whose physical and psychological constitution is healthy enough to perform active or supplemental service." "To be enlisted for active duty service, supplemental service or the second citizen service, based on their qualifications, such as educational background and age."

5 "Those incapable of entering active or supplemental service, but capable of entering the second citizen service." "To be enlisted for the second citizen service."

6 "Those incapable of performing military service due to any disease or mental or physical incompetence." "To be exempted from military service."

7 "Those unable to be graded...due to any disease or mental or physical incompetence." "To undergo a follow-up physical examination" within two years.

Service types and length Edit

The length of compulsory military service in South Korea varies based on military branch.[10] Active duty soldiers serve 21 months in the Army or Marine Corps, 23 months in the Navy, and 24 months in the Air Force.[11] After conscripts finish their military service, they are automatically placed on the reserve roster and are obligated to attend a few days of annual military training for 6 years.[citation needed]

Non-active duty personnel, or "supplemental service" personnel serve for various lengths: 24 months for social work personnel or international cooperation service personnel; 34 months for arts and sports personnel or industrial technical personnel; and 36 months for public health doctors, lawyers, veterinarians, or expert researchers.[12]

South Korea currently has among the longest military service periods in the world, ranked behind Israel, Singapore, and North Korea.[citation needed] In 2010, there was growing public pressure to either shorten the length of conscription or to switch to voluntary military service, and calls from experts for a gradual phasing out of conscription rather than complete abolition.[13] However, in December 2010, after taking into consideration of the 2010 ROKS Cheonan sinking and Bombardment of Yeonpyeong incidents, the South Korean government said it would not reduce service periods.[14]

Exemptions for Olympic medalists Edit

Current conscription regulations stipulate that athletes who win medals in the Olympic Games or gold medals in the Asian Games are granted exemptions from military service and are placed in Grade 4.[15] They are required to do four weeks of basic military training and engage in sports field for 34 months. After that, they are automatically placed on the reserve roster, and are obligated to attend a few days of annual military training for six years. In practice, after athletes finish their four weeks of basic military training, they are able to continue their own sports career during the 34 months of duty.[16]

Notable athletes who have been granted exemptions from military service are the bronze medal-winning football team at the 2012 Summer Olympics,[17][18] 2008 Olympic gold medalists badminton player Lee Yong-dae[19] and swimmer Park Tae-hwan[20][21] and 2014 Asian Games gold medalist tennis player Hyeon Chung.[22]

Compensation Edit

The following data is from 'Regulation on Public Servant Compensation', implemented on 1 January 2017.[23] Exchange rate as of 2 May 2018 (₩1077 to $1.00USD)

Private (이등병) Private first class (일등병) Corporal (상등병) Sergeant (병장)

₩163,000

$151.35 (approx) per month ₩176,400

$163.79 (approx) per month ₩195,000

$181.06 (approx) per month ₩216,000

$200.56 (approx) per month

Equipment Edit

The Ministry of National Defense has revealed that it has failed to provide sneakers to 7,411 recruits who joined the military from 22 May to 4 June 2012, after the budget was insufficient for need. The Defense ministry originally projected the cost of each pair of sneakers to be 11,000 KRW. However, the actual cost turned out to be 15,000 KRW.[24]

The office of National Assembly member Kim Kwang-jin of Democratic United Party revealed that cadets in Korea Military Academy were provided with sneakers worth 60,000 KRW and tennis shoes. Cadets in Korea Army Academy at Yeongcheon were provided with sneakers worth 64,250 KRW, in addition to running shoes and soccer shoes.[25]

Dual citizens Edit

For dual citizens, or those with multiple citizenships, male South Koreans must choose their citizenship by the time they turn 18, before March 31 of that year. If these males choose to revoke their South Korean citizenship, they will not be required to complete their mandatory military service. However, if they fail to choose their citizenship by their 18th year, they will be subjected to fulfill their mandatory military service.[26] If males choose to renounce their citizenship by their 18th year, they are ineligible to gain a Korean work visa (F series) until after they turn 40 years of age. It may still be possible to gain an E series visa.

Controversies Edit

The South Korean public is sensitive towards the country's mandatory military service, but also has a low tolerance towards those who attempt to dodge or receive special treatment, especially after scandals of wealthy families caught trying to avoid their national duty. Those found or accused of draft dodging and negligence of duty often face harsh penalties and public backlash. According to Ha Jae-keun, a South Korean pop columnist, "The mood against draft-dodgers and negligence of duty is so hostile that nowadays entertainers feel it's better to get it over and done with".[27][28]

Steve Yoo Edit

In 2002, right before Korean American pop singer Steve Yoo was due to be drafted for his military service, he gave up his Korean nationality and became a naturalized U.S. citizen. He was born in Seoul and migrated to the United States at the age of 13. The South Korean government considered it an act of desertion and deported him, banning him from entering the country permanently.[29]

Song Seung-heon Edit

In late 2004, it was revealed that actor Song Seung-heon had avoided his draft by taking medication to fail the military physical examination. Song had previously been exempted by claiming to have severe diabetes and high blood pressure, but that was found by the South Korean government to be false.[30] Amidst press coverage and public outcry, Song publicly apologized and agreed to immediately serve his two-year term in the military. Song was discharged on 15 November 2006 with the rank of Corporal.[31][32]

MC Mong Edit

On 11 April 2011, rapper MC Mong was cleared of intentionally pulling out healthy teeth to be exempted from military duty but was sentenced to a suspended jail term of 6 months, probation for one year, and 120 hours of community service, for deliberately delaying enlistment on false grounds.[33] The court acknowledged that there was a delay in his military enlistment; however, they were unable to determine whether he was guilty of extracting teeth for the purpose of avoiding his military draft. In September 2011, it was reported that Mong has been banned by Korean Broadcasting System (KBS) and Munhwa Broadcasting Corporation (MBC) from appearing in its TV shows, for draft dodging.[34]

Kim Mu-yeol Edit

In June 2012 Kim Mu-yeol came under growing public criticism over allegations he dodged his compulsory military service. In a report released by the Korean Board of Audit and Inspection (BAI), Kim was deemed fit to serve in active duty as a level two recruit after a March 2001 physical examination. However, throughout 2007 to 2009, Kim was granted postponement on the grounds that he was taking civil service examinations or had been admitted to a work training facility, neither of which took place. During this time he reportedly earned approximately ₩300 million from films, musicals and television work. In December 2009, he received his final notice for enlistment, having used up the 730 days allowed for postponement. He submitted a request to change his military status in January 2010 because of a knee injury, which was rejected. Finally, a valid exemption was granted on the grounds that he was a "low-income individual" and the sole provider for his family. BAI's contention was that Kim's income is substantially higher than the standard for disqualification due to poverty; thus, the Military Manpower Administration was negligent in their duties by granting the exemption.[35][36][37]

Kim's agency Prain TPC defended him, stating that Kim had been supporting his family by working as a security guard, construction worker and at a mobile phone factory since his late teens. When his father collapsed from a cerebral hemorrhage and was diagnosed with cancer in 2008, the treatments incurred a lot of debt for the family. Their worsening financial condition caused them to become totally dependent on Kim, resulting in his said filing for an exemption in 2010.[38] Given the publicity, a reinvestigation into the case was launched and Kim was asked by the production company to leave the film 11 A.M. (he was replaced by Choi Daniel).[39][40] On 4 October 2012, Kim released a statement that though there was no wrongdoing on his part, he had decided to voluntarily enter the army "to recover his honor damaged by the rumors."[41][42]

T.O.P Edit

T.O.P began his two-year mandatory military service on February 9, 2017 as a conscripted police officer, where he was set to be discharged on November 8, 2018 after completing the requirements.[43] However, it was announced in June that he would be prosecuted without detention for use of marijuana.[44] He was subsequently transferred to a different police division to await notice of prosecution, and was suspended from police duty pending verdict on his case.[45] A few days after the announcement, T.O.P was found unconscious in police barracks due to a suspected anti-anxiety medicine overdose of prescribed benzodiazepine,[46] and was hospitalized.[47] On June 8, T.O.P's mother confirmed that her son had opened his eyes and was recovering.[48]

On June 29, T.O.P faced his first trial for the marijuana usage charges at the Seoul Central District Court.[49] He pleaded guilty to the charges against him and admitted that he did smoke marijuana on two out of the four instances.[50] T.O.P received two years of probation, with a possibility of ten months' jail time if he violates any terms.[51] At the second court hearing the following month, T.O.P was sentenced to 10 months in prison suspended for two years for illegal marijuana use.[52] He acknowledged all guilty charges. After undergoing a disciplinary review by the police to decide if T.O.P could return as a conscripted policeman or will complete his service as a public service officer,[53] the Seoul Metropolitan Police Agency reviewed T.O.P's current condition and decided T.O.P is unfit to resume service in his previous position.[54][55] A request was made to Army headquarters for a new position for T.O.P to determine either to serve as a public service worker of a full-time reserve soldier to complete his mandatory service.[56][57] T.O.P was eventually assigned reservist status by the Ministry of National Defense and transferred from police department.[58] He will complete his mandatory service as a public service worker.[59] The time T.O.P had been dismissed from duty during his prosecution will not count towards his total service.[60][61]

Conscientious objection Edit

The right to conscientious objection is not recognised in South Korea.[62] Usually, over 400 people are imprisoned at any one time for refusing military service, for political or religious reasons. This is contrary to international human rights standards and the government of Korea have been repeatedly criticised for not allowing those whose conscience prevents them from joining the military to undertake some kind of substitute service, rather than imprisoning them.

See also Edit

Republic of Korea Armed Forces

Republic of Korea Army

Republic of Korea Marine Corps

Republic of Korea Navy

Republic of Korea Air Force

References Edit

^ "병역이행안내 - 개요(총괄)" [Military Service Implementation Guide - General Overview]. Military Manpower Organization (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-12-28.

^ a b Lee, Namhee (2007). The Making of Minjung: Democracy and the Politics of Representation in South Korea. Cornell University Press. p. 91. ISBN 0801445663.

^ "S. Korea to expand women's role in military". Yonhap News Agency. 2017-12-20. Retrieved 2017-12-28.

^ "Constitution of the Republic of Korea" (PDF). 1987. p. 12. Retrieved 2017-12-27.

^ Kim, Jongcheol (2012). "Constitutional Law". Introduction to Korean Law. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 78. ISBN 3642316891.

^ a b "Military Service Act, Article 8". Korean Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-29.

^ "History". Military Manpower Administration. Retrieved 2017-12-29.

^ "Military Service Act, Article 5". Korean Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-29.

^ "Military Service Act, Articles 10-14". Korean Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-29.

^ Lent, Jesse (2016-04-01). "'Descendants Of The Sun' Star Song Joong Ki Discusses His Time In The South Korean Army". Korea Portal. Retrieved 2017-12-30.

^ "Military Service Act, Article 18". Korea Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-30.

^ "Military Service Act, Articles 26-43". Korea Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-30.

^ "Conscription 'Should Be Phased Out Slowly'". Chosun Ilbo. 2010-07-06. Retrieved 2017-12-30.

^ Kim, Christine (2010-12-22). "Plan to cut compulsory military service scrapped". Korea JoongAng Daily. Retrieved 2017-12-30.

^ "제68조의11(예술ㆍ체육요원의 추천 등) [Article 68-11: Recommendation of arts and sports personnel, etc.]". 병역법 시행령 [Military Service Act Implementation Rules]. South Korea: Ministry of Government Legislation. 29 November 2016. Retrieved 6 April 2018. 법 제33조의7제1항 전단에서 "대통령령으로 정하는 예술·체육 분야의 특기를 가진 사람"이란 다음 각 호의 어느 하나에 해당하는 사람을 말한다. ... 4. 올림픽대회에서 3위 이상으로 입상한 사람(단체경기종목의 경우에는 실제로 출전한 선수만 해당한다) 5. 아시아경기대회에서 1위로 입상한 사람(단체경기종목의 경우에는 실제로 출전한 선수만 해당한다). [In Article 33, Paragraph 7, Subparagraph 2 of the Act, 'a person having special talents in arts and athletics fields, as defined by presidential order' refers to persons to whom are applicable any one of the provisions of the following subparagraphs. ... 4. A person who received a prize for ranked third or above at the Olympics (in the case of team events, only applicable to athletes who actually participated). 5. A person who received a prize for ranking first at the Asian Games (in the case of team events, only applicable to athletes who actually participated).]

^ "리우에서도 떠오른 축구대표팀 '병역특례'".

^ "Footballer to Be Spared Military Service Despite IOC Probe". Chosun Ilbo. 14 August 2012. Retrieved 2 October 2012.

^ "Medal instead of military service". The Hankyoreh. 11 August 2012. Retrieved 25 February 2013.

^ "들쭉날쭉 병역특례기준 '형평성' 논란…병무청 '누적점수제' 추진" (in Korean). Yonhap News Agency. September 30, 2016.

^ "Park Tae-hwan Enters Army Boot Camp". Chosun Ilbo. 5 October 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2012.

^ "Star Swimmer Says Army Boot Camp Helped Him Grow". Chosun Ilbo. 1 November 2012. Retrieved 4 April 2013.

^ "Hyeon Chung Participates In Korean Military Training - ATP World Tour - Tennis - ATP World Tour - Tennis".

^ 공무원보수규정 '별표 13' 군인의 봉급표(제5조 및 별표 1 관련) . Korea Ministry of Government Legislation (in Korean). Retrieved 28 April 2015.

^ 조, 기호 (18 July 2012). "운동화 한 켤레 못 주는 군(軍)!". Seoul Broadcasting System. Retrieved 4 August 2012.

^ "[보도자료] 예산 없다던 국방부, 사관생도에게는 고가 외국브랜드 운동화 지급". Retrieved 4 August 2012.[dead link]

^ "FAQs-Dual Citizens | U.S. Embassy & Consulate in Korea". U.S. Embassy & Consulate in Korea. Retrieved 2017-10-12.

^ "South Korean singer Rain reports for military service". BBC News. 11 October 2011. Retrieved 2011-10-14.

^ Park, Eun-jee (16 January 2013). "Military service mischief a losing battle". Joongang Daily. Archived from the original on 29 June 2013. Retrieved 4 April 2013.

^ Seo, Ji-eun "Steve Yoo isn’t coming back to Korea" Archived 6 January 2013 at the Wayback Machine. Joongang Daily. 20 October 2011. retrieved 2011-11-08

^ (in Korean) "최지우, '승헌이에게 말 걸어볼까?"[permanent dead link] SSTV. 30 June 2009. Retrieved 2011-11-06

^ "Song Seung-heon, Jang Hyeok Discharged from Military" HanCinema. 16 November 2011. Retrieved 2011-10-14

^ (in Korean) "Song Seung-heon discharged from the army"Yahoo News Korea, 2006-11-18. Archived 14 June 2011 at the Wayback Machine.

^ "Rapper Gets Suspended Jail Term for Draft Dodging" Chosun Ilbo. 12 April 2011. Retrieved 2011-10-14

^ "KBS, MBC release list of 36 banned entertainers" Dong-A Ilbo. 28 September 2011. 2011-10-14

^ Sunwoo, Carla (22 June 2012). "Actor Kim Moo-yul was poor enough to dodge military service". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 27 January 2013. Retrieved 6 October 2012.

^ Lee, In-kyung (21 June 2012). "Kim Moo Yul Involved in Military Scandal after Avoiding Duties". enewsWorld. Retrieved 2012-10-06.

^ "High-Paid Actor Exempted from Draft for Poverty". The Chosun Ilbo. 22 June 2012. Retrieved 2012-10-06.

^ Moon, Gwang-lip (25 June 2012). "Agent says Kim Moo-yul's family situation was 'nearly impossible'". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 11 August 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2012.

^ Sunwoo, Carla (10 July 2012). "Kim Moo-yul kicked off movie set". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 26 January 2013. Retrieved 6 October 2012.

^ Sunwoo, Carla (11 July 2012). "Choi Daniel to replace Kim Moo-yul". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 5 August 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2012.

^ Lee, Hye-ji (5 October 2012). "Kim Moo-yeol to Enter Army, Cleaning out Exemption Rumors". 10Asia. Retrieved 2012-11-18.

^ Sunwoo, Carla (11 October 2011). "Kim Moo-yul enlists after rumors". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 26 October 2012. Retrieved 18 November 2012.

^ "BIGBANG's T.O.P confirms military enlistment date". Yibada. November 22, 2016.

^ "The Full Story Behind T.O.P's Drug Scandal, And The Mysterious Trainee Woman". June 2, 2017. Retrieved June 8, 2017.

^ Jun, R. "BIGBANG's T.O.P To Be Dismissed From Duty For Duration of Prosecution". Soompi. Retrieved 8 June 2017.

^ "Medical expert comments on T.O.P's benzodiazepine overdose | allkpop.com". allkpop. Retrieved 2017-06-09.

^ "BIGBANG's T.O.P hospitalized for drug overdose". YonhapNews. June 6, 2017. Retrieved June 6, 2017.

^ "K-pop superstar T.O.P. in intensive care after overdose". BBC. June 8, 2017. Retrieved June 28, 2017.

^ Kim Jung-kyoon (June 30, 2017). "T.O.P admits to all charges at first hearing". Korea JoongAng Daily. Retrieved July 19, 2017.

^ "Big Bang's T.O.P pleads guilty to pot charges". The Jakarta Post. June 30, 2017. Retrieved 2017-07-19.

^ Park Hyeong-taek (June 29, 2017). "[SC현장] 탑, 대마초 4회 흡연 시인…"공소사실 모두 인정"" [[SC scene] Top, smoking four po ... "All the facts of the charges"]. Sports Chosun (in Korean). Retrieved July 19, 2017.

^ Riddhiman Mukhopadhyay (July 20, 2017). "Rapper T.O.P sentenced at final trial: Apologizes to fans for his actions". International Business Times. Retrieved July 21, 2017.

^ "(LEAD) BIGBANG's T.O.P. gets suspended sentence for marijuana use". Yonhap News Agency. July 20, 2017. Retrieved July 20, 2017.

^ "빅뱅 탑, 재복무심사에서 부적합 결론… 의경신분 박탈" [Big Bang tower is inadequate in re-examination ... Deprivation of state]. Sports Chosun (in Korean). July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.

^ "BIGBANG's T.O.P to lose police post after drug conviction". Yonhap News Agency. July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.

^ "탑, 의경 신분 박탈 '재복무 심사서 부적합 판정'" [Top, disqualification of state of rehabilitation]. Starin E-Daily (in Korean). July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.

^ "BigBang rapper T.O.P cannot continue serving military duty as a policeman". Starits Times. July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.

^ Lee Young-jae (August 28, 2017). "'대마초 흡연' 빅뱅 탑, 의경에서 사회복무 요원 됐다". Korea JoongAng Daily (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.

^ Kim Ji-heon (August 28, 2017). "'대마초' 빅뱅 탑, 오늘 의경 전역…사회복무요원으로 근무". Yonhap News Agency (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.

^ Kim Yoo-jin (August 28, 2017). "'대마초 논란' 탑, 보충역 통보받고 오늘 전역…사회복무요원으로 전환". Herald Economy (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.

^ Hae Kyung Heon (August 28, 2017). "대마초 집유판결 탑 결국 사회복무요원으로, 누리꾼 반응 '냉랭'". Sports Khan (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.

^ "Country report and updates: Korea, South - War Resisters' International". www.wri-irg.org.

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Conscription in South Korea

Conscription in South Korea has existed since 1957 and requires male citizens between the ages of 18 and 35 to perform about two years of compulsory military service.[1][2] Women are not required to perform military service, but may voluntarily enlist.[3]

Establishment Edit

The basis for military conscription in South Korea is the Constitution of the Republic of Korea, which was promulgated on July 17, 1948. The constitution states in Article 39, "All citizens shall have the duty of national defense under the conditions as prescribed by Act."[4][5] The Military Service Act of 1949, which was implemented in 1957, specified that compulsory military service is required for men ages 18 or older.[6][2] Conscription is managed by the Military Manpower Administration, which was created in 1948.[7]

Requirements Edit

Enlistment and physical exam Edit

By law, when a Korean man turns 18 years old, he is enlisted for "first citizen service," meaning he is liable for military duty, but is not yet required to serve.[6][8] When he turns 19 years old (or, in some instances, 20 years old), he is required to undergo a physical exam to determine whether he is suitable for military service. The table below shows the physical exam's possible grades and their outcomes, according to the Military Service Act.[9]

Grade Description Outcome

1, 2, 3, 4 "Those whose physical and psychological constitution is healthy enough to perform active or supplemental service." "To be enlisted for active duty service, supplemental service or the second citizen service, based on their qualifications, such as educational background and age."

5 "Those incapable of entering active or supplemental service, but capable of entering the second citizen service." "To be enlisted for the second citizen service."

6 "Those incapable of performing military service due to any disease or mental or physical incompetence." "To be exempted from military service."

7 "Those unable to be graded...due to any disease or mental or physical incompetence." "To undergo a follow-up physical examination" within two years.

Service types and length Edit

The length of compulsory military service in South Korea varies based on military branch.[10] Active duty soldiers serve 21 months in the Army or Marine Corps, 23 months in the Navy, and 24 months in the Air Force.[11] After conscripts finish their military service, they are automatically placed on the reserve roster and are obligated to attend a few days of annual military training for 6 years.[citation needed]

Non-active duty personnel, or "supplemental service" personnel serve for various lengths: 24 months for social work personnel or international cooperation service personnel; 34 months for arts and sports personnel or industrial technical personnel; and 36 months for public health doctors, lawyers, veterinarians, or expert researchers.[12]

South Korea currently has among the longest military service periods in the world, ranked behind Israel, Singapore, and North Korea.[citation needed] In 2010, there was growing public pressure to either shorten the length of conscription or to switch to voluntary military service, and calls from experts for a gradual phasing out of conscription rather than complete abolition.[13] However, in December 2010, after taking into consideration of the 2010 ROKS Cheonan sinking and Bombardment of Yeonpyeong incidents, the South Korean government said it would not reduce service periods.[14]

Exemptions for Olympic medalists Edit

Current conscription regulations stipulate that athletes who win medals in the Olympic Games or gold medals in the Asian Games are granted exemptions from military service and are placed in Grade 4.[15] They are required to do four weeks of basic military training and engage in sports field for 34 months. After that, they are automatically placed on the reserve roster, and are obligated to attend a few days of annual military training for six years. In practice, after athletes finish their four weeks of basic military training, they are able to continue their own sports career during the 34 months of duty.[16]

Notable athletes who have been granted exemptions from military service are the bronze medal-winning football team at the 2012 Summer Olympics,[17][18] 2008 Olympic gold medalists badminton player Lee Yong-dae[19] and swimmer Park Tae-hwan[20][21] and 2014 Asian Games gold medalist tennis player Hyeon Chung.[22]

Compensation Edit

The following data is from 'Regulation on Public Servant Compensation', implemented on 1 January 2017.[23] Exchange rate as of 2 May 2018 (₩1077 to $1.00USD)

Private (이등병) Private first class (일등병) Corporal (상등병) Sergeant (병장)

₩163,000

$151.35 (approx) per month ₩176,400

$163.79 (approx) per month ₩195,000

$181.06 (approx) per month ₩216,000

$200.56 (approx) per month

Equipment Edit

The Ministry of National Defense has revealed that it has failed to provide sneakers to 7,411 recruits who joined the military from 22 May to 4 June 2012, after the budget was insufficient for need. The Defense ministry originally projected the cost of each pair of sneakers to be 11,000 KRW. However, the actual cost turned out to be 15,000 KRW.[24]

The office of National Assembly member Kim Kwang-jin of Democratic United Party revealed that cadets in Korea Military Academy were provided with sneakers worth 60,000 KRW and tennis shoes. Cadets in Korea Army Academy at Yeongcheon were provided with sneakers worth 64,250 KRW, in addition to running shoes and soccer shoes.[25]

Dual citizens Edit

For dual citizens, or those with multiple citizenships, male South Koreans must choose their citizenship by the time they turn 18, before March 31 of that year. If these males choose to revoke their South Korean citizenship, they will not be required to complete their mandatory military service. However, if they fail to choose their citizenship by their 18th year, they will be subjected to fulfill their mandatory military service.[26] If males choose to renounce their citizenship by their 18th year, they are ineligible to gain a Korean work visa (F series) until after they turn 40 years of age. It may still be possible to gain an E series visa.

Controversies Edit

The South Korean public is sensitive towards the country's mandatory military service, but also has a low tolerance towards those who attempt to dodge or receive special treatment, especially after scandals of wealthy families caught trying to avoid their national duty. Those found or accused of draft dodging and negligence of duty often face harsh penalties and public backlash. According to Ha Jae-keun, a South Korean pop columnist, "The mood against draft-dodgers and negligence of duty is so hostile that nowadays entertainers feel it's better to get it over and done with".[27][28]

Steve Yoo Edit

In 2002, right before Korean American pop singer Steve Yoo was due to be drafted for his military service, he gave up his Korean nationality and became a naturalized U.S. citizen. He was born in Seoul and migrated to the United States at the age of 13. The South Korean government considered it an act of desertion and deported him, banning him from entering the country permanently.[29]

Song Seung-heon Edit

In late 2004, it was revealed that actor Song Seung-heon had avoided his draft by taking medication to fail the military physical examination. Song had previously been exempted by claiming to have severe diabetes and high blood pressure, but that was found by the South Korean government to be false.[30] Amidst press coverage and public outcry, Song publicly apologized and agreed to immediately serve his two-year term in the military. Song was discharged on 15 November 2006 with the rank of Corporal.[31][32]

MC Mong Edit

On 11 April 2011, rapper MC Mong was cleared of intentionally pulling out healthy teeth to be exempted from military duty but was sentenced to a suspended jail term of 6 months, probation for one year, and 120 hours of community service, for deliberately delaying enlistment on false grounds.[33] The court acknowledged that there was a delay in his military enlistment; however, they were unable to determine whether he was guilty of extracting teeth for the purpose of avoiding his military draft. In September 2011, it was reported that Mong has been banned by Korean Broadcasting System (KBS) and Munhwa Broadcasting Corporation (MBC) from appearing in its TV shows, for draft dodging.[34]

Kim Mu-yeol Edit

In June 2012 Kim Mu-yeol came under growing public criticism over allegations he dodged his compulsory military service. In a report released by the Korean Board of Audit and Inspection (BAI), Kim was deemed fit to serve in active duty as a level two recruit after a March 2001 physical examination. However, throughout 2007 to 2009, Kim was granted postponement on the grounds that he was taking civil service examinations or had been admitted to a work training facility, neither of which took place. During this time he reportedly earned approximately ₩300 million from films, musicals and television work. In December 2009, he received his final notice for enlistment, having used up the 730 days allowed for postponement. He submitted a request to change his military status in January 2010 because of a knee injury, which was rejected. Finally, a valid exemption was granted on the grounds that he was a "low-income individual" and the sole provider for his family. BAI's contention was that Kim's income is substantially higher than the standard for disqualification due to poverty; thus, the Military Manpower Administration was negligent in their duties by granting the exemption.[35][36][37]

Kim's agency Prain TPC defended him, stating that Kim had been supporting his family by working as a security guard, construction worker and at a mobile phone factory since his late teens. When his father collapsed from a cerebral hemorrhage and was diagnosed with cancer in 2008, the treatments incurred a lot of debt for the family. Their worsening financial condition caused them to become totally dependent on Kim, resulting in his said filing for an exemption in 2010.[38] Given the publicity, a reinvestigation into the case was launched and Kim was asked by the production company to leave the film 11 A.M. (he was replaced by Choi Daniel).[39][40] On 4 October 2012, Kim released a statement that though there was no wrongdoing on his part, he had decided to voluntarily enter the army "to recover his honor damaged by the rumors."[41][42]

T.O.P Edit

T.O.P began his two-year mandatory military service on February 9, 2017 as a conscripted police officer, where he was set to be discharged on November 8, 2018 after completing the requirements.[43] However, it was announced in June that he would be prosecuted without detention for use of marijuana.[44] He was subsequently transferred to a different police division to await notice of prosecution, and was suspended from police duty pending verdict on his case.[45] A few days after the announcement, T.O.P was found unconscious in police barracks due to a suspected anti-anxiety medicine overdose of prescribed benzodiazepine,[46] and was hospitalized.[47] On June 8, T.O.P's mother confirmed that her son had opened his eyes and was recovering.[48]

On June 29, T.O.P faced his first trial for the marijuana usage charges at the Seoul Central District Court.[49] He pleaded guilty to the charges against him and admitted that he did smoke marijuana on two out of the four instances.[50] T.O.P received two years of probation, with a possibility of ten months' jail time if he violates any terms.[51] At the second court hearing the following month, T.O.P was sentenced to 10 months in prison suspended for two years for illegal marijuana use.[52] He acknowledged all guilty charges. After undergoing a disciplinary review by the police to decide if T.O.P could return as a conscripted policeman or will complete his service as a public service officer,[53] the Seoul Metropolitan Police Agency reviewed T.O.P's current condition and decided T.O.P is unfit to resume service in his previous position.[54][55] A request was made to Army headquarters for a new position for T.O.P to determine either to serve as a public service worker of a full-time reserve soldier to complete his mandatory service.[56][57] T.O.P was eventually assigned reservist status by the Ministry of National Defense and transferred from police department.[58] He will complete his mandatory service as a public service worker.[59] The time T.O.P had been dismissed from duty during his prosecution will not count towards his total service.[60][61]

Conscientious objection Edit

The right to conscientious objection is not recognised in South Korea.[62] Usually, over 400 people are imprisoned at any one time for refusing military service, for political or religious reasons. This is contrary to international human rights standards and the government of Korea have been repeatedly criticised for not allowing those whose conscience prevents them from joining the military to undertake some kind of substitute service, rather than imprisoning them.

See also Edit

Republic of Korea Armed Forces

Republic of Korea Army

Republic of Korea Marine Corps

Republic of Korea Navy

Republic of Korea Air Force

References Edit

^ "병역이행안내 - 개요(총괄)" [Military Service Implementation Guide - General Overview]. Military Manpower Organization (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-12-28.

^ a b Lee, Namhee (2007). The Making of Minjung: Democracy and the Politics of Representation in South Korea. Cornell University Press. p. 91. ISBN 0801445663.

^ "S. Korea to expand women's role in military". Yonhap News Agency. 2017-12-20. Retrieved 2017-12-28.

^ "Constitution of the Republic of Korea" (PDF). 1987. p. 12. Retrieved 2017-12-27.

^ Kim, Jongcheol (2012). "Constitutional Law". Introduction to Korean Law. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 78. ISBN 3642316891.

^ a b "Military Service Act, Article 8". Korean Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-29.

^ "History". Military Manpower Administration. Retrieved 2017-12-29.

^ "Military Service Act, Article 5". Korean Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-29.

^ "Military Service Act, Articles 10-14". Korean Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-29.

^ Lent, Jesse (2016-04-01). "'Descendants Of The Sun' Star Song Joong Ki Discusses His Time In The South Korean Army". Korea Portal. Retrieved 2017-12-30.

^ "Military Service Act, Article 18". Korea Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-30.

^ "Military Service Act, Articles 26-43". Korea Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-30.

^ "Conscription 'Should Be Phased Out Slowly'". Chosun Ilbo. 2010-07-06. Retrieved 2017-12-30.

^ Kim, Christine (2010-12-22). "Plan to cut compulsory military service scrapped". Korea JoongAng Daily. Retrieved 2017-12-30.

^ "제68조의11(예술ㆍ체육요원의 추천 등) [Article 68-11: Recommendation of arts and sports personnel, etc.]". 병역법 시행령 [Military Service Act Implementation Rules]. South Korea: Ministry of Government Legislation. 29 November 2016. Retrieved 6 April 2018. 법 제33조의7제1항 전단에서 "대통령령으로 정하는 예술·체육 분야의 특기를 가진 사람"이란 다음 각 호의 어느 하나에 해당하는 사람을 말한다. ... 4. 올림픽대회에서 3위 이상으로 입상한 사람(단체경기종목의 경우에는 실제로 출전한 선수만 해당한다) 5. 아시아경기대회에서 1위로 입상한 사람(단체경기종목의 경우에는 실제로 출전한 선수만 해당한다). [In Article 33, Paragraph 7, Subparagraph 2 of the Act, 'a person having special talents in arts and athletics fields, as defined by presidential order' refers to persons to whom are applicable any one of the provisions of the following subparagraphs. ... 4. A person who received a prize for ranked third or above at the Olympics (in the case of team events, only applicable to athletes who actually participated). 5. A person who received a prize for ranking first at the Asian Games (in the case of team events, only applicable to athletes who actually participated).]

^ "리우에서도 떠오른 축구대표팀 '병역특례'".

^ "Footballer to Be Spared Military Service Despite IOC Probe". Chosun Ilbo. 14 August 2012. Retrieved 2 October 2012.

^ "Medal instead of military service". The Hankyoreh. 11 August 2012. Retrieved 25 February 2013.

^ "들쭉날쭉 병역특례기준 '형평성' 논란…병무청 '누적점수제' 추진" (in Korean). Yonhap News Agency. September 30, 2016.

^ "Park Tae-hwan Enters Army Boot Camp". Chosun Ilbo. 5 October 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2012.

^ "Star Swimmer Says Army Boot Camp Helped Him Grow". Chosun Ilbo. 1 November 2012. Retrieved 4 April 2013.

^ "Hyeon Chung Participates In Korean Military Training - ATP World Tour - Tennis - ATP World Tour - Tennis".

^ 공무원보수규정 '별표 13' 군인의 봉급표(제5조 및 별표 1 관련) . Korea Ministry of Government Legislation (in Korean). Retrieved 28 April 2015.

^ 조, 기호 (18 July 2012). "운동화 한 켤레 못 주는 군(軍)!". Seoul Broadcasting System. Retrieved 4 August 2012.

^ "[보도자료] 예산 없다던 국방부, 사관생도에게는 고가 외국브랜드 운동화 지급". Retrieved 4 August 2012.[dead link]

^ "FAQs-Dual Citizens | U.S. Embassy & Consulate in Korea". U.S. Embassy & Consulate in Korea. Retrieved 2017-10-12.

^ "South Korean singer Rain reports for military service". BBC News. 11 October 2011. Retrieved 2011-10-14.

^ Park, Eun-jee (16 January 2013). "Military service mischief a losing battle". Joongang Daily. Archived from the original on 29 June 2013. Retrieved 4 April 2013.

^ Seo, Ji-eun "Steve Yoo isn’t coming back to Korea" Archived 6 January 2013 at the Wayback Machine. Joongang Daily. 20 October 2011. retrieved 2011-11-08

^ (in Korean) "최지우, '승헌이에게 말 걸어볼까?"[permanent dead link] SSTV. 30 June 2009. Retrieved 2011-11-06

^ "Song Seung-heon, Jang Hyeok Discharged from Military" HanCinema. 16 November 2011. Retrieved 2011-10-14

^ (in Korean) "Song Seung-heon discharged from the army"Yahoo News Korea, 2006-11-18. Archived 14 June 2011 at the Wayback Machine.

^ "Rapper Gets Suspended Jail Term for Draft Dodging" Chosun Ilbo. 12 April 2011. Retrieved 2011-10-14

^ "KBS, MBC release list of 36 banned entertainers" Dong-A Ilbo. 28 September 2011. 2011-10-14

^ Sunwoo, Carla (22 June 2012). "Actor Kim Moo-yul was poor enough to dodge military service". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 27 January 2013. Retrieved 6 October 2012.

^ Lee, In-kyung (21 June 2012). "Kim Moo Yul Involved in Military Scandal after Avoiding Duties". enewsWorld. Retrieved 2012-10-06.

^ "High-Paid Actor Exempted from Draft for Poverty". The Chosun Ilbo. 22 June 2012. Retrieved 2012-10-06.

^ Moon, Gwang-lip (25 June 2012). "Agent says Kim Moo-yul's family situation was 'nearly impossible'". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 11 August 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2012.

^ Sunwoo, Carla (10 July 2012). "Kim Moo-yul kicked off movie set". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 26 January 2013. Retrieved 6 October 2012.

^ Sunwoo, Carla (11 July 2012). "Choi Daniel to replace Kim Moo-yul". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 5 August 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2012.

^ Lee, Hye-ji (5 October 2012). "Kim Moo-yeol to Enter Army, Cleaning out Exemption Rumors". 10Asia. Retrieved 2012-11-18.

^ Sunwoo, Carla (11 October 2011). "Kim Moo-yul enlists after rumors". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 26 October 2012. Retrieved 18 November 2012.

^ "BIGBANG's T.O.P confirms military enlistment date". Yibada. November 22, 2016.

^ "The Full Story Behind T.O.P's Drug Scandal, And The Mysterious Trainee Woman". June 2, 2017. Retrieved June 8, 2017.

^ Jun, R. "BIGBANG's T.O.P To Be Dismissed From Duty For Duration of Prosecution". Soompi. Retrieved 8 June 2017.

^ "Medical expert comments on T.O.P's benzodiazepine overdose | allkpop.com". allkpop. Retrieved 2017-06-09.

^ "BIGBANG's T.O.P hospitalized for drug overdose". YonhapNews. June 6, 2017. Retrieved June 6, 2017.

^ "K-pop superstar T.O.P. in intensive care after overdose". BBC. June 8, 2017. Retrieved June 28, 2017.

^ Kim Jung-kyoon (June 30, 2017). "T.O.P admits to all charges at first hearing". Korea JoongAng Daily. Retrieved July 19, 2017.

^ "Big Bang's T.O.P pleads guilty to pot charges". The Jakarta Post. June 30, 2017. Retrieved 2017-07-19.

^ Park Hyeong-taek (June 29, 2017). "[SC현장] 탑, 대마초 4회 흡연 시인…"공소사실 모두 인정"" [[SC scene] Top, smoking four po ... "All the facts of the charges"]. Sports Chosun (in Korean). Retrieved July 19, 2017.

^ Riddhiman Mukhopadhyay (July 20, 2017). "Rapper T.O.P sentenced at final trial: Apologizes to fans for his actions". International Business Times. Retrieved July 21, 2017.

^ "(LEAD) BIGBANG's T.O.P. gets suspended sentence for marijuana use". Yonhap News Agency. July 20, 2017. Retrieved July 20, 2017.

^ "빅뱅 탑, 재복무심사에서 부적합 결론… 의경신분 박탈" [Big Bang tower is inadequate in re-examination ... Deprivation of state]. Sports Chosun (in Korean). July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.

^ "BIGBANG's T.O.P to lose police post after drug conviction". Yonhap News Agency. July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.

^ "탑, 의경 신분 박탈 '재복무 심사서 부적합 판정'" [Top, disqualification of state of rehabilitation]. Starin E-Daily (in Korean). July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.

^ "BigBang rapper T.O.P cannot continue serving military duty as a policeman". Starits Times. July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.

^ Lee Young-jae (August 28, 2017). "'대마초 흡연' 빅뱅 탑, 의경에서 사회복무 요원 됐다". Korea JoongAng Daily (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.

^ Kim Ji-heon (August 28, 2017). "'대마초' 빅뱅 탑, 오늘 의경 전역…사회복무요원으로 근무". Yonhap News Agency (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.

^ Kim Yoo-jin (August 28, 2017). "'대마초 논란' 탑, 보충역 통보받고 오늘 전역…사회복무요원으로 전환". Herald Economy (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.

^ Hae Kyung Heon (August 28, 2017). "대마초 집유판결 탑 결국 사회복무요원으로, 누리꾼 반응 '냉랭'". Sports Khan (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.

^ "Country report and updates: Korea, South - War Resisters' International". www.wri-irg.org.

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Date: May 28th, 2018 11:48 PM
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Wikipedia Search

EditWatch this pageRead in another language

Conscription in South Korea

Conscription in South Korea has existed since 1957 and requires male citizens between the ages of 18 and 35 to perform about two years of compulsory military service.[1][2] Women are not required to perform military service, but may voluntarily enlist.[3]

Establishment Edit

The basis for military conscription in South Korea is the Constitution of the Republic of Korea, which was promulgated on July 17, 1948. The constitution states in Article 39, "All citizens shall have the duty of national defense under the conditions as prescribed by Act."[4][5] The Military Service Act of 1949, which was implemented in 1957, specified that compulsory military service is required for men ages 18 or older.[6][2] Conscription is managed by the Military Manpower Administration, which was created in 1948.[7]

Requirements Edit

Enlistment and physical exam Edit

By law, when a Korean man turns 18 years old, he is enlisted for "first citizen service," meaning he is liable for military duty, but is not yet required to serve.[6][8] When he turns 19 years old (or, in some instances, 20 years old), he is required to undergo a physical exam to determine whether he is suitable for military service. The table below shows the physical exam's possible grades and their outcomes, according to the Military Service Act.[9]

Grade Description Outcome

1, 2, 3, 4 "Those whose physical and psychological constitution is healthy enough to perform active or supplemental service." "To be enlisted for active duty service, supplemental service or the second citizen service, based on their qualifications, such as educational background and age."

5 "Those incapable of entering active or supplemental service, but capable of entering the second citizen service." "To be enlisted for the second citizen service."

6 "Those incapable of performing military service due to any disease or mental or physical incompetence." "To be exempted from military service."

7 "Those unable to be graded...due to any disease or mental or physical incompetence." "To undergo a follow-up physical examination" within two years.

Service types and length Edit

The length of compulsory military service in South Korea varies based on military branch.[10] Active duty soldiers serve 21 months in the Army or Marine Corps, 23 months in the Navy, and 24 months in the Air Force.[11] After conscripts finish their military service, they are automatically placed on the reserve roster and are obligated to attend a few days of annual military training for 6 years.[citation needed]

Non-active duty personnel, or "supplemental service" personnel serve for various lengths: 24 months for social work personnel or international cooperation service personnel; 34 months for arts and sports personnel or industrial technical personnel; and 36 months for public health doctors, lawyers, veterinarians, or expert researchers.[12]

South Korea currently has among the longest military service periods in the world, ranked behind Israel, Singapore, and North Korea.[citation needed] In 2010, there was growing public pressure to either shorten the length of conscription or to switch to voluntary military service, and calls from experts for a gradual phasing out of conscription rather than complete abolition.[13] However, in December 2010, after taking into consideration of the 2010 ROKS Cheonan sinking and Bombardment of Yeonpyeong incidents, the South Korean government said it would not reduce service periods.[14]

Exemptions for Olympic medalists Edit

Current conscription regulations stipulate that athletes who win medals in the Olympic Games or gold medals in the Asian Games are granted exemptions from military service and are placed in Grade 4.[15] They are required to do four weeks of basic military training and engage in sports field for 34 months. After that, they are automatically placed on the reserve roster, and are obligated to attend a few days of annual military training for six years. In practice, after athletes finish their four weeks of basic military training, they are able to continue their own sports career during the 34 months of duty.[16]

Notable athletes who have been granted exemptions from military service are the bronze medal-winning football team at the 2012 Summer Olympics,[17][18] 2008 Olympic gold medalists badminton player Lee Yong-dae[19] and swimmer Park Tae-hwan[20][21] and 2014 Asian Games gold medalist tennis player Hyeon Chung.[22]

Compensation Edit

The following data is from 'Regulation on Public Servant Compensation', implemented on 1 January 2017.[23] Exchange rate as of 2 May 2018 (₩1077 to $1.00USD)

Private (이등병) Private first class (일등병) Corporal (상등병) Sergeant (병장)

₩163,000

$151.35 (approx) per month ₩176,400

$163.79 (approx) per month ₩195,000

$181.06 (approx) per month ₩216,000

$200.56 (approx) per month

Equipment Edit

The Ministry of National Defense has revealed that it has failed to provide sneakers to 7,411 recruits who joined the military from 22 May to 4 June 2012, after the budget was insufficient for need. The Defense ministry originally projected the cost of each pair of sneakers to be 11,000 KRW. However, the actual cost turned out to be 15,000 KRW.[24]

The office of National Assembly member Kim Kwang-jin of Democratic United Party revealed that cadets in Korea Military Academy were provided with sneakers worth 60,000 KRW and tennis shoes. Cadets in Korea Army Academy at Yeongcheon were provided with sneakers worth 64,250 KRW, in addition to running shoes and soccer shoes.[25]

Dual citizens Edit

For dual citizens, or those with multiple citizenships, male South Koreans must choose their citizenship by the time they turn 18, before March 31 of that year. If these males choose to revoke their South Korean citizenship, they will not be required to complete their mandatory military service. However, if they fail to choose their citizenship by their 18th year, they will be subjected to fulfill their mandatory military service.[26] If males choose to renounce their citizenship by their 18th year, they are ineligible to gain a Korean work visa (F series) until after they turn 40 years of age. It may still be possible to gain an E series visa.

Controversies Edit

The South Korean public is sensitive towards the country's mandatory military service, but also has a low tolerance towards those who attempt to dodge or receive special treatment, especially after scandals of wealthy families caught trying to avoid their national duty. Those found or accused of draft dodging and negligence of duty often face harsh penalties and public backlash. According to Ha Jae-keun, a South Korean pop columnist, "The mood against draft-dodgers and negligence of duty is so hostile that nowadays entertainers feel it's better to get it over and done with".[27][28]

Steve Yoo Edit

In 2002, right before Korean American pop singer Steve Yoo was due to be drafted for his military service, he gave up his Korean nationality and became a naturalized U.S. citizen. He was born in Seoul and migrated to the United States at the age of 13. The South Korean government considered it an act of desertion and deported him, banning him from entering the country permanently.[29]

Song Seung-heon Edit

In late 2004, it was revealed that actor Song Seung-heon had avoided his draft by taking medication to fail the military physical examination. Song had previously been exempted by claiming to have severe diabetes and high blood pressure, but that was found by the South Korean government to be false.[30] Amidst press coverage and public outcry, Song publicly apologized and agreed to immediately serve his two-year term in the military. Song was discharged on 15 November 2006 with the rank of Corporal.[31][32]

MC Mong Edit

On 11 April 2011, rapper MC Mong was cleared of intentionally pulling out healthy teeth to be exempted from military duty but was sentenced to a suspended jail term of 6 months, probation for one year, and 120 hours of community service, for deliberately delaying enlistment on false grounds.[33] The court acknowledged that there was a delay in his military enlistment; however, they were unable to determine whether he was guilty of extracting teeth for the purpose of avoiding his military draft. In September 2011, it was reported that Mong has been banned by Korean Broadcasting System (KBS) and Munhwa Broadcasting Corporation (MBC) from appearing in its TV shows, for draft dodging.[34]

Kim Mu-yeol Edit

In June 2012 Kim Mu-yeol came under growing public criticism over allegations he dodged his compulsory military service. In a report released by the Korean Board of Audit and Inspection (BAI), Kim was deemed fit to serve in active duty as a level two recruit after a March 2001 physical examination. However, throughout 2007 to 2009, Kim was granted postponement on the grounds that he was taking civil service examinations or had been admitted to a work training facility, neither of which took place. During this time he reportedly earned approximately ₩300 million from films, musicals and television work. In December 2009, he received his final notice for enlistment, having used up the 730 days allowed for postponement. He submitted a request to change his military status in January 2010 because of a knee injury, which was rejected. Finally, a valid exemption was granted on the grounds that he was a "low-income individual" and the sole provider for his family. BAI's contention was that Kim's income is substantially higher than the standard for disqualification due to poverty; thus, the Military Manpower Administration was negligent in their duties by granting the exemption.[35][36][37]

Kim's agency Prain TPC defended him, stating that Kim had been supporting his family by working as a security guard, construction worker and at a mobile phone factory since his late teens. When his father collapsed from a cerebral hemorrhage and was diagnosed with cancer in 2008, the treatments incurred a lot of debt for the family. Their worsening financial condition caused them to become totally dependent on Kim, resulting in his said filing for an exemption in 2010.[38] Given the publicity, a reinvestigation into the case was launched and Kim was asked by the production company to leave the film 11 A.M. (he was replaced by Choi Daniel).[39][40] On 4 October 2012, Kim released a statement that though there was no wrongdoing on his part, he had decided to voluntarily enter the army "to recover his honor damaged by the rumors."[41][42]

T.O.P Edit

T.O.P began his two-year mandatory military service on February 9, 2017 as a conscripted police officer, where he was set to be discharged on November 8, 2018 after completing the requirements.[43] However, it was announced in June that he would be prosecuted without detention for use of marijuana.[44] He was subsequently transferred to a different police division to await notice of prosecution, and was suspended from police duty pending verdict on his case.[45] A few days after the announcement, T.O.P was found unconscious in police barracks due to a suspected anti-anxiety medicine overdose of prescribed benzodiazepine,[46] and was hospitalized.[47] On June 8, T.O.P's mother confirmed that her son had opened his eyes and was recovering.[48]

On June 29, T.O.P faced his first trial for the marijuana usage charges at the Seoul Central District Court.[49] He pleaded guilty to the charges against him and admitted that he did smoke marijuana on two out of the four instances.[50] T.O.P received two years of probation, with a possibility of ten months' jail time if he violates any terms.[51] At the second court hearing the following month, T.O.P was sentenced to 10 months in prison suspended for two years for illegal marijuana use.[52] He acknowledged all guilty charges. After undergoing a disciplinary review by the police to decide if T.O.P could return as a conscripted policeman or will complete his service as a public service officer,[53] the Seoul Metropolitan Police Agency reviewed T.O.P's current condition and decided T.O.P is unfit to resume service in his previous position.[54][55] A request was made to Army headquarters for a new position for T.O.P to determine either to serve as a public service worker of a full-time reserve soldier to complete his mandatory service.[56][57] T.O.P was eventually assigned reservist status by the Ministry of National Defense and transferred from police department.[58] He will complete his mandatory service as a public service worker.[59] The time T.O.P had been dismissed from duty during his prosecution will not count towards his total service.[60][61]

Conscientious objection Edit

The right to conscientious objection is not recognised in South Korea.[62] Usually, over 400 people are imprisoned at any one time for refusing military service, for political or religious reasons. This is contrary to international human rights standards and the government of Korea have been repeatedly criticised for not allowing those whose conscience prevents them from joining the military to undertake some kind of substitute service, rather than imprisoning them.

See also Edit

Republic of Korea Armed Forces

Republic of Korea Army

Republic of Korea Marine Corps

Republic of Korea Navy

Republic of Korea Air Force

References Edit

^ "병역이행안내 - 개요(총괄)" [Military Service Implementation Guide - General Overview]. Military Manpower Organization (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-12-28.

^ a b Lee, Namhee (2007). The Making of Minjung: Democracy and the Politics of Representation in South Korea. Cornell University Press. p. 91. ISBN 0801445663.

^ "S. Korea to expand women's role in military". Yonhap News Agency. 2017-12-20. Retrieved 2017-12-28.

^ "Constitution of the Republic of Korea" (PDF). 1987. p. 12. Retrieved 2017-12-27.

^ Kim, Jongcheol (2012). "Constitutional Law". Introduction to Korean Law. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 78. ISBN 3642316891.

^ a b "Military Service Act, Article 8". Korean Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-29.

^ "History". Military Manpower Administration. Retrieved 2017-12-29.

^ "Military Service Act, Article 5". Korean Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-29.

^ "Military Service Act, Articles 10-14". Korean Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-29.

^ Lent, Jesse (2016-04-01). "'Descendants Of The Sun' Star Song Joong Ki Discusses His Time In The South Korean Army". Korea Portal. Retrieved 2017-12-30.

^ "Military Service Act, Article 18". Korea Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-30.

^ "Military Service Act, Articles 26-43". Korea Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-30.

^ "Conscription 'Should Be Phased Out Slowly'". Chosun Ilbo. 2010-07-06. Retrieved 2017-12-30.

^ Kim, Christine (2010-12-22). "Plan to cut compulsory military service scrapped". Korea JoongAng Daily. Retrieved 2017-12-30.

^ "제68조의11(예술ㆍ체육요원의 추천 등) [Article 68-11: Recommendation of arts and sports personnel, etc.]". 병역법 시행령 [Military Service Act Implementation Rules]. South Korea: Ministry of Government Legislation. 29 November 2016. Retrieved 6 April 2018. 법 제33조의7제1항 전단에서 "대통령령으로 정하는 예술·체육 분야의 특기를 가진 사람"이란 다음 각 호의 어느 하나에 해당하는 사람을 말한다. ... 4. 올림픽대회에서 3위 이상으로 입상한 사람(단체경기종목의 경우에는 실제로 출전한 선수만 해당한다) 5. 아시아경기대회에서 1위로 입상한 사람(단체경기종목의 경우에는 실제로 출전한 선수만 해당한다). [In Article 33, Paragraph 7, Subparagraph 2 of the Act, 'a person having special talents in arts and athletics fields, as defined by presidential order' refers to persons to whom are applicable any one of the provisions of the following subparagraphs. ... 4. A person who received a prize for ranked third or above at the Olympics (in the case of team events, only applicable to athletes who actually participated). 5. A person who received a prize for ranking first at the Asian Games (in the case of team events, only applicable to athletes who actually participated).]

^ "리우에서도 떠오른 축구대표팀 '병역특례'".

^ "Footballer to Be Spared Military Service Despite IOC Probe". Chosun Ilbo. 14 August 2012. Retrieved 2 October 2012.

^ "Medal instead of military service". The Hankyoreh. 11 August 2012. Retrieved 25 February 2013.

^ "들쭉날쭉 병역특례기준 '형평성' 논란…병무청 '누적점수제' 추진" (in Korean). Yonhap News Agency. September 30, 2016.

^ "Park Tae-hwan Enters Army Boot Camp". Chosun Ilbo. 5 October 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2012.

^ "Star Swimmer Says Army Boot Camp Helped Him Grow". Chosun Ilbo. 1 November 2012. Retrieved 4 April 2013.

^ "Hyeon Chung Participates In Korean Military Training - ATP World Tour - Tennis - ATP World Tour - Tennis".

^ 공무원보수규정 '별표 13' 군인의 봉급표(제5조 및 별표 1 관련) . Korea Ministry of Government Legislation (in Korean). Retrieved 28 April 2015.

^ 조, 기호 (18 July 2012). "운동화 한 켤레 못 주는 군(軍)!". Seoul Broadcasting System. Retrieved 4 August 2012.

^ "[보도자료] 예산 없다던 국방부, 사관생도에게는 고가 외국브랜드 운동화 지급". Retrieved 4 August 2012.[dead link]

^ "FAQs-Dual Citizens | U.S. Embassy & Consulate in Korea". U.S. Embassy & Consulate in Korea. Retrieved 2017-10-12.

^ "South Korean singer Rain reports for military service". BBC News. 11 October 2011. Retrieved 2011-10-14.

^ Park, Eun-jee (16 January 2013). "Military service mischief a losing battle". Joongang Daily. Archived from the original on 29 June 2013. Retrieved 4 April 2013.

^ Seo, Ji-eun "Steve Yoo isn’t coming back to Korea" Archived 6 January 2013 at the Wayback Machine. Joongang Daily. 20 October 2011. retrieved 2011-11-08

^ (in Korean) "최지우, '승헌이에게 말 걸어볼까?"[permanent dead link] SSTV. 30 June 2009. Retrieved 2011-11-06

^ "Song Seung-heon, Jang Hyeok Discharged from Military" HanCinema. 16 November 2011. Retrieved 2011-10-14

^ (in Korean) "Song Seung-heon discharged from the army"Yahoo News Korea, 2006-11-18. Archived 14 June 2011 at the Wayback Machine.

^ "Rapper Gets Suspended Jail Term for Draft Dodging" Chosun Ilbo. 12 April 2011. Retrieved 2011-10-14

^ "KBS, MBC release list of 36 banned entertainers" Dong-A Ilbo. 28 September 2011. 2011-10-14

^ Sunwoo, Carla (22 June 2012). "Actor Kim Moo-yul was poor enough to dodge military service". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 27 January 2013. Retrieved 6 October 2012.

^ Lee, In-kyung (21 June 2012). "Kim Moo Yul Involved in Military Scandal after Avoiding Duties". enewsWorld. Retrieved 2012-10-06.

^ "High-Paid Actor Exempted from Draft for Poverty". The Chosun Ilbo. 22 June 2012. Retrieved 2012-10-06.

^ Moon, Gwang-lip (25 June 2012). "Agent says Kim Moo-yul's family situation was 'nearly impossible'". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 11 August 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2012.

^ Sunwoo, Carla (10 July 2012). "Kim Moo-yul kicked off movie set". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 26 January 2013. Retrieved 6 October 2012.

^ Sunwoo, Carla (11 July 2012). "Choi Daniel to replace Kim Moo-yul". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 5 August 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2012.

^ Lee, Hye-ji (5 October 2012). "Kim Moo-yeol to Enter Army, Cleaning out Exemption Rumors". 10Asia. Retrieved 2012-11-18.

^ Sunwoo, Carla (11 October 2011). "Kim Moo-yul enlists after rumors". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 26 October 2012. Retrieved 18 November 2012.

^ "BIGBANG's T.O.P confirms military enlistment date". Yibada. November 22, 2016.

^ "The Full Story Behind T.O.P's Drug Scandal, And The Mysterious Trainee Woman". June 2, 2017. Retrieved June 8, 2017.

^ Jun, R. "BIGBANG's T.O.P To Be Dismissed From Duty For Duration of Prosecution". Soompi. Retrieved 8 June 2017.

^ "Medical expert comments on T.O.P's benzodiazepine overdose | allkpop.com". allkpop. Retrieved 2017-06-09.

^ "BIGBANG's T.O.P hospitalized for drug overdose". YonhapNews. June 6, 2017. Retrieved June 6, 2017.

^ "K-pop superstar T.O.P. in intensive care after overdose". BBC. June 8, 2017. Retrieved June 28, 2017.

^ Kim Jung-kyoon (June 30, 2017). "T.O.P admits to all charges at first hearing". Korea JoongAng Daily. Retrieved July 19, 2017.

^ "Big Bang's T.O.P pleads guilty to pot charges". The Jakarta Post. June 30, 2017. Retrieved 2017-07-19.

^ Park Hyeong-taek (June 29, 2017). "[SC현장] 탑, 대마초 4회 흡연 시인…"공소사실 모두 인정"" [[SC scene] Top, smoking four po ... "All the facts of the charges"]. Sports Chosun (in Korean). Retrieved July 19, 2017.

^ Riddhiman Mukhopadhyay (July 20, 2017). "Rapper T.O.P sentenced at final trial: Apologizes to fans for his actions". International Business Times. Retrieved July 21, 2017.

^ "(LEAD) BIGBANG's T.O.P. gets suspended sentence for marijuana use". Yonhap News Agency. July 20, 2017. Retrieved July 20, 2017.

^ "빅뱅 탑, 재복무심사에서 부적합 결론… 의경신분 박탈" [Big Bang tower is inadequate in re-examination ... Deprivation of state]. Sports Chosun (in Korean). July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.

^ "BIGBANG's T.O.P to lose police post after drug conviction". Yonhap News Agency. July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.

^ "탑, 의경 신분 박탈 '재복무 심사서 부적합 판정'" [Top, disqualification of state of rehabilitation]. Starin E-Daily (in Korean). July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.

^ "BigBang rapper T.O.P cannot continue serving military duty as a policeman". Starits Times. July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.

^ Lee Young-jae (August 28, 2017). "'대마초 흡연' 빅뱅 탑, 의경에서 사회복무 요원 됐다". Korea JoongAng Daily (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.

^ Kim Ji-heon (August 28, 2017). "'대마초' 빅뱅 탑, 오늘 의경 전역…사회복무요원으로 근무". Yonhap News Agency (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.

^ Kim Yoo-jin (August 28, 2017). "'대마초 논란' 탑, 보충역 통보받고 오늘 전역…사회복무요원으로 전환". Herald Economy (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.

^ Hae Kyung Heon (August 28, 2017). "대마초 집유판결 탑 결국 사회복무요원으로, 누리꾼 반응 '냉랭'". Sports Khan (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.

^ "Country report and updates: Korea, South - War Resisters' International". www.wri-irg.org.

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Conscription in South Korea

Conscription in South Korea has existed since 1957 and requires male citizens between the ages of 18 and 35 to perform about two years of compulsory military service.[1][2] Women are not required to perform military service, but may voluntarily enlist.[3]

Establishment Edit

The basis for military conscription in South Korea is the Constitution of the Republic of Korea, which was promulgated on July 17, 1948. The constitution states in Article 39, "All citizens shall have the duty of national defense under the conditions as prescribed by Act."[4][5] The Military Service Act of 1949, which was implemented in 1957, specified that compulsory military service is required for men ages 18 or older.[6][2] Conscription is managed by the Military Manpower Administration, which was created in 1948.[7]

Requirements Edit

Enlistment and physical exam Edit

By law, when a Korean man turns 18 years old, he is enlisted for "first citizen service," meaning he is liable for military duty, but is not yet required to serve.[6][8] When he turns 19 years old (or, in some instances, 20 years old), he is required to undergo a physical exam to determine whether he is suitable for military service. The table below shows the physical exam's possible grades and their outcomes, according to the Military Service Act.[9]

Grade Description Outcome

1, 2, 3, 4 "Those whose physical and psychological constitution is healthy enough to perform active or supplemental service." "To be enlisted for active duty service, supplemental service or the second citizen service, based on their qualifications, such as educational background and age."

5 "Those incapable of entering active or supplemental service, but capable of entering the second citizen service." "To be enlisted for the second citizen service."

6 "Those incapable of performing military service due to any disease or mental or physical incompetence." "To be exempted from military service."

7 "Those unable to be graded...due to any disease or mental or physical incompetence." "To undergo a follow-up physical examination" within two years.

Service types and length Edit

The length of compulsory military service in South Korea varies based on military branch.[10] Active duty soldiers serve 21 months in the Army or Marine Corps, 23 months in the Navy, and 24 months in the Air Force.[11] After conscripts finish their military service, they are automatically placed on the reserve roster and are obligated to attend a few days of annual military training for 6 years.[citation needed]

Non-active duty personnel, or "supplemental service" personnel serve for various lengths: 24 months for social work personnel or international cooperation service personnel; 34 months for arts and sports personnel or industrial technical personnel; and 36 months for public health doctors, lawyers, veterinarians, or expert researchers.[12]

South Korea currently has among the longest military service periods in the world, ranked behind Israel, Singapore, and North Korea.[citation needed] In 2010, there was growing public pressure to either shorten the length of conscription or to switch to voluntary military service, and calls from experts for a gradual phasing out of conscription rather than complete abolition.[13] However, in December 2010, after taking into consideration of the 2010 ROKS Cheonan sinking and Bombardment of Yeonpyeong incidents, the South Korean government said it would not reduce service periods.[14]

Exemptions for Olympic medalists Edit

Current conscription regulations stipulate that athletes who win medals in the Olympic Games or gold medals in the Asian Games are granted exemptions from military service and are placed in Grade 4.[15] They are required to do four weeks of basic military training and engage in sports field for 34 months. After that, they are automatically placed on the reserve roster, and are obligated to attend a few days of annual military training for six years. In practice, after athletes finish their four weeks of basic military training, they are able to continue their own sports career during the 34 months of duty.[16]

Notable athletes who have been granted exemptions from military service are the bronze medal-winning football team at the 2012 Summer Olympics,[17][18] 2008 Olympic gold medalists badminton player Lee Yong-dae[19] and swimmer Park Tae-hwan[20][21] and 2014 Asian Games gold medalist tennis player Hyeon Chung.[22]

Compensation Edit

The following data is from 'Regulation on Public Servant Compensation', implemented on 1 January 2017.[23] Exchange rate as of 2 May 2018 (₩1077 to $1.00USD)

Private (이등병) Private first class (일등병) Corporal (상등병) Sergeant (병장)

₩163,000

$151.35 (approx) per month ₩176,400

$163.79 (approx) per month ₩195,000

$181.06 (approx) per month ₩216,000

$200.56 (approx) per month

Equipment Edit

The Ministry of National Defense has revealed that it has failed to provide sneakers to 7,411 recruits who joined the military from 22 May to 4 June 2012, after the budget was insufficient for need. The Defense ministry originally projected the cost of each pair of sneakers to be 11,000 KRW. However, the actual cost turned out to be 15,000 KRW.[24]

The office of National Assembly member Kim Kwang-jin of Democratic United Party revealed that cadets in Korea Military Academy were provided with sneakers worth 60,000 KRW and tennis shoes. Cadets in Korea Army Academy at Yeongcheon were provided with sneakers worth 64,250 KRW, in addition to running shoes and soccer shoes.[25]

Dual citizens Edit

For dual citizens, or those with multiple citizenships, male South Koreans must choose their citizenship by the time they turn 18, before March 31 of that year. If these males choose to revoke their South Korean citizenship, they will not be required to complete their mandatory military service. However, if they fail to choose their citizenship by their 18th year, they will be subjected to fulfill their mandatory military service.[26] If males choose to renounce their citizenship by their 18th year, they are ineligible to gain a Korean work visa (F series) until after they turn 40 years of age. It may still be possible to gain an E series visa.

Controversies Edit

The South Korean public is sensitive towards the country's mandatory military service, but also has a low tolerance towards those who attempt to dodge or receive special treatment, especially after scandals of wealthy families caught trying to avoid their national duty. Those found or accused of draft dodging and negligence of duty often face harsh penalties and public backlash. According to Ha Jae-keun, a South Korean pop columnist, "The mood against draft-dodgers and negligence of duty is so hostile that nowadays entertainers feel it's better to get it over and done with".[27][28]

Steve Yoo Edit

In 2002, right before Korean American pop singer Steve Yoo was due to be drafted for his military service, he gave up his Korean nationality and became a naturalized U.S. citizen. He was born in Seoul and migrated to the United States at the age of 13. The South Korean government considered it an act of desertion and deported him, banning him from entering the country permanently.[29]

Song Seung-heon Edit

In late 2004, it was revealed that actor Song Seung-heon had avoided his draft by taking medication to fail the military physical examination. Song had previously been exempted by claiming to have severe diabetes and high blood pressure, but that was found by the South Korean government to be false.[30] Amidst press coverage and public outcry, Song publicly apologized and agreed to immediately serve his two-year term in the military. Song was discharged on 15 November 2006 with the rank of Corporal.[31][32]

MC Mong Edit

On 11 April 2011, rapper MC Mong was cleared of intentionally pulling out healthy teeth to be exempted from military duty but was sentenced to a suspended jail term of 6 months, probation for one year, and 120 hours of community service, for deliberately delaying enlistment on false grounds.[33] The court acknowledged that there was a delay in his military enlistment; however, they were unable to determine whether he was guilty of extracting teeth for the purpose of avoiding his military draft. In September 2011, it was reported that Mong has been banned by Korean Broadcasting System (KBS) and Munhwa Broadcasting Corporation (MBC) from appearing in its TV shows, for draft dodging.[34]

Kim Mu-yeol Edit

In June 2012 Kim Mu-yeol came under growing public criticism over allegations he dodged his compulsory military service. In a report released by the Korean Board of Audit and Inspection (BAI), Kim was deemed fit to serve in active duty as a level two recruit after a March 2001 physical examination. However, throughout 2007 to 2009, Kim was granted postponement on the grounds that he was taking civil service examinations or had been admitted to a work training facility, neither of which took place. During this time he reportedly earned approximately ₩300 million from films, musicals and television work. In December 2009, he received his final notice for enlistment, having used up the 730 days allowed for postponement. He submitted a request to change his military status in January 2010 because of a knee injury, which was rejected. Finally, a valid exemption was granted on the grounds that he was a "low-income individual" and the sole provider for his family. BAI's contention was that Kim's income is substantially higher than the standard for disqualification due to poverty; thus, the Military Manpower Administration was negligent in their duties by granting the exemption.[35][36][37]

Kim's agency Prain TPC defended him, stating that Kim had been supporting his family by working as a security guard, construction worker and at a mobile phone factory since his late teens. When his father collapsed from a cerebral hemorrhage and was diagnosed with cancer in 2008, the treatments incurred a lot of debt for the family. Their worsening financial condition caused them to become totally dependent on Kim, resulting in his said filing for an exemption in 2010.[38] Given the publicity, a reinvestigation into the case was launched and Kim was asked by the production company to leave the film 11 A.M. (he was replaced by Choi Daniel).[39][40] On 4 October 2012, Kim released a statement that though there was no wrongdoing on his part, he had decided to voluntarily enter the army "to recover his honor damaged by the rumors."[41][42]

T.O.P Edit

T.O.P began his two-year mandatory military service on February 9, 2017 as a conscripted police officer, where he was set to be discharged on November 8, 2018 after completing the requirements.[43] However, it was announced in June that he would be prosecuted without detention for use of marijuana.[44] He was subsequently transferred to a different police division to await notice of prosecution, and was suspended from police duty pending verdict on his case.[45] A few days after the announcement, T.O.P was found unconscious in police barracks due to a suspected anti-anxiety medicine overdose of prescribed benzodiazepine,[46] and was hospitalized.[47] On June 8, T.O.P's mother confirmed that her son had opened his eyes and was recovering.[48]

On June 29, T.O.P faced his first trial for the marijuana usage charges at the Seoul Central District Court.[49] He pleaded guilty to the charges against him and admitted that he did smoke marijuana on two out of the four instances.[50] T.O.P received two years of probation, with a possibility of ten months' jail time if he violates any terms.[51] At the second court hearing the following month, T.O.P was sentenced to 10 months in prison suspended for two years for illegal marijuana use.[52] He acknowledged all guilty charges. After undergoing a disciplinary review by the police to decide if T.O.P could return as a conscripted policeman or will complete his service as a public service officer,[53] the Seoul Metropolitan Police Agency reviewed T.O.P's current condition and decided T.O.P is unfit to resume service in his previous position.[54][55] A request was made to Army headquarters for a new position for T.O.P to determine either to serve as a public service worker of a full-time reserve soldier to complete his mandatory service.[56][57] T.O.P was eventually assigned reservist status by the Ministry of National Defense and transferred from police department.[58] He will complete his mandatory service as a public service worker.[59] The time T.O.P had been dismissed from duty during his prosecution will not count towards his total service.[60][61]

Conscientious objection Edit

The right to conscientious objection is not recognised in South Korea.[62] Usually, over 400 people are imprisoned at any one time for refusing military service, for political or religious reasons. This is contrary to international human rights standards and the government of Korea have been repeatedly criticised for not allowing those whose conscience prevents them from joining the military to undertake some kind of substitute service, rather than imprisoning them.

See also Edit

Republic of Korea Armed Forces

Republic of Korea Army

Republic of Korea Marine Corps

Republic of Korea Navy

Republic of Korea Air Force

References Edit

^ "병역이행안내 - 개요(총괄)" [Military Service Implementation Guide - General Overview]. Military Manpower Organization (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-12-28.

^ a b Lee, Namhee (2007). The Making of Minjung: Democracy and the Politics of Representation in South Korea. Cornell University Press. p. 91. ISBN 0801445663.

^ "S. Korea to expand women's role in military". Yonhap News Agency. 2017-12-20. Retrieved 2017-12-28.

^ "Constitution of the Republic of Korea" (PDF). 1987. p. 12. Retrieved 2017-12-27.

^ Kim, Jongcheol (2012). "Constitutional Law". Introduction to Korean Law. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 78. ISBN 3642316891.

^ a b "Military Service Act, Article 8". Korean Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-29.

^ "History". Military Manpower Administration. Retrieved 2017-12-29.

^ "Military Service Act, Article 5". Korean Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-29.

^ "Military Service Act, Articles 10-14". Korean Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-29.

^ Lent, Jesse (2016-04-01). "'Descendants Of The Sun' Star Song Joong Ki Discusses His Time In The South Korean Army". Korea Portal. Retrieved 2017-12-30.

^ "Military Service Act, Article 18". Korea Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-30.

^ "Military Service Act, Articles 26-43". Korea Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-30.

^ "Conscription 'Should Be Phased Out Slowly'". Chosun Ilbo. 2010-07-06. Retrieved 2017-12-30.

^ Kim, Christine (2010-12-22). "Plan to cut compulsory military service scrapped". Korea JoongAng Daily. Retrieved 2017-12-30.

^ "제68조의11(예술ㆍ체육요원의 추천 등) [Article 68-11: Recommendation of arts and sports personnel, etc.]". 병역법 시행령 [Military Service Act Implementation Rules]. South Korea: Ministry of Government Legislation. 29 November 2016. Retrieved 6 April 2018. 법 제33조의7제1항 전단에서 "대통령령으로 정하는 예술·체육 분야의 특기를 가진 사람"이란 다음 각 호의 어느 하나에 해당하는 사람을 말한다. ... 4. 올림픽대회에서 3위 이상으로 입상한 사람(단체경기종목의 경우에는 실제로 출전한 선수만 해당한다) 5. 아시아경기대회에서 1위로 입상한 사람(단체경기종목의 경우에는 실제로 출전한 선수만 해당한다). [In Article 33, Paragraph 7, Subparagraph 2 of the Act, 'a person having special talents in arts and athletics fields, as defined by presidential order' refers to persons to whom are applicable any one of the provisions of the following subparagraphs. ... 4. A person who received a prize for ranked third or above at the Olympics (in the case of team events, only applicable to athletes who actually participated). 5. A person who received a prize for ranking first at the Asian Games (in the case of team events, only applicable to athletes who actually participated).]

^ "리우에서도 떠오른 축구대표팀 '병역특례'".

^ "Footballer to Be Spared Military Service Despite IOC Probe". Chosun Ilbo. 14 August 2012. Retrieved 2 October 2012.

^ "Medal instead of military service". The Hankyoreh. 11 August 2012. Retrieved 25 February 2013.

^ "들쭉날쭉 병역특례기준 '형평성' 논란…병무청 '누적점수제' 추진" (in Korean). Yonhap News Agency. September 30, 2016.

^ "Park Tae-hwan Enters Army Boot Camp". Chosun Ilbo. 5 October 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2012.

^ "Star Swimmer Says Army Boot Camp Helped Him Grow". Chosun Ilbo. 1 November 2012. Retrieved 4 April 2013.

^ "Hyeon Chung Participates In Korean Military Training - ATP World Tour - Tennis - ATP World Tour - Tennis".

^ 공무원보수규정 '별표 13' 군인의 봉급표(제5조 및 별표 1 관련) . Korea Ministry of Government Legislation (in Korean). Retrieved 28 April 2015.

^ 조, 기호 (18 July 2012). "운동화 한 켤레 못 주는 군(軍)!". Seoul Broadcasting System. Retrieved 4 August 2012.

^ "[보도자료] 예산 없다던 국방부, 사관생도에게는 고가 외국브랜드 운동화 지급". Retrieved 4 August 2012.[dead link]

^ "FAQs-Dual Citizens | U.S. Embassy & Consulate in Korea". U.S. Embassy & Consulate in Korea. Retrieved 2017-10-12.

^ "South Korean singer Rain reports for military service". BBC News. 11 October 2011. Retrieved 2011-10-14.

^ Park, Eun-jee (16 January 2013). "Military service mischief a losing battle". Joongang Daily. Archived from the original on 29 June 2013. Retrieved 4 April 2013.

^ Seo, Ji-eun "Steve Yoo isn’t coming back to Korea" Archived 6 January 2013 at the Wayback Machine. Joongang Daily. 20 October 2011. retrieved 2011-11-08

^ (in Korean) "최지우, '승헌이에게 말 걸어볼까?"[permanent dead link] SSTV. 30 June 2009. Retrieved 2011-11-06

^ "Song Seung-heon, Jang Hyeok Discharged from Military" HanCinema. 16 November 2011. Retrieved 2011-10-14

^ (in Korean) "Song Seung-heon discharged from the army"Yahoo News Korea, 2006-11-18. Archived 14 June 2011 at the Wayback Machine.

^ "Rapper Gets Suspended Jail Term for Draft Dodging" Chosun Ilbo. 12 April 2011. Retrieved 2011-10-14

^ "KBS, MBC release list of 36 banned entertainers" Dong-A Ilbo. 28 September 2011. 2011-10-14

^ Sunwoo, Carla (22 June 2012). "Actor Kim Moo-yul was poor enough to dodge military service". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 27 January 2013. Retrieved 6 October 2012.

^ Lee, In-kyung (21 June 2012). "Kim Moo Yul Involved in Military Scandal after Avoiding Duties". enewsWorld. Retrieved 2012-10-06.

^ "High-Paid Actor Exempted from Draft for Poverty". The Chosun Ilbo. 22 June 2012. Retrieved 2012-10-06.

^ Moon, Gwang-lip (25 June 2012). "Agent says Kim Moo-yul's family situation was 'nearly impossible'". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 11 August 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2012.

^ Sunwoo, Carla (10 July 2012). "Kim Moo-yul kicked off movie set". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 26 January 2013. Retrieved 6 October 2012.

^ Sunwoo, Carla (11 July 2012). "Choi Daniel to replace Kim Moo-yul". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 5 August 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2012.

^ Lee, Hye-ji (5 October 2012). "Kim Moo-yeol to Enter Army, Cleaning out Exemption Rumors". 10Asia. Retrieved 2012-11-18.

^ Sunwoo, Carla (11 October 2011). "Kim Moo-yul enlists after rumors". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 26 October 2012. Retrieved 18 November 2012.

^ "BIGBANG's T.O.P confirms military enlistment date". Yibada. November 22, 2016.

^ "The Full Story Behind T.O.P's Drug Scandal, And The Mysterious Trainee Woman". June 2, 2017. Retrieved June 8, 2017.

^ Jun, R. "BIGBANG's T.O.P To Be Dismissed From Duty For Duration of Prosecution". Soompi. Retrieved 8 June 2017.

^ "Medical expert comments on T.O.P's benzodiazepine overdose | allkpop.com". allkpop. Retrieved 2017-06-09.

^ "BIGBANG's T.O.P hospitalized for drug overdose". YonhapNews. June 6, 2017. Retrieved June 6, 2017.

^ "K-pop superstar T.O.P. in intensive care after overdose". BBC. June 8, 2017. Retrieved June 28, 2017.

^ Kim Jung-kyoon (June 30, 2017). "T.O.P admits to all charges at first hearing". Korea JoongAng Daily. Retrieved July 19, 2017.

^ "Big Bang's T.O.P pleads guilty to pot charges". The Jakarta Post. June 30, 2017. Retrieved 2017-07-19.

^ Park Hyeong-taek (June 29, 2017). "[SC현장] 탑, 대마초 4회 흡연 시인…"공소사실 모두 인정"" [[SC scene] Top, smoking four po ... "All the facts of the charges"]. Sports Chosun (in Korean). Retrieved July 19, 2017.

^ Riddhiman Mukhopadhyay (July 20, 2017). "Rapper T.O.P sentenced at final trial: Apologizes to fans for his actions". International Business Times. Retrieved July 21, 2017.

^ "(LEAD) BIGBANG's T.O.P. gets suspended sentence for marijuana use". Yonhap News Agency. July 20, 2017. Retrieved July 20, 2017.

^ "빅뱅 탑, 재복무심사에서 부적합 결론… 의경신분 박탈" [Big Bang tower is inadequate in re-examination ... Deprivation of state]. Sports Chosun (in Korean). July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.

^ "BIGBANG's T.O.P to lose police post after drug conviction". Yonhap News Agency. July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.

^ "탑, 의경 신분 박탈 '재복무 심사서 부적합 판정'" [Top, disqualification of state of rehabilitation]. Starin E-Daily (in Korean). July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.

^ "BigBang rapper T.O.P cannot continue serving military duty as a policeman". Starits Times. July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.

^ Lee Young-jae (August 28, 2017). "'대마초 흡연' 빅뱅 탑, 의경에서 사회복무 요원 됐다". Korea JoongAng Daily (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.

^ Kim Ji-heon (August 28, 2017). "'대마초' 빅뱅 탑, 오늘 의경 전역…사회복무요원으로 근무". Yonhap News Agency (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.

^ Kim Yoo-jin (August 28, 2017). "'대마초 논란' 탑, 보충역 통보받고 오늘 전역…사회복무요원으로 전환". Herald Economy (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.

^ Hae Kyung Heon (August 28, 2017). "대마초 집유판결 탑 결국 사회복무요원으로, 누리꾼 반응 '냉랭'". Sports Khan (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.

^ "Country report and updates: Korea, South - War Resisters' International". www.wri-irg.org.

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Conscription in South Korea

Conscription in South Korea has existed since 1957 and requires male citizens between the ages of 18 and 35 to perform about two years of compulsory military service.[1][2] Women are not required to perform military service, but may voluntarily enlist.[3]

Establishment Edit

The basis for military conscription in South Korea is the Constitution of the Republic of Korea, which was promulgated on July 17, 1948. The constitution states in Article 39, "All citizens shall have the duty of national defense under the conditions as prescribed by Act."[4][5] The Military Service Act of 1949, which was implemented in 1957, specified that compulsory military service is required for men ages 18 or older.[6][2] Conscription is managed by the Military Manpower Administration, which was created in 1948.[7]

Requirements Edit

Enlistment and physical exam Edit

By law, when a Korean man turns 18 years old, he is enlisted for "first citizen service," meaning he is liable for military duty, but is not yet required to serve.[6][8] When he turns 19 years old (or, in some instances, 20 years old), he is required to undergo a physical exam to determine whether he is suitable for military service. The table below shows the physical exam's possible grades and their outcomes, according to the Military Service Act.[9]

Grade Description Outcome

1, 2, 3, 4 "Those whose physical and psychological constitution is healthy enough to perform active or supplemental service." "To be enlisted for active duty service, supplemental service or the second citizen service, based on their qualifications, such as educational background and age."

5 "Those incapable of entering active or supplemental service, but capable of entering the second citizen service." "To be enlisted for the second citizen service."

6 "Those incapable of performing military service due to any disease or mental or physical incompetence." "To be exempted from military service."

7 "Those unable to be graded...due to any disease or mental or physical incompetence." "To undergo a follow-up physical examination" within two years.

Service types and length Edit

The length of compulsory military service in South Korea varies based on military branch.[10] Active duty soldiers serve 21 months in the Army or Marine Corps, 23 months in the Navy, and 24 months in the Air Force.[11] After conscripts finish their military service, they are automatically placed on the reserve roster and are obligated to attend a few days of annual military training for 6 years.[citation needed]

Non-active duty personnel, or "supplemental service" personnel serve for various lengths: 24 months for social work personnel or international cooperation service personnel; 34 months for arts and sports personnel or industrial technical personnel; and 36 months for public health doctors, lawyers, veterinarians, or expert researchers.[12]

South Korea currently has among the longest military service periods in the world, ranked behind Israel, Singapore, and North Korea.[citation needed] In 2010, there was growing public pressure to either shorten the length of conscription or to switch to voluntary military service, and calls from experts for a gradual phasing out of conscription rather than complete abolition.[13] However, in December 2010, after taking into consideration of the 2010 ROKS Cheonan sinking and Bombardment of Yeonpyeong incidents, the South Korean government said it would not reduce service periods.[14]

Exemptions for Olympic medalists Edit

Current conscription regulations stipulate that athletes who win medals in the Olympic Games or gold medals in the Asian Games are granted exemptions from military service and are placed in Grade 4.[15] They are required to do four weeks of basic military training and engage in sports field for 34 months. After that, they are automatically placed on the reserve roster, and are obligated to attend a few days of annual military training for six years. In practice, after athletes finish their four weeks of basic military training, they are able to continue their own sports career during the 34 months of duty.[16]

Notable athletes who have been granted exemptions from military service are the bronze medal-winning football team at the 2012 Summer Olympics,[17][18] 2008 Olympic gold medalists badminton player Lee Yong-dae[19] and swimmer Park Tae-hwan[20][21] and 2014 Asian Games gold medalist tennis player Hyeon Chung.[22]

Compensation Edit

The following data is from 'Regulation on Public Servant Compensation', implemented on 1 January 2017.[23] Exchange rate as of 2 May 2018 (₩1077 to $1.00USD)

Private (이등병) Private first class (일등병) Corporal (상등병) Sergeant (병장)

₩163,000

$151.35 (approx) per month ₩176,400

$163.79 (approx) per month ₩195,000

$181.06 (approx) per month ₩216,000

$200.56 (approx) per month

Equipment Edit

The Ministry of National Defense has revealed that it has failed to provide sneakers to 7,411 recruits who joined the military from 22 May to 4 June 2012, after the budget was insufficient for need. The Defense ministry originally projected the cost of each pair of sneakers to be 11,000 KRW. However, the actual cost turned out to be 15,000 KRW.[24]

The office of National Assembly member Kim Kwang-jin of Democratic United Party revealed that cadets in Korea Military Academy were provided with sneakers worth 60,000 KRW and tennis shoes. Cadets in Korea Army Academy at Yeongcheon were provided with sneakers worth 64,250 KRW, in addition to running shoes and soccer shoes.[25]

Dual citizens Edit

For dual citizens, or those with multiple citizenships, male South Koreans must choose their citizenship by the time they turn 18, before March 31 of that year. If these males choose to revoke their South Korean citizenship, they will not be required to complete their mandatory military service. However, if they fail to choose their citizenship by their 18th year, they will be subjected to fulfill their mandatory military service.[26] If males choose to renounce their citizenship by their 18th year, they are ineligible to gain a Korean work visa (F series) until after they turn 40 years of age. It may still be possible to gain an E series visa.

Controversies Edit

The South Korean public is sensitive towards the country's mandatory military service, but also has a low tolerance towards those who attempt to dodge or receive special treatment, especially after scandals of wealthy families caught trying to avoid their national duty. Those found or accused of draft dodging and negligence of duty often face harsh penalties and public backlash. According to Ha Jae-keun, a South Korean pop columnist, "The mood against draft-dodgers and negligence of duty is so hostile that nowadays entertainers feel it's better to get it over and done with".[27][28]

Steve Yoo Edit

In 2002, right before Korean American pop singer Steve Yoo was due to be drafted for his military service, he gave up his Korean nationality and became a naturalized U.S. citizen. He was born in Seoul and migrated to the United States at the age of 13. The South Korean government considered it an act of desertion and deported him, banning him from entering the country permanently.[29]

Song Seung-heon Edit

In late 2004, it was revealed that actor Song Seung-heon had avoided his draft by taking medication to fail the military physical examination. Song had previously been exempted by claiming to have severe diabetes and high blood pressure, but that was found by the South Korean government to be false.[30] Amidst press coverage and public outcry, Song publicly apologized and agreed to immediately serve his two-year term in the military. Song was discharged on 15 November 2006 with the rank of Corporal.[31][32]

MC Mong Edit

On 11 April 2011, rapper MC Mong was cleared of intentionally pulling out healthy teeth to be exempted from military duty but was sentenced to a suspended jail term of 6 months, probation for one year, and 120 hours of community service, for deliberately delaying enlistment on false grounds.[33] The court acknowledged that there was a delay in his military enlistment; however, they were unable to determine whether he was guilty of extracting teeth for the purpose of avoiding his military draft. In September 2011, it was reported that Mong has been banned by Korean Broadcasting System (KBS) and Munhwa Broadcasting Corporation (MBC) from appearing in its TV shows, for draft dodging.[34]

Kim Mu-yeol Edit

In June 2012 Kim Mu-yeol came under growing public criticism over allegations he dodged his compulsory military service. In a report released by the Korean Board of Audit and Inspection (BAI), Kim was deemed fit to serve in active duty as a level two recruit after a March 2001 physical examination. However, throughout 2007 to 2009, Kim was granted postponement on the grounds that he was taking civil service examinations or had been admitted to a work training facility, neither of which took place. During this time he reportedly earned approximately ₩300 million from films, musicals and television work. In December 2009, he received his final notice for enlistment, having used up the 730 days allowed for postponement. He submitted a request to change his military status in January 2010 because of a knee injury, which was rejected. Finally, a valid exemption was granted on the grounds that he was a "low-income individual" and the sole provider for his family. BAI's contention was that Kim's income is substantially higher than the standard for disqualification due to poverty; thus, the Military Manpower Administration was negligent in their duties by granting the exemption.[35][36][37]

Kim's agency Prain TPC defended him, stating that Kim had been supporting his family by working as a security guard, construction worker and at a mobile phone factory since his late teens. When his father collapsed from a cerebral hemorrhage and was diagnosed with cancer in 2008, the treatments incurred a lot of debt for the family. Their worsening financial condition caused them to become totally dependent on Kim, resulting in his said filing for an exemption in 2010.[38] Given the publicity, a reinvestigation into the case was launched and Kim was asked by the production company to leave the film 11 A.M. (he was replaced by Choi Daniel).[39][40] On 4 October 2012, Kim released a statement that though there was no wrongdoing on his part, he had decided to voluntarily enter the army "to recover his honor damaged by the rumors."[41][42]

T.O.P Edit

T.O.P began his two-year mandatory military service on February 9, 2017 as a conscripted police officer, where he was set to be discharged on November 8, 2018 after completing the requirements.[43] However, it was announced in June that he would be prosecuted without detention for use of marijuana.[44] He was subsequently transferred to a different police division to await notice of prosecution, and was suspended from police duty pending verdict on his case.[45] A few days after the announcement, T.O.P was found unconscious in police barracks due to a suspected anti-anxiety medicine overdose of prescribed benzodiazepine,[46] and was hospitalized.[47] On June 8, T.O.P's mother confirmed that her son had opened his eyes and was recovering.[48]

On June 29, T.O.P faced his first trial for the marijuana usage charges at the Seoul Central District Court.[49] He pleaded guilty to the charges against him and admitted that he did smoke marijuana on two out of the four instances.[50] T.O.P received two years of probation, with a possibility of ten months' jail time if he violates any terms.[51] At the second court hearing the following month, T.O.P was sentenced to 10 months in prison suspended for two years for illegal marijuana use.[52] He acknowledged all guilty charges. After undergoing a disciplinary review by the police to decide if T.O.P could return as a conscripted policeman or will complete his service as a public service officer,[53] the Seoul Metropolitan Police Agency reviewed T.O.P's current condition and decided T.O.P is unfit to resume service in his previous position.[54][55] A request was made to Army headquarters for a new position for T.O.P to determine either to serve as a public service worker of a full-time reserve soldier to complete his mandatory service.[56][57] T.O.P was eventually assigned reservist status by the Ministry of National Defense and transferred from police department.[58] He will complete his mandatory service as a public service worker.[59] The time T.O.P had been dismissed from duty during his prosecution will not count towards his total service.[60][61]

Conscientious objection Edit

The right to conscientious objection is not recognised in South Korea.[62] Usually, over 400 people are imprisoned at any one time for refusing military service, for political or religious reasons. This is contrary to international human rights standards and the government of Korea have been repeatedly criticised for not allowing those whose conscience prevents them from joining the military to undertake some kind of substitute service, rather than imprisoning them.

See also Edit

Republic of Korea Armed Forces

Republic of Korea Army

Republic of Korea Marine Corps

Republic of Korea Navy

Republic of Korea Air Force

References Edit

^ "병역이행안내 - 개요(총괄)" [Military Service Implementation Guide - General Overview]. Military Manpower Organization (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-12-28.

^ a b Lee, Namhee (2007). The Making of Minjung: Democracy and the Politics of Representation in South Korea. Cornell University Press. p. 91. ISBN 0801445663.

^ "S. Korea to expand women's role in military". Yonhap News Agency. 2017-12-20. Retrieved 2017-12-28.

^ "Constitution of the Republic of Korea" (PDF). 1987. p. 12. Retrieved 2017-12-27.

^ Kim, Jongcheol (2012). "Constitutional Law". Introduction to Korean Law. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 78. ISBN 3642316891.

^ a b "Military Service Act, Article 8". Korean Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-29.

^ "History". Military Manpower Administration. Retrieved 2017-12-29.

^ "Military Service Act, Article 5". Korean Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-29.

^ "Military Service Act, Articles 10-14". Korean Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-29.

^ Lent, Jesse (2016-04-01). "'Descendants Of The Sun' Star Song Joong Ki Discusses His Time In The South Korean Army". Korea Portal. Retrieved 2017-12-30.

^ "Military Service Act, Article 18". Korea Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-30.

^ "Military Service Act, Articles 26-43". Korea Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-30.

^ "Conscription 'Should Be Phased Out Slowly'". Chosun Ilbo. 2010-07-06. Retrieved 2017-12-30.

^ Kim, Christine (2010-12-22). "Plan to cut compulsory military service scrapped". Korea JoongAng Daily. Retrieved 2017-12-30.

^ "제68조의11(예술ㆍ체육요원의 추천 등) [Article 68-11: Recommendation of arts and sports personnel, etc.]". 병역법 시행령 [Military Service Act Implementation Rules]. South Korea: Ministry of Government Legislation. 29 November 2016. Retrieved 6 April 2018. 법 제33조의7제1항 전단에서 "대통령령으로 정하는 예술·체육 분야의 특기를 가진 사람"이란 다음 각 호의 어느 하나에 해당하는 사람을 말한다. ... 4. 올림픽대회에서 3위 이상으로 입상한 사람(단체경기종목의 경우에는 실제로 출전한 선수만 해당한다) 5. 아시아경기대회에서 1위로 입상한 사람(단체경기종목의 경우에는 실제로 출전한 선수만 해당한다). [In Article 33, Paragraph 7, Subparagraph 2 of the Act, 'a person having special talents in arts and athletics fields, as defined by presidential order' refers to persons to whom are applicable any one of the provisions of the following subparagraphs. ... 4. A person who received a prize for ranked third or above at the Olympics (in the case of team events, only applicable to athletes who actually participated). 5. A person who received a prize for ranking first at the Asian Games (in the case of team events, only applicable to athletes who actually participated).]

^ "리우에서도 떠오른 축구대표팀 '병역특례'".

^ "Footballer to Be Spared Military Service Despite IOC Probe". Chosun Ilbo. 14 August 2012. Retrieved 2 October 2012.

^ "Medal instead of military service". The Hankyoreh. 11 August 2012. Retrieved 25 February 2013.

^ "들쭉날쭉 병역특례기준 '형평성' 논란…병무청 '누적점수제' 추진" (in Korean). Yonhap News Agency. September 30, 2016.

^ "Park Tae-hwan Enters Army Boot Camp". Chosun Ilbo. 5 October 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2012.

^ "Star Swimmer Says Army Boot Camp Helped Him Grow". Chosun Ilbo. 1 November 2012. Retrieved 4 April 2013.

^ "Hyeon Chung Participates In Korean Military Training - ATP World Tour - Tennis - ATP World Tour - Tennis".

^ 공무원보수규정 '별표 13' 군인의 봉급표(제5조 및 별표 1 관련) . Korea Ministry of Government Legislation (in Korean). Retrieved 28 April 2015.

^ 조, 기호 (18 July 2012). "운동화 한 켤레 못 주는 군(軍)!". Seoul Broadcasting System. Retrieved 4 August 2012.

^ "[보도자료] 예산 없다던 국방부, 사관생도에게는 고가 외국브랜드 운동화 지급". Retrieved 4 August 2012.[dead link]

^ "FAQs-Dual Citizens | U.S. Embassy & Consulate in Korea". U.S. Embassy & Consulate in Korea. Retrieved 2017-10-12.

^ "South Korean singer Rain reports for military service". BBC News. 11 October 2011. Retrieved 2011-10-14.

^ Park, Eun-jee (16 January 2013). "Military service mischief a losing battle". Joongang Daily. Archived from the original on 29 June 2013. Retrieved 4 April 2013.

^ Seo, Ji-eun "Steve Yoo isn’t coming back to Korea" Archived 6 January 2013 at the Wayback Machine. Joongang Daily. 20 October 2011. retrieved 2011-11-08

^ (in Korean) "최지우, '승헌이에게 말 걸어볼까?"[permanent dead link] SSTV. 30 June 2009. Retrieved 2011-11-06

^ "Song Seung-heon, Jang Hyeok Discharged from Military" HanCinema. 16 November 2011. Retrieved 2011-10-14

^ (in Korean) "Song Seung-heon discharged from the army"Yahoo News Korea, 2006-11-18. Archived 14 June 2011 at the Wayback Machine.

^ "Rapper Gets Suspended Jail Term for Draft Dodging" Chosun Ilbo. 12 April 2011. Retrieved 2011-10-14

^ "KBS, MBC release list of 36 banned entertainers" Dong-A Ilbo. 28 September 2011. 2011-10-14

^ Sunwoo, Carla (22 June 2012). "Actor Kim Moo-yul was poor enough to dodge military service". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 27 January 2013. Retrieved 6 October 2012.

^ Lee, In-kyung (21 June 2012). "Kim Moo Yul Involved in Military Scandal after Avoiding Duties". enewsWorld. Retrieved 2012-10-06.

^ "High-Paid Actor Exempted from Draft for Poverty". The Chosun Ilbo. 22 June 2012. Retrieved 2012-10-06.

^ Moon, Gwang-lip (25 June 2012). "Agent says Kim Moo-yul's family situation was 'nearly impossible'". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 11 August 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2012.

^ Sunwoo, Carla (10 July 2012). "Kim Moo-yul kicked off movie set". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 26 January 2013. Retrieved 6 October 2012.

^ Sunwoo, Carla (11 July 2012). "Choi Daniel to replace Kim Moo-yul". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 5 August 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2012.

^ Lee, Hye-ji (5 October 2012). "Kim Moo-yeol to Enter Army, Cleaning out Exemption Rumors". 10Asia. Retrieved 2012-11-18.

^ Sunwoo, Carla (11 October 2011). "Kim Moo-yul enlists after rumors". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 26 October 2012. Retrieved 18 November 2012.

^ "BIGBANG's T.O.P confirms military enlistment date". Yibada. November 22, 2016.

^ "The Full Story Behind T.O.P's Drug Scandal, And The Mysterious Trainee Woman". June 2, 2017. Retrieved June 8, 2017.

^ Jun, R. "BIGBANG's T.O.P To Be Dismissed From Duty For Duration of Prosecution". Soompi. Retrieved 8 June 2017.

^ "Medical expert comments on T.O.P's benzodiazepine overdose | allkpop.com". allkpop. Retrieved 2017-06-09.

^ "BIGBANG's T.O.P hospitalized for drug overdose". YonhapNews. June 6, 2017. Retrieved June 6, 2017.

^ "K-pop superstar T.O.P. in intensive care after overdose". BBC. June 8, 2017. Retrieved June 28, 2017.

^ Kim Jung-kyoon (June 30, 2017). "T.O.P admits to all charges at first hearing". Korea JoongAng Daily. Retrieved July 19, 2017.

^ "Big Bang's T.O.P pleads guilty to pot charges". The Jakarta Post. June 30, 2017. Retrieved 2017-07-19.

^ Park Hyeong-taek (June 29, 2017). "[SC현장] 탑, 대마초 4회 흡연 시인…"공소사실 모두 인정"" [[SC scene] Top, smoking four po ... "All the facts of the charges"]. Sports Chosun (in Korean). Retrieved July 19, 2017.

^ Riddhiman Mukhopadhyay (July 20, 2017). "Rapper T.O.P sentenced at final trial: Apologizes to fans for his actions". International Business Times. Retrieved July 21, 2017.

^ "(LEAD) BIGBANG's T.O.P. gets suspended sentence for marijuana use". Yonhap News Agency. July 20, 2017. Retrieved July 20, 2017.

^ "빅뱅 탑, 재복무심사에서 부적합 결론… 의경신분 박탈" [Big Bang tower is inadequate in re-examination ... Deprivation of state]. Sports Chosun (in Korean). July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.

^ "BIGBANG's T.O.P to lose police post after drug conviction". Yonhap News Agency. July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.

^ "탑, 의경 신분 박탈 '재복무 심사서 부적합 판정'" [Top, disqualification of state of rehabilitation]. Starin E-Daily (in Korean). July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.

^ "BigBang rapper T.O.P cannot continue serving military duty as a policeman". Starits Times. July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.

^ Lee Young-jae (August 28, 2017). "'대마초 흡연' 빅뱅 탑, 의경에서 사회복무 요원 됐다". Korea JoongAng Daily (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.

^ Kim Ji-heon (August 28, 2017). "'대마초' 빅뱅 탑, 오늘 의경 전역…사회복무요원으로 근무". Yonhap News Agency (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.

^ Kim Yoo-jin (August 28, 2017). "'대마초 논란' 탑, 보충역 통보받고 오늘 전역…사회복무요원으로 전환". Herald Economy (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.

^ Hae Kyung Heon (August 28, 2017). "대마초 집유판결 탑 결국 사회복무요원으로, 누리꾼 반응 '냉랭'". Sports Khan (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.

^ "Country report and updates: Korea, South - War Resisters' International". www.wri-irg.org.

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Conscription in South Korea

Conscription in South Korea has existed since 1957 and requires male citizens between the ages of 18 and 35 to perform about two years of compulsory military service.[1][2] Women are not required to perform military service, but may voluntarily enlist.[3]

Establishment Edit

The basis for military conscription in South Korea is the Constitution of the Republic of Korea, which was promulgated on July 17, 1948. The constitution states in Article 39, "All citizens shall have the duty of national defense under the conditions as prescribed by Act."[4][5] The Military Service Act of 1949, which was implemented in 1957, specified that compulsory military service is required for men ages 18 or older.[6][2] Conscription is managed by the Military Manpower Administration, which was created in 1948.[7]

Requirements Edit

Enlistment and physical exam Edit

By law, when a Korean man turns 18 years old, he is enlisted for "first citizen service," meaning he is liable for military duty, but is not yet required to serve.[6][8] When he turns 19 years old (or, in some instances, 20 years old), he is required to undergo a physical exam to determine whether he is suitable for military service. The table below shows the physical exam's possible grades and their outcomes, according to the Military Service Act.[9]

Grade Description Outcome

1, 2, 3, 4 "Those whose physical and psychological constitution is healthy enough to perform active or supplemental service." "To be enlisted for active duty service, supplemental service or the second citizen service, based on their qualifications, such as educational background and age."

5 "Those incapable of entering active or supplemental service, but capable of entering the second citizen service." "To be enlisted for the second citizen service."

6 "Those incapable of performing military service due to any disease or mental or physical incompetence." "To be exempted from military service."

7 "Those unable to be graded...due to any disease or mental or physical incompetence." "To undergo a follow-up physical examination" within two years.

Service types and length Edit

The length of compulsory military service in South Korea varies based on military branch.[10] Active duty soldiers serve 21 months in the Army or Marine Corps, 23 months in the Navy, and 24 months in the Air Force.[11] After conscripts finish their military service, they are automatically placed on the reserve roster and are obligated to attend a few days of annual military training for 6 years.[citation needed]

Non-active duty personnel, or "supplemental service" personnel serve for various lengths: 24 months for social work personnel or international cooperation service personnel; 34 months for arts and sports personnel or industrial technical personnel; and 36 months for public health doctors, lawyers, veterinarians, or expert researchers.[12]

South Korea currently has among the longest military service periods in the world, ranked behind Israel, Singapore, and North Korea.[citation needed] In 2010, there was growing public pressure to either shorten the length of conscription or to switch to voluntary military service, and calls from experts for a gradual phasing out of conscription rather than complete abolition.[13] However, in December 2010, after taking into consideration of the 2010 ROKS Cheonan sinking and Bombardment of Yeonpyeong incidents, the South Korean government said it would not reduce service periods.[14]

Exemptions for Olympic medalists Edit

Current conscription regulations stipulate that athletes who win medals in the Olympic Games or gold medals in the Asian Games are granted exemptions from military service and are placed in Grade 4.[15] They are required to do four weeks of basic military training and engage in sports field for 34 months. After that, they are automatically placed on the reserve roster, and are obligated to attend a few days of annual military training for six years. In practice, after athletes finish their four weeks of basic military training, they are able to continue their own sports career during the 34 months of duty.[16]

Notable athletes who have been granted exemptions from military service are the bronze medal-winning football team at the 2012 Summer Olympics,[17][18] 2008 Olympic gold medalists badminton player Lee Yong-dae[19] and swimmer Park Tae-hwan[20][21] and 2014 Asian Games gold medalist tennis player Hyeon Chung.[22]

Compensation Edit

The following data is from 'Regulation on Public Servant Compensation', implemented on 1 January 2017.[23] Exchange rate as of 2 May 2018 (₩1077 to $1.00USD)

Private (이등병) Private first class (일등병) Corporal (상등병) Sergeant (병장)

₩163,000

$151.35 (approx) per month ₩176,400

$163.79 (approx) per month ₩195,000

$181.06 (approx) per month ₩216,000

$200.56 (approx) per month

Equipment Edit

The Ministry of National Defense has revealed that it has failed to provide sneakers to 7,411 recruits who joined the military from 22 May to 4 June 2012, after the budget was insufficient for need. The Defense ministry originally projected the cost of each pair of sneakers to be 11,000 KRW. However, the actual cost turned out to be 15,000 KRW.[24]

The office of National Assembly member Kim Kwang-jin of Democratic United Party revealed that cadets in Korea Military Academy were provided with sneakers worth 60,000 KRW and tennis shoes. Cadets in Korea Army Academy at Yeongcheon were provided with sneakers worth 64,250 KRW, in addition to running shoes and soccer shoes.[25]

Dual citizens Edit

For dual citizens, or those with multiple citizenships, male South Koreans must choose their citizenship by the time they turn 18, before March 31 of that year. If these males choose to revoke their South Korean citizenship, they will not be required to complete their mandatory military service. However, if they fail to choose their citizenship by their 18th year, they will be subjected to fulfill their mandatory military service.[26] If males choose to renounce their citizenship by their 18th year, they are ineligible to gain a Korean work visa (F series) until after they turn 40 years of age. It may still be possible to gain an E series visa.

Controversies Edit

The South Korean public is sensitive towards the country's mandatory military service, but also has a low tolerance towards those who attempt to dodge or receive special treatment, especially after scandals of wealthy families caught trying to avoid their national duty. Those found or accused of draft dodging and negligence of duty often face harsh penalties and public backlash. According to Ha Jae-keun, a South Korean pop columnist, "The mood against draft-dodgers and negligence of duty is so hostile that nowadays entertainers feel it's better to get it over and done with".[27][28]

Steve Yoo Edit

In 2002, right before Korean American pop singer Steve Yoo was due to be drafted for his military service, he gave up his Korean nationality and became a naturalized U.S. citizen. He was born in Seoul and migrated to the United States at the age of 13. The South Korean government considered it an act of desertion and deported him, banning him from entering the country permanently.[29]

Song Seung-heon Edit

In late 2004, it was revealed that actor Song Seung-heon had avoided his draft by taking medication to fail the military physical examination. Song had previously been exempted by claiming to have severe diabetes and high blood pressure, but that was found by the South Korean government to be false.[30] Amidst press coverage and public outcry, Song publicly apologized and agreed to immediately serve his two-year term in the military. Song was discharged on 15 November 2006 with the rank of Corporal.[31][32]

MC Mong Edit

On 11 April 2011, rapper MC Mong was cleared of intentionally pulling out healthy teeth to be exempted from military duty but was sentenced to a suspended jail term of 6 months, probation for one year, and 120 hours of community service, for deliberately delaying enlistment on false grounds.[33] The court acknowledged that there was a delay in his military enlistment; however, they were unable to determine whether he was guilty of extracting teeth for the purpose of avoiding his military draft. In September 2011, it was reported that Mong has been banned by Korean Broadcasting System (KBS) and Munhwa Broadcasting Corporation (MBC) from appearing in its TV shows, for draft dodging.[34]

Kim Mu-yeol Edit

In June 2012 Kim Mu-yeol came under growing public criticism over allegations he dodged his compulsory military service. In a report released by the Korean Board of Audit and Inspection (BAI), Kim was deemed fit to serve in active duty as a level two recruit after a March 2001 physical examination. However, throughout 2007 to 2009, Kim was granted postponement on the grounds that he was taking civil service examinations or had been admitted to a work training facility, neither of which took place. During this time he reportedly earned approximately ₩300 million from films, musicals and television work. In December 2009, he received his final notice for enlistment, having used up the 730 days allowed for postponement. He submitted a request to change his military status in January 2010 because of a knee injury, which was rejected. Finally, a valid exemption was granted on the grounds that he was a "low-income individual" and the sole provider for his family. BAI's contention was that Kim's income is substantially higher than the standard for disqualification due to poverty; thus, the Military Manpower Administration was negligent in their duties by granting the exemption.[35][36][37]

Kim's agency Prain TPC defended him, stating that Kim had been supporting his family by working as a security guard, construction worker and at a mobile phone factory since his late teens. When his father collapsed from a cerebral hemorrhage and was diagnosed with cancer in 2008, the treatments incurred a lot of debt for the family. Their worsening financial condition caused them to become totally dependent on Kim, resulting in his said filing for an exemption in 2010.[38] Given the publicity, a reinvestigation into the case was launched and Kim was asked by the production company to leave the film 11 A.M. (he was replaced by Choi Daniel).[39][40] On 4 October 2012, Kim released a statement that though there was no wrongdoing on his part, he had decided to voluntarily enter the army "to recover his honor damaged by the rumors."[41][42]

T.O.P Edit

T.O.P began his two-year mandatory military service on February 9, 2017 as a conscripted police officer, where he was set to be discharged on November 8, 2018 after completing the requirements.[43] However, it was announced in June that he would be prosecuted without detention for use of marijuana.[44] He was subsequently transferred to a different police division to await notice of prosecution, and was suspended from police duty pending verdict on his case.[45] A few days after the announcement, T.O.P was found unconscious in police barracks due to a suspected anti-anxiety medicine overdose of prescribed benzodiazepine,[46] and was hospitalized.[47] On June 8, T.O.P's mother confirmed that her son had opened his eyes and was recovering.[48]

On June 29, T.O.P faced his first trial for the marijuana usage charges at the Seoul Central District Court.[49] He pleaded guilty to the charges against him and admitted that he did smoke marijuana on two out of the four instances.[50] T.O.P received two years of probation, with a possibility of ten months' jail time if he violates any terms.[51] At the second court hearing the following month, T.O.P was sentenced to 10 months in prison suspended for two years for illegal marijuana use.[52] He acknowledged all guilty charges. After undergoing a disciplinary review by the police to decide if T.O.P could return as a conscripted policeman or will complete his service as a public service officer,[53] the Seoul Metropolitan Police Agency reviewed T.O.P's current condition and decided T.O.P is unfit to resume service in his previous position.[54][55] A request was made to Army headquarters for a new position for T.O.P to determine either to serve as a public service worker of a full-time reserve soldier to complete his mandatory service.[56][57] T.O.P was eventually assigned reservist status by the Ministry of National Defense and transferred from police department.[58] He will complete his mandatory service as a public service worker.[59] The time T.O.P had been dismissed from duty during his prosecution will not count towards his total service.[60][61]

Conscientious objection Edit

The right to conscientious objection is not recognised in South Korea.[62] Usually, over 400 people are imprisoned at any one time for refusing military service, for political or religious reasons. This is contrary to international human rights standards and the government of Korea have been repeatedly criticised for not allowing those whose conscience prevents them from joining the military to undertake some kind of substitute service, rather than imprisoning them.

See also Edit

Republic of Korea Armed Forces

Republic of Korea Army

Republic of Korea Marine Corps

Republic of Korea Navy

Republic of Korea Air Force

References Edit

^ "병역이행안내 - 개요(총괄)" [Military Service Implementation Guide - General Overview]. Military Manpower Organization (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-12-28.

^ a b Lee, Namhee (2007). The Making of Minjung: Democracy and the Politics of Representation in South Korea. Cornell University Press. p. 91. ISBN 0801445663.

^ "S. Korea to expand women's role in military". Yonhap News Agency. 2017-12-20. Retrieved 2017-12-28.

^ "Constitution of the Republic of Korea" (PDF). 1987. p. 12. Retrieved 2017-12-27.

^ Kim, Jongcheol (2012). "Constitutional Law". Introduction to Korean Law. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 78. ISBN 3642316891.

^ a b "Military Service Act, Article 8". Korean Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-29.

^ "History". Military Manpower Administration. Retrieved 2017-12-29.

^ "Military Service Act, Article 5". Korean Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-29.

^ "Military Service Act, Articles 10-14". Korean Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-29.

^ Lent, Jesse (2016-04-01). "'Descendants Of The Sun' Star Song Joong Ki Discusses His Time In The South Korean Army". Korea Portal. Retrieved 2017-12-30.

^ "Military Service Act, Article 18". Korea Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-30.

^ "Military Service Act, Articles 26-43". Korea Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-30.

^ "Conscription 'Should Be Phased Out Slowly'". Chosun Ilbo. 2010-07-06. Retrieved 2017-12-30.

^ Kim, Christine (2010-12-22). "Plan to cut compulsory military service scrapped". Korea JoongAng Daily. Retrieved 2017-12-30.

^ "제68조의11(예술ㆍ체육요원의 추천 등) [Article 68-11: Recommendation of arts and sports personnel, etc.]". 병역법 시행령 [Military Service Act Implementation Rules]. South Korea: Ministry of Government Legislation. 29 November 2016. Retrieved 6 April 2018. 법 제33조의7제1항 전단에서 "대통령령으로 정하는 예술·체육 분야의 특기를 가진 사람"이란 다음 각 호의 어느 하나에 해당하는 사람을 말한다. ... 4. 올림픽대회에서 3위 이상으로 입상한 사람(단체경기종목의 경우에는 실제로 출전한 선수만 해당한다) 5. 아시아경기대회에서 1위로 입상한 사람(단체경기종목의 경우에는 실제로 출전한 선수만 해당한다). [In Article 33, Paragraph 7, Subparagraph 2 of the Act, 'a person having special talents in arts and athletics fields, as defined by presidential order' refers to persons to whom are applicable any one of the provisions of the following subparagraphs. ... 4. A person who received a prize for ranked third or above at the Olympics (in the case of team events, only applicable to athletes who actually participated). 5. A person who received a prize for ranking first at the Asian Games (in the case of team events, only applicable to athletes who actually participated).]

^ "리우에서도 떠오른 축구대표팀 '병역특례'".

^ "Footballer to Be Spared Military Service Despite IOC Probe". Chosun Ilbo. 14 August 2012. Retrieved 2 October 2012.

^ "Medal instead of military service". The Hankyoreh. 11 August 2012. Retrieved 25 February 2013.

^ "들쭉날쭉 병역특례기준 '형평성' 논란…병무청 '누적점수제' 추진" (in Korean). Yonhap News Agency. September 30, 2016.

^ "Park Tae-hwan Enters Army Boot Camp". Chosun Ilbo. 5 October 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2012.

^ "Star Swimmer Says Army Boot Camp Helped Him Grow". Chosun Ilbo. 1 November 2012. Retrieved 4 April 2013.

^ "Hyeon Chung Participates In Korean Military Training - ATP World Tour - Tennis - ATP World Tour - Tennis".

^ 공무원보수규정 '별표 13' 군인의 봉급표(제5조 및 별표 1 관련) . Korea Ministry of Government Legislation (in Korean). Retrieved 28 April 2015.

^ 조, 기호 (18 July 2012). "운동화 한 켤레 못 주는 군(軍)!". Seoul Broadcasting System. Retrieved 4 August 2012.

^ "[보도자료] 예산 없다던 국방부, 사관생도에게는 고가 외국브랜드 운동화 지급". Retrieved 4 August 2012.[dead link]

^ "FAQs-Dual Citizens | U.S. Embassy & Consulate in Korea". U.S. Embassy & Consulate in Korea. Retrieved 2017-10-12.

^ "South Korean singer Rain reports for military service". BBC News. 11 October 2011. Retrieved 2011-10-14.

^ Park, Eun-jee (16 January 2013). "Military service mischief a losing battle". Joongang Daily. Archived from the original on 29 June 2013. Retrieved 4 April 2013.

^ Seo, Ji-eun "Steve Yoo isn’t coming back to Korea" Archived 6 January 2013 at the Wayback Machine. Joongang Daily. 20 October 2011. retrieved 2011-11-08

^ (in Korean) "최지우, '승헌이에게 말 걸어볼까?"[permanent dead link] SSTV. 30 June 2009. Retrieved 2011-11-06

^ "Song Seung-heon, Jang Hyeok Discharged from Military" HanCinema. 16 November 2011. Retrieved 2011-10-14

^ (in Korean) "Song Seung-heon discharged from the army"Yahoo News Korea, 2006-11-18. Archived 14 June 2011 at the Wayback Machine.

^ "Rapper Gets Suspended Jail Term for Draft Dodging" Chosun Ilbo. 12 April 2011. Retrieved 2011-10-14

^ "KBS, MBC release list of 36 banned entertainers" Dong-A Ilbo. 28 September 2011. 2011-10-14

^ Sunwoo, Carla (22 June 2012). "Actor Kim Moo-yul was poor enough to dodge military service". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 27 January 2013. Retrieved 6 October 2012.

^ Lee, In-kyung (21 June 2012). "Kim Moo Yul Involved in Military Scandal after Avoiding Duties". enewsWorld. Retrieved 2012-10-06.

^ "High-Paid Actor Exempted from Draft for Poverty". The Chosun Ilbo. 22 June 2012. Retrieved 2012-10-06.

^ Moon, Gwang-lip (25 June 2012). "Agent says Kim Moo-yul's family situation was 'nearly impossible'". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 11 August 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2012.

^ Sunwoo, Carla (10 July 2012). "Kim Moo-yul kicked off movie set". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 26 January 2013. Retrieved 6 October 2012.

^ Sunwoo, Carla (11 July 2012). "Choi Daniel to replace Kim Moo-yul". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 5 August 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2012.

^ Lee, Hye-ji (5 October 2012). "Kim Moo-yeol to Enter Army, Cleaning out Exemption Rumors". 10Asia. Retrieved 2012-11-18.

^ Sunwoo, Carla (11 October 2011). "Kim Moo-yul enlists after rumors". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 26 October 2012. Retrieved 18 November 2012.

^ "BIGBANG's T.O.P confirms military enlistment date". Yibada. November 22, 2016.

^ "The Full Story Behind T.O.P's Drug Scandal, And The Mysterious Trainee Woman". June 2, 2017. Retrieved June 8, 2017.

^ Jun, R. "BIGBANG's T.O.P To Be Dismissed From Duty For Duration of Prosecution". Soompi. Retrieved 8 June 2017.

^ "Medical expert comments on T.O.P's benzodiazepine overdose | allkpop.com". allkpop. Retrieved 2017-06-09.

^ "BIGBANG's T.O.P hospitalized for drug overdose". YonhapNews. June 6, 2017. Retrieved June 6, 2017.

^ "K-pop superstar T.O.P. in intensive care after overdose". BBC. June 8, 2017. Retrieved June 28, 2017.

^ Kim Jung-kyoon (June 30, 2017). "T.O.P admits to all charges at first hearing". Korea JoongAng Daily. Retrieved July 19, 2017.

^ "Big Bang's T.O.P pleads guilty to pot charges". The Jakarta Post. June 30, 2017. Retrieved 2017-07-19.

^ Park Hyeong-taek (June 29, 2017). "[SC현장] 탑, 대마초 4회 흡연 시인…"공소사실 모두 인정"" [[SC scene] Top, smoking four po ... "All the facts of the charges"]. Sports Chosun (in Korean). Retrieved July 19, 2017.

^ Riddhiman Mukhopadhyay (July 20, 2017). "Rapper T.O.P sentenced at final trial: Apologizes to fans for his actions". International Business Times. Retrieved July 21, 2017.

^ "(LEAD) BIGBANG's T.O.P. gets suspended sentence for marijuana use". Yonhap News Agency. July 20, 2017. Retrieved July 20, 2017.

^ "빅뱅 탑, 재복무심사에서 부적합 결론… 의경신분 박탈" [Big Bang tower is inadequate in re-examination ... Deprivation of state]. Sports Chosun (in Korean). July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.

^ "BIGBANG's T.O.P to lose police post after drug conviction". Yonhap News Agency. July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.

^ "탑, 의경 신분 박탈 '재복무 심사서 부적합 판정'" [Top, disqualification of state of rehabilitation]. Starin E-Daily (in Korean). July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.

^ "BigBang rapper T.O.P cannot continue serving military duty as a policeman". Starits Times. July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.

^ Lee Young-jae (August 28, 2017). "'대마초 흡연' 빅뱅 탑, 의경에서 사회복무 요원 됐다". Korea JoongAng Daily (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.

^ Kim Ji-heon (August 28, 2017). "'대마초' 빅뱅 탑, 오늘 의경 전역…사회복무요원으로 근무". Yonhap News Agency (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.

^ Kim Yoo-jin (August 28, 2017). "'대마초 논란' 탑, 보충역 통보받고 오늘 전역…사회복무요원으로 전환". Herald Economy (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.

^ Hae Kyung Heon (August 28, 2017). "대마초 집유판결 탑 결국 사회복무요원으로, 누리꾼 반응 '냉랭'". Sports Khan (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.

^ "Country report and updates: Korea, South - War Resisters' International". www.wri-irg.org.

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Date: May 28th, 2018 11:45 PM
Author: The Sheer Entitled Caucasity

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Conscription in South Korea

Conscription in South Korea has existed since 1957 and requires male citizens between the ages of 18 and 35 to perform about two years of compulsory military service.[1][2] Women are not required to perform military service, but may voluntarily enlist.[3]

Establishment Edit

The basis for military conscription in South Korea is the Constitution of the Republic of Korea, which was promulgated on July 17, 1948. The constitution states in Article 39, "All citizens shall have the duty of national defense under the conditions as prescribed by Act."[4][5] The Military Service Act of 1949, which was implemented in 1957, specified that compulsory military service is required for men ages 18 or older.[6][2] Conscription is managed by the Military Manpower Administration, which was created in 1948.[7]

Requirements Edit

Enlistment and physical exam Edit

By law, when a Korean man turns 18 years old, he is enlisted for "first citizen service," meaning he is liable for military duty, but is not yet required to serve.[6][8] When he turns 19 years old (or, in some instances, 20 years old), he is required to undergo a physical exam to determine whether he is suitable for military service. The table below shows the physical exam's possible grades and their outcomes, according to the Military Service Act.[9]

Grade Description Outcome

1, 2, 3, 4 "Those whose physical and psychological constitution is healthy enough to perform active or supplemental service." "To be enlisted for active duty service, supplemental service or the second citizen service, based on their qualifications, such as educational background and age."

5 "Those incapable of entering active or supplemental service, but capable of entering the second citizen service." "To be enlisted for the second citizen service."

6 "Those incapable of performing military service due to any disease or mental or physical incompetence." "To be exempted from military service."

7 "Those unable to be graded...due to any disease or mental or physical incompetence." "To undergo a follow-up physical examination" within two years.

Service types and length Edit

The length of compulsory military service in South Korea varies based on military branch.[10] Active duty soldiers serve 21 months in the Army or Marine Corps, 23 months in the Navy, and 24 months in the Air Force.[11] After conscripts finish their military service, they are automatically placed on the reserve roster and are obligated to attend a few days of annual military training for 6 years.[citation needed]

Non-active duty personnel, or "supplemental service" personnel serve for various lengths: 24 months for social work personnel or international cooperation service personnel; 34 months for arts and sports personnel or industrial technical personnel; and 36 months for public health doctors, lawyers, veterinarians, or expert researchers.[12]

South Korea currently has among the longest military service periods in the world, ranked behind Israel, Singapore, and North Korea.[citation needed] In 2010, there was growing public pressure to either shorten the length of conscription or to switch to voluntary military service, and calls from experts for a gradual phasing out of conscription rather than complete abolition.[13] However, in December 2010, after taking into consideration of the 2010 ROKS Cheonan sinking and Bombardment of Yeonpyeong incidents, the South Korean government said it would not reduce service periods.[14]

Exemptions for Olympic medalists Edit

Current conscription regulations stipulate that athletes who win medals in the Olympic Games or gold medals in the Asian Games are granted exemptions from military service and are placed in Grade 4.[15] They are required to do four weeks of basic military training and engage in sports field for 34 months. After that, they are automatically placed on the reserve roster, and are obligated to attend a few days of annual military training for six years. In practice, after athletes finish their four weeks of basic military training, they are able to continue their own sports career during the 34 months of duty.[16]

Notable athletes who have been granted exemptions from military service are the bronze medal-winning football team at the 2012 Summer Olympics,[17][18] 2008 Olympic gold medalists badminton player Lee Yong-dae[19] and swimmer Park Tae-hwan[20][21] and 2014 Asian Games gold medalist tennis player Hyeon Chung.[22]

Compensation Edit

The following data is from 'Regulation on Public Servant Compensation', implemented on 1 January 2017.[23] Exchange rate as of 2 May 2018 (₩1077 to $1.00USD)

Private (이등병) Private first class (일등병) Corporal (상등병) Sergeant (병장)

₩163,000

$151.35 (approx) per month ₩176,400

$163.79 (approx) per month ₩195,000

$181.06 (approx) per month ₩216,000

$200.56 (approx) per month

Equipment Edit

The Ministry of National Defense has revealed that it has failed to provide sneakers to 7,411 recruits who joined the military from 22 May to 4 June 2012, after the budget was insufficient for need. The Defense ministry originally projected the cost of each pair of sneakers to be 11,000 KRW. However, the actual cost turned out to be 15,000 KRW.[24]

The office of National Assembly member Kim Kwang-jin of Democratic United Party revealed that cadets in Korea Military Academy were provided with sneakers worth 60,000 KRW and tennis shoes. Cadets in Korea Army Academy at Yeongcheon were provided with sneakers worth 64,250 KRW, in addition to running shoes and soccer shoes.[25]

Dual citizens Edit

For dual citizens, or those with multiple citizenships, male South Koreans must choose their citizenship by the time they turn 18, before March 31 of that year. If these males choose to revoke their South Korean citizenship, they will not be required to complete their mandatory military service. However, if they fail to choose their citizenship by their 18th year, they will be subjected to fulfill their mandatory military service.[26] If males choose to renounce their citizenship by their 18th year, they are ineligible to gain a Korean work visa (F series) until after they turn 40 years of age. It may still be possible to gain an E series visa.

Controversies Edit

The South Korean public is sensitive towards the country's mandatory military service, but also has a low tolerance towards those who attempt to dodge or receive special treatment, especially after scandals of wealthy families caught trying to avoid their national duty. Those found or accused of draft dodging and negligence of duty often face harsh penalties and public backlash. According to Ha Jae-keun, a South Korean pop columnist, "The mood against draft-dodgers and negligence of duty is so hostile that nowadays entertainers feel it's better to get it over and done with".[27][28]

Steve Yoo Edit

In 2002, right before Korean American pop singer Steve Yoo was due to be drafted for his military service, he gave up his Korean nationality and became a naturalized U.S. citizen. He was born in Seoul and migrated to the United States at the age of 13. The South Korean government considered it an act of desertion and deported him, banning him from entering the country permanently.[29]

Song Seung-heon Edit

In late 2004, it was revealed that actor Song Seung-heon had avoided his draft by taking medication to fail the military physical examination. Song had previously been exempted by claiming to have severe diabetes and high blood pressure, but that was found by the South Korean government to be false.[30] Amidst press coverage and public outcry, Song publicly apologized and agreed to immediately serve his two-year term in the military. Song was discharged on 15 November 2006 with the rank of Corporal.[31][32]

MC Mong Edit

On 11 April 2011, rapper MC Mong was cleared of intentionally pulling out healthy teeth to be exempted from military duty but was sentenced to a suspended jail term of 6 months, probation for one year, and 120 hours of community service, for deliberately delaying enlistment on false grounds.[33] The court acknowledged that there was a delay in his military enlistment; however, they were unable to determine whether he was guilty of extracting teeth for the purpose of avoiding his military draft. In September 2011, it was reported that Mong has been banned by Korean Broadcasting System (KBS) and Munhwa Broadcasting Corporation (MBC) from appearing in its TV shows, for draft dodging.[34]

Kim Mu-yeol Edit

In June 2012 Kim Mu-yeol came under growing public criticism over allegations he dodged his compulsory military service. In a report released by the Korean Board of Audit and Inspection (BAI), Kim was deemed fit to serve in active duty as a level two recruit after a March 2001 physical examination. However, throughout 2007 to 2009, Kim was granted postponement on the grounds that he was taking civil service examinations or had been admitted to a work training facility, neither of which took place. During this time he reportedly earned approximately ₩300 million from films, musicals and television work. In December 2009, he received his final notice for enlistment, having used up the 730 days allowed for postponement. He submitted a request to change his military status in January 2010 because of a knee injury, which was rejected. Finally, a valid exemption was granted on the grounds that he was a "low-income individual" and the sole provider for his family. BAI's contention was that Kim's income is substantially higher than the standard for disqualification due to poverty; thus, the Military Manpower Administration was negligent in their duties by granting the exemption.[35][36][37]

Kim's agency Prain TPC defended him, stating that Kim had been supporting his family by working as a security guard, construction worker and at a mobile phone factory since his late teens. When his father collapsed from a cerebral hemorrhage and was diagnosed with cancer in 2008, the treatments incurred a lot of debt for the family. Their worsening financial condition caused them to become totally dependent on Kim, resulting in his said filing for an exemption in 2010.[38] Given the publicity, a reinvestigation into the case was launched and Kim was asked by the production company to leave the film 11 A.M. (he was replaced by Choi Daniel).[39][40] On 4 October 2012, Kim released a statement that though there was no wrongdoing on his part, he had decided to voluntarily enter the army "to recover his honor damaged by the rumors."[41][42]

T.O.P Edit

T.O.P began his two-year mandatory military service on February 9, 2017 as a conscripted police officer, where he was set to be discharged on November 8, 2018 after completing the requirements.[43] However, it was announced in June that he would be prosecuted without detention for use of marijuana.[44] He was subsequently transferred to a different police division to await notice of prosecution, and was suspended from police duty pending verdict on his case.[45] A few days after the announcement, T.O.P was found unconscious in police barracks due to a suspected anti-anxiety medicine overdose of prescribed benzodiazepine,[46] and was hospitalized.[47] On June 8, T.O.P's mother confirmed that her son had opened his eyes and was recovering.[48]

On June 29, T.O.P faced his first trial for the marijuana usage charges at the Seoul Central District Court.[49] He pleaded guilty to the charges against him and admitted that he did smoke marijuana on two out of the four instances.[50] T.O.P received two years of probation, with a possibility of ten months' jail time if he violates any terms.[51] At the second court hearing the following month, T.O.P was sentenced to 10 months in prison suspended for two years for illegal marijuana use.[52] He acknowledged all guilty charges. After undergoing a disciplinary review by the police to decide if T.O.P could return as a conscripted policeman or will complete his service as a public service officer,[53] the Seoul Metropolitan Police Agency reviewed T.O.P's current condition and decided T.O.P is unfit to resume service in his previous position.[54][55] A request was made to Army headquarters for a new position for T.O.P to determine either to serve as a public service worker of a full-time reserve soldier to complete his mandatory service.[56][57] T.O.P was eventually assigned reservist status by the Ministry of National Defense and transferred from police department.[58] He will complete his mandatory service as a public service worker.[59] The time T.O.P had been dismissed from duty during his prosecution will not count towards his total service.[60][61]

Conscientious objection Edit

The right to conscientious objection is not recognised in South Korea.[62] Usually, over 400 people are imprisoned at any one time for refusing military service, for political or religious reasons. This is contrary to international human rights standards and the government of Korea have been repeatedly criticised for not allowing those whose conscience prevents them from joining the military to undertake some kind of substitute service, rather than imprisoning them.

See also Edit

Republic of Korea Armed Forces

Republic of Korea Army

Republic of Korea Marine Corps

Republic of Korea Navy

Republic of Korea Air Force

References Edit

^ "병역이행안내 - 개요(총괄)" [Military Service Implementation Guide - General Overview]. Military Manpower Organization (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-12-28.

^ a b Lee, Namhee (2007). The Making of Minjung: Democracy and the Politics of Representation in South Korea. Cornell University Press. p. 91. ISBN 0801445663.

^ "S. Korea to expand women's role in military". Yonhap News Agency. 2017-12-20. Retrieved 2017-12-28.

^ "Constitution of the Republic of Korea" (PDF). 1987. p. 12. Retrieved 2017-12-27.

^ Kim, Jongcheol (2012). "Constitutional Law". Introduction to Korean Law. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 78. ISBN 3642316891.

^ a b "Military Service Act, Article 8". Korean Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-29.

^ "History". Military Manpower Administration. Retrieved 2017-12-29.

^ "Military Service Act, Article 5". Korean Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-29.

^ "Military Service Act, Articles 10-14". Korean Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-29.

^ Lent, Jesse (2016-04-01). "'Descendants Of The Sun' Star Song Joong Ki Discusses His Time In The South Korean Army". Korea Portal. Retrieved 2017-12-30.

^ "Military Service Act, Article 18". Korea Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-30.

^ "Military Service Act, Articles 26-43". Korea Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-30.

^ "Conscription 'Should Be Phased Out Slowly'". Chosun Ilbo. 2010-07-06. Retrieved 2017-12-30.

^ Kim, Christine (2010-12-22). "Plan to cut compulsory military service scrapped". Korea JoongAng Daily. Retrieved 2017-12-30.

^ "제68조의11(예술ㆍ체육요원의 추천 등) [Article 68-11: Recommendation of arts and sports personnel, etc.]". 병역법 시행령 [Military Service Act Implementation Rules]. South Korea: Ministry of Government Legislation. 29 November 2016. Retrieved 6 April 2018. 법 제33조의7제1항 전단에서 "대통령령으로 정하는 예술·체육 분야의 특기를 가진 사람"이란 다음 각 호의 어느 하나에 해당하는 사람을 말한다. ... 4. 올림픽대회에서 3위 이상으로 입상한 사람(단체경기종목의 경우에는 실제로 출전한 선수만 해당한다) 5. 아시아경기대회에서 1위로 입상한 사람(단체경기종목의 경우에는 실제로 출전한 선수만 해당한다). [In Article 33, Paragraph 7, Subparagraph 2 of the Act, 'a person having special talents in arts and athletics fields, as defined by presidential order' refers to persons to whom are applicable any one of the provisions of the following subparagraphs. ... 4. A person who received a prize for ranked third or above at the Olympics (in the case of team events, only applicable to athletes who actually participated). 5. A person who received a prize for ranking first at the Asian Games (in the case of team events, only applicable to athletes who actually participated).]

^ "리우에서도 떠오른 축구대표팀 '병역특례'".

^ "Footballer to Be Spared Military Service Despite IOC Probe". Chosun Ilbo. 14 August 2012. Retrieved 2 October 2012.

^ "Medal instead of military service". The Hankyoreh. 11 August 2012. Retrieved 25 February 2013.

^ "들쭉날쭉 병역특례기준 '형평성' 논란…병무청 '누적점수제' 추진" (in Korean). Yonhap News Agency. September 30, 2016.

^ "Park Tae-hwan Enters Army Boot Camp". Chosun Ilbo. 5 October 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2012.

^ "Star Swimmer Says Army Boot Camp Helped Him Grow". Chosun Ilbo. 1 November 2012. Retrieved 4 April 2013.

^ "Hyeon Chung Participates In Korean Military Training - ATP World Tour - Tennis - ATP World Tour - Tennis".

^ 공무원보수규정 '별표 13' 군인의 봉급표(제5조 및 별표 1 관련) . Korea Ministry of Government Legislation (in Korean). Retrieved 28 April 2015.

^ 조, 기호 (18 July 2012). "운동화 한 켤레 못 주는 군(軍)!". Seoul Broadcasting System. Retrieved 4 August 2012.

^ "[보도자료] 예산 없다던 국방부, 사관생도에게는 고가 외국브랜드 운동화 지급". Retrieved 4 August 2012.[dead link]

^ "FAQs-Dual Citizens | U.S. Embassy & Consulate in Korea". U.S. Embassy & Consulate in Korea. Retrieved 2017-10-12.

^ "South Korean singer Rain reports for military service". BBC News. 11 October 2011. Retrieved 2011-10-14.

^ Park, Eun-jee (16 January 2013). "Military service mischief a losing battle". Joongang Daily. Archived from the original on 29 June 2013. Retrieved 4 April 2013.

^ Seo, Ji-eun "Steve Yoo isn’t coming back to Korea" Archived 6 January 2013 at the Wayback Machine. Joongang Daily. 20 October 2011. retrieved 2011-11-08

^ (in Korean) "최지우, '승헌이에게 말 걸어볼까?"[permanent dead link] SSTV. 30 June 2009. Retrieved 2011-11-06

^ "Song Seung-heon, Jang Hyeok Discharged from Military" HanCinema. 16 November 2011. Retrieved 2011-10-14

^ (in Korean) "Song Seung-heon discharged from the army"Yahoo News Korea, 2006-11-18. Archived 14 June 2011 at the Wayback Machine.

^ "Rapper Gets Suspended Jail Term for Draft Dodging" Chosun Ilbo. 12 April 2011. Retrieved 2011-10-14

^ "KBS, MBC release list of 36 banned entertainers" Dong-A Ilbo. 28 September 2011. 2011-10-14

^ Sunwoo, Carla (22 June 2012). "Actor Kim Moo-yul was poor enough to dodge military service". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 27 January 2013. Retrieved 6 October 2012.

^ Lee, In-kyung (21 June 2012). "Kim Moo Yul Involved in Military Scandal after Avoiding Duties". enewsWorld. Retrieved 2012-10-06.

^ "High-Paid Actor Exempted from Draft for Poverty". The Chosun Ilbo. 22 June 2012. Retrieved 2012-10-06.

^ Moon, Gwang-lip (25 June 2012). "Agent says Kim Moo-yul's family situation was 'nearly impossible'". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 11 August 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2012.

^ Sunwoo, Carla (10 July 2012). "Kim Moo-yul kicked off movie set". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 26 January 2013. Retrieved 6 October 2012.

^ Sunwoo, Carla (11 July 2012). "Choi Daniel to replace Kim Moo-yul". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 5 August 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2012.

^ Lee, Hye-ji (5 October 2012). "Kim Moo-yeol to Enter Army, Cleaning out Exemption Rumors". 10Asia. Retrieved 2012-11-18.

^ Sunwoo, Carla (11 October 2011). "Kim Moo-yul enlists after rumors". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 26 October 2012. Retrieved 18 November 2012.

^ "BIGBANG's T.O.P confirms military enlistment date". Yibada. November 22, 2016.

^ "The Full Story Behind T.O.P's Drug Scandal, And The Mysterious Trainee Woman". June 2, 2017. Retrieved June 8, 2017.

^ Jun, R. "BIGBANG's T.O.P To Be Dismissed From Duty For Duration of Prosecution". Soompi. Retrieved 8 June 2017.

^ "Medical expert comments on T.O.P's benzodiazepine overdose | allkpop.com". allkpop. Retrieved 2017-06-09.

^ "BIGBANG's T.O.P hospitalized for drug overdose". YonhapNews. June 6, 2017. Retrieved June 6, 2017.

^ "K-pop superstar T.O.P. in intensive care after overdose". BBC. June 8, 2017. Retrieved June 28, 2017.

^ Kim Jung-kyoon (June 30, 2017). "T.O.P admits to all charges at first hearing". Korea JoongAng Daily. Retrieved July 19, 2017.

^ "Big Bang's T.O.P pleads guilty to pot charges". The Jakarta Post. June 30, 2017. Retrieved 2017-07-19.

^ Park Hyeong-taek (June 29, 2017). "[SC현장] 탑, 대마초 4회 흡연 시인…"공소사실 모두 인정"" [[SC scene] Top, smoking four po ... "All the facts of the charges"]. Sports Chosun (in Korean). Retrieved July 19, 2017.

^ Riddhiman Mukhopadhyay (July 20, 2017). "Rapper T.O.P sentenced at final trial: Apologizes to fans for his actions". International Business Times. Retrieved July 21, 2017.

^ "(LEAD) BIGBANG's T.O.P. gets suspended sentence for marijuana use". Yonhap News Agency. July 20, 2017. Retrieved July 20, 2017.

^ "빅뱅 탑, 재복무심사에서 부적합 결론… 의경신분 박탈" [Big Bang tower is inadequate in re-examination ... Deprivation of state]. Sports Chosun (in Korean). July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.

^ "BIGBANG's T.O.P to lose police post after drug conviction". Yonhap News Agency. July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.

^ "탑, 의경 신분 박탈 '재복무 심사서 부적합 판정'" [Top, disqualification of state of rehabilitation]. Starin E-Daily (in Korean). July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.

^ "BigBang rapper T.O.P cannot continue serving military duty as a policeman". Starits Times. July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.

^ Lee Young-jae (August 28, 2017). "'대마초 흡연' 빅뱅 탑, 의경에서 사회복무 요원 됐다". Korea JoongAng Daily (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.

^ Kim Ji-heon (August 28, 2017). "'대마초' 빅뱅 탑, 오늘 의경 전역…사회복무요원으로 근무". Yonhap News Agency (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.

^ Kim Yoo-jin (August 28, 2017). "'대마초 논란' 탑, 보충역 통보받고 오늘 전역…사회복무요원으로 전환". Herald Economy (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.

^ Hae Kyung Heon (August 28, 2017). "대마초 집유판결 탑 결국 사회복무요원으로, 누리꾼 반응 '냉랭'". Sports Khan (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.

^ "Country report and updates: Korea, South - War Resisters' International". www.wri-irg.org.

Exter

Wikipedia Search

EditWatch this pageRead in another language

Conscription in South Korea

Conscription in South Korea has existed since 1957 and requires male citizens between the ages of 18 and 35 to perform about two years of compulsory military service.[1][2] Women are not required to perform military service, but may voluntarily enlist.[3]

Establishment Edit

The basis for military conscription in South Korea is the Constitution of the Republic of Korea, which was promulgated on July 17, 1948. The constitution states in Article 39, "All citizens shall have the duty of national defense under the conditions as prescribed by Act."[4][5] The Military Service Act of 1949, which was implemented in 1957, specified that compulsory military service is required for men ages 18 or older.[6][2] Conscription is managed by the Military Manpower Administration, which was created in 1948.[7]

Requirements Edit

Enlistment and physical exam Edit

By law, when a Korean man turns 18 years old, he is enlisted for "first citizen service," meaning he is liable for military duty, but is not yet required to serve.[6][8] When he turns 19 years old (or, in some instances, 20 years old), he is required to undergo a physical exam to determine whether he is suitable for military service. The table below shows the physical exam's possible grades and their outcomes, according to the Military Service Act.[9]

Grade Description Outcome

1, 2, 3, 4 "Those whose physical and psychological constitution is healthy enough to perform active or supplemental service." "To be enlisted for active duty service, supplemental service or the second citizen service, based on their qualifications, such as educational background and age."

5 "Those incapable of entering active or supplemental service, but capable of entering the second citizen service." "To be enlisted for the second citizen service."

6 "Those incapable of performing military service due to any disease or mental or physical incompetence." "To be exempted from military service."

7 "Those unable to be graded...due to any disease or mental or physical incompetence." "To undergo a follow-up physical examination" within two years.

Service types and length Edit

The length of compulsory military service in South Korea varies based on military branch.[10] Active duty soldiers serve 21 months in the Army or Marine Corps, 23 months in the Navy, and 24 months in the Air Force.[11] After conscripts finish their military service, they are automatically placed on the reserve roster and are obligated to attend a few days of annual military training for 6 years.[citation needed]

Non-active duty personnel, or "supplemental service" personnel serve for various lengths: 24 months for social work personnel or international cooperation service personnel; 34 months for arts and sports personnel or industrial technical personnel; and 36 months for public health doctors, lawyers, veterinarians, or expert researchers.[12]

South Korea currently has among the longest military service periods in the world, ranked behind Israel, Singapore, and North Korea.[citation needed] In 2010, there was growing public pressure to either shorten the length of conscription or to switch to voluntary military service, and calls from experts for a gradual phasing out of conscription rather than complete abolition.[13] However, in December 2010, after taking into consideration of the 2010 ROKS Cheonan sinking and Bombardment of Yeonpyeong incidents, the South Korean government said it would not reduce service periods.[14]

Exemptions for Olympic medalists Edit

Current conscription regulations stipulate that athletes who win medals in the Olympic Games or gold medals in the Asian Games are granted exemptions from military service and are placed in Grade 4.[15] They are required to do four weeks of basic military training and engage in sports field for 34 months. After that, they are automatically placed on the reserve roster, and are obligated to attend a few days of annual military training for six years. In practice, after athletes finish their four weeks of basic military training, they are able to continue their own sports career during the 34 months of duty.[16]

Notable athletes who have been granted exemptions from military service are the bronze medal-winning football team at the 2012 Summer Olympics,[17][18] 2008 Olympic gold medalists badminton player Lee Yong-dae[19] and swimmer Park Tae-hwan[20][21] and 2014 Asian Games gold medalist tennis player Hyeon Chung.[22]

Compensation Edit

The following data is from 'Regulation on Public Servant Compensation', implemented on 1 January 2017.[23] Exchange rate as of 2 May 2018 (₩1077 to $1.00USD)

Private (이등병) Private first class (일등병) Corporal (상등병) Sergeant (병장)

₩163,000

$151.35 (approx) per month ₩176,400

$163.79 (approx) per month ₩195,000

$181.06 (approx) per month ₩216,000

$200.56 (approx) per month

Equipment Edit

The Ministry of National Defense has revealed that it has failed to provide sneakers to 7,411 recruits who joined the military from 22 May to 4 June 2012, after the budget was insufficient for need. The Defense ministry originally projected the cost of each pair of sneakers to be 11,000 KRW. However, the actual cost turned out to be 15,000 KRW.[24]

The office of National Assembly member Kim Kwang-jin of Democratic United Party revealed that cadets in Korea Military Academy were provided with sneakers worth 60,000 KRW and tennis shoes. Cadets in Korea Army Academy at Yeongcheon were provided with sneakers worth 64,250 KRW, in addition to running shoes and soccer shoes.[25]

Dual citizens Edit

For dual citizens, or those with multiple citizenships, male South Koreans must choose their citizenship by the time they turn 18, before March 31 of that year. If these males choose to revoke their South Korean citizenship, they will not be required to complete their mandatory military service. However, if they fail to choose their citizenship by their 18th year, they will be subjected to fulfill their mandatory military service.[26] If males choose to renounce their citizenship by their 18th year, they are ineligible to gain a Korean work visa (F series) until after they turn 40 years of age. It may still be possible to gain an E series visa.

Controversies Edit

The South Korean public is sensitive towards the country's mandatory military service, but also has a low tolerance towards those who attempt to dodge or receive special treatment, especially after scandals of wealthy families caught trying to avoid their national duty. Those found or accused of draft dodging and negligence of duty often face harsh penalties and public backlash. According to Ha Jae-keun, a South Korean pop columnist, "The mood against draft-dodgers and negligence of duty is so hostile that nowadays entertainers feel it's better to get it over and done with".[27][28]

Steve Yoo Edit

In 2002, right before Korean American pop singer Steve Yoo was due to be drafted for his military service, he gave up his Korean nationality and became a naturalized U.S. citizen. He was born in Seoul and migrated to the United States at the age of 13. The South Korean government considered it an act of desertion and deported him, banning him from entering the country permanently.[29]

Song Seung-heon Edit

In late 2004, it was revealed that actor Song Seung-heon had avoided his draft by taking medication to fail the military physical examination. Song had previously been exempted by claiming to have severe diabetes and high blood pressure, but that was found by the South Korean government to be false.[30] Amidst press coverage and public outcry, Song publicly apologized and agreed to immediately serve his two-year term in the military. Song was discharged on 15 November 2006 with the rank of Corporal.[31][32]

MC Mong Edit

On 11 April 2011, rapper MC Mong was cleared of intentionally pulling out healthy teeth to be exempted from military duty but was sentenced to a suspended jail term of 6 months, probation for one year, and 120 hours of community service, for deliberately delaying enlistment on false grounds.[33] The court acknowledged that there was a delay in his military enlistment; however, they were unable to determine whether he was guilty of extracting teeth for the purpose of avoiding his military draft. In September 2011, it was reported that Mong has been banned by Korean Broadcasting System (KBS) and Munhwa Broadcasting Corporation (MBC) from appearing in its TV shows, for draft dodging.[34]

Kim Mu-yeol Edit

In June 2012 Kim Mu-yeol came under growing public criticism over allegations he dodged his compulsory military service. In a report released by the Korean Board of Audit and Inspection (BAI), Kim was deemed fit to serve in active duty as a level two recruit after a March 2001 physical examination. However, throughout 2007 to 2009, Kim was granted postponement on the grounds that he was taking civil service examinations or had been admitted to a work training facility, neither of which took place. During this time he reportedly earned approximately ₩300 million from films, musicals and television work. In December 2009, he received his final notice for enlistment, having used up the 730 days allowed for postponement. He submitted a request to change his military status in January 2010 because of a knee injury, which was rejected. Finally, a valid exemption was granted on the grounds that he was a "low-income individual" and the sole provider for his family. BAI's contention was that Kim's income is substantially higher than the standard for disqualification due to poverty; thus, the Military Manpower Administration was negligent in their duties by granting the exemption.[35][36][37]

Kim's agency Prain TPC defended him, stating that Kim had been supporting his family by working as a security guard, construction worker and at a mobile phone factory since his late teens. When his father collapsed from a cerebral hemorrhage and was diagnosed with cancer in 2008, the treatments incurred a lot of debt for the family. Their worsening financial condition caused them to become totally dependent on Kim, resulting in his said filing for an exemption in 2010.[38] Given the publicity, a reinvestigation into the case was launched and Kim was asked by the production company to leave the film 11 A.M. (he was replaced by Choi Daniel).[39][40] On 4 October 2012, Kim released a statement that though there was no wrongdoing on his part, he had decided to voluntarily enter the army "to recover his honor damaged by the rumors."[41][42]

T.O.P Edit

T.O.P began his two-year mandatory military service on February 9, 2017 as a conscripted police officer, where he was set to be discharged on November 8, 2018 after completing the requirements.[43] However, it was announced in June that he would be prosecuted without detention for use of marijuana.[44] He was subsequently transferred to a different police division to await notice of prosecution, and was suspended from police duty pending verdict on his case.[45] A few days after the announcement, T.O.P was found unconscious in police barracks due to a suspected anti-anxiety medicine overdose of prescribed benzodiazepine,[46] and was hospitalized.[47] On June 8, T.O.P's mother confirmed that her son had opened his eyes and was recovering.[48]

On June 29, T.O.P faced his first trial for the marijuana usage charges at the Seoul Central District Court.[49] He pleaded guilty to the charges against him and admitted that he did smoke marijuana on two out of the four instances.[50] T.O.P received two years of probation, with a possibility of ten months' jail time if he violates any terms.[51] At the second court hearing the following month, T.O.P was sentenced to 10 months in prison suspended for two years for illegal marijuana use.[52] He acknowledged all guilty charges. After undergoing a disciplinary review by the police to decide if T.O.P could return as a conscripted policeman or will complete his service as a public service officer,[53] the Seoul Metropolitan Police Agency reviewed T.O.P's current condition and decided T.O.P is unfit to resume service in his previous position.[54][55] A request was made to Army headquarters for a new position for T.O.P to determine either to serve as a public service worker of a full-time reserve soldier to complete his mandatory service.[56][57] T.O.P was eventually assigned reservist status by the Ministry of National Defense and transferred from police department.[58] He will complete his mandatory service as a public service worker.[59] The time T.O.P had been dismissed from duty during his prosecution will not count towards his total service.[60][61]

Conscientious objection Edit

The right to conscientious objection is not recognised in South Korea.[62] Usually, over 400 people are imprisoned at any one time for refusing military service, for political or religious reasons. This is contrary to international human rights standards and the government of Korea have been repeatedly criticised for not allowing those whose conscience prevents them from joining the military to undertake some kind of substitute service, rather than imprisoning them.

See also Edit

Republic of Korea Armed Forces

Republic of Korea Army

Republic of Korea Marine Corps

Republic of Korea Navy

Republic of Korea Air Force

References Edit

^ "병역이행안내 - 개요(총괄)" [Military Service Implementation Guide - General Overview]. Military Manpower Organization (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-12-28.

^ a b Lee, Namhee (2007). The Making of Minjung: Democracy and the Politics of Representation in South Korea. Cornell University Press. p. 91. ISBN 0801445663.

^ "S. Korea to expand women's role in military". Yonhap News Agency. 2017-12-20. Retrieved 2017-12-28.

^ "Constitution of the Republic of Korea" (PDF). 1987. p. 12. Retrieved 2017-12-27.

^ Kim, Jongcheol (2012). "Constitutional Law". Introduction to Korean Law. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 78. ISBN 3642316891.

^ a b "Military Service Act, Article 8". Korean Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-29.

^ "History". Military Manpower Administration. Retrieved 2017-12-29.

^ "Military Service Act, Article 5". Korean Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-29.

^ "Military Service Act, Articles 10-14". Korean Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-29.

^ Lent, Jesse (2016-04-01). "'Descendants Of The Sun' Star Song Joong Ki Discusses His Time In The South Korean Army". Korea Portal. Retrieved 2017-12-30.

^ "Military Service Act, Article 18". Korea Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-30.

^ "Military Service Act, Articles 26-43". Korea Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-30.

^ "Conscription 'Should Be Phased Out Slowly'". Chosun Ilbo. 2010-07-06. Retrieved 2017-12-30.

^ Kim, Christine (2010-12-22). "Plan to cut compulsory military service scrapped". Korea JoongAng Daily. Retrieved 2017-12-30.

^ "제68조의11(예술ㆍ체육요원의 추천 등) [Article 68-11: Recommendation of arts and sports personnel, etc.]". 병역법 시행령 [Military Service Act Implementation Rules]. South Korea: Ministry of Government Legislation. 29 November 2016. Retrieved 6 April 2018. 법 제33조의7제1항 전단에서 "대통령령으로 정하는 예술·체육 분야의 특기를 가진 사람"이란 다음 각 호의 어느 하나에 해당하는 사람을 말한다. ... 4. 올림픽대회에서 3위 이상으로 입상한 사람(단체경기종목의 경우에는 실제로 출전한 선수만 해당한다) 5. 아시아경기대회에서 1위로 입상한 사람(단체경기종목의 경우에는 실제로 출전한 선수만 해당한다). [In Article 33, Paragraph 7, Subparagraph 2 of the Act, 'a person having special talents in arts and athletics fields, as defined by presidential order' refers to persons to whom are applicable any one of the provisions of the following subparagraphs. ... 4. A person who received a prize for ranked third or above at the Olympics (in the case of team events, only applicable to athletes who actually participated). 5. A person who received a prize for ranking first at the Asian Games (in the case of team events, only applicable to athletes who actually participated).]

^ "리우에서도 떠오른 축구대표팀 '병역특례'".

^ "Footballer to Be Spared Military Service Despite IOC Probe". Chosun Ilbo. 14 August 2012. Retrieved 2 October 2012.

^ "Medal instead of military service". The Hankyoreh. 11 August 2012. Retrieved 25 February 2013.

^ "들쭉날쭉 병역특례기준 '형평성' 논란…병무청 '누적점수제' 추진" (in Korean). Yonhap News Agency. September 30, 2016.

^ "Park Tae-hwan Enters Army Boot Camp". Chosun Ilbo. 5 October 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2012.

^ "Star Swimmer Says Army Boot Camp Helped Him Grow". Chosun Ilbo. 1 November 2012. Retrieved 4 April 2013.

^ "Hyeon Chung Participates In Korean Military Training - ATP World Tour - Tennis - ATP World Tour - Tennis".

^ 공무원보수규정 '별표 13' 군인의 봉급표(제5조 및 별표 1 관련) . Korea Ministry of Government Legislation (in Korean). Retrieved 28 April 2015.

^ 조, 기호 (18 July 2012). "운동화 한 켤레 못 주는 군(軍)!". Seoul Broadcasting System. Retrieved 4 August 2012.

^ "[보도자료] 예산 없다던 국방부, 사관생도에게는 고가 외국브랜드 운동화 지급". Retrieved 4 August 2012.[dead link]

^ "FAQs-Dual Citizens | U.S. Embassy & Consulate in Korea". U.S. Embassy & Consulate in Korea. Retrieved 2017-10-12.

^ "South Korean singer Rain reports for military service". BBC News. 11 October 2011. Retrieved 2011-10-14.

^ Park, Eun-jee (16 January 2013). "Military service mischief a losing battle". Joongang Daily. Archived from the original on 29 June 2013. Retrieved 4 April 2013.

^ Seo, Ji-eun "Steve Yoo isn’t coming back to Korea" Archived 6 January 2013 at the Wayback Machine. Joongang Daily. 20 October 2011. retrieved 2011-11-08

^ (in Korean) "최지우, '승헌이에게 말 걸어볼까?"[permanent dead link] SSTV. 30 June 2009. Retrieved 2011-11-06

^ "Song Seung-heon, Jang Hyeok Discharged from Military" HanCinema. 16 November 2011. Retrieved 2011-10-14

^ (in Korean) "Song Seung-heon discharged from the army"Yahoo News Korea, 2006-11-18. Archived 14 June 2011 at the Wayback Machine.

^ "Rapper Gets Suspended Jail Term for Draft Dodging" Chosun Ilbo. 12 April 2011. Retrieved 2011-10-14

^ "KBS, MBC release list of 36 banned entertainers" Dong-A Ilbo. 28 September 2011. 2011-10-14

^ Sunwoo, Carla (22 June 2012). "Actor Kim Moo-yul was poor enough to dodge military service". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 27 January 2013. Retrieved 6 October 2012.

^ Lee, In-kyung (21 June 2012). "Kim Moo Yul Involved in Military Scandal after Avoiding Duties". enewsWorld. Retrieved 2012-10-06.

^ "High-Paid Actor Exempted from Draft for Poverty". The Chosun Ilbo. 22 June 2012. Retrieved 2012-10-06.

^ Moon, Gwang-lip (25 June 2012). "Agent says Kim Moo-yul's family situation was 'nearly impossible'". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 11 August 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2012.

^ Sunwoo, Carla (10 July 2012). "Kim Moo-yul kicked off movie set". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 26 January 2013. Retrieved 6 October 2012.

^ Sunwoo, Carla (11 July 2012). "Choi Daniel to replace Kim Moo-yul". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 5 August 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2012.

^ Lee, Hye-ji (5 October 2012). "Kim Moo-yeol to Enter Army, Cleaning out Exemption Rumors". 10Asia. Retrieved 2012-11-18.

^ Sunwoo, Carla (11 October 2011). "Kim Moo-yul enlists after rumors". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 26 October 2012. Retrieved 18 November 2012.

^ "BIGBANG's T.O.P confirms military enlistment date". Yibada. November 22, 2016.

^ "The Full Story Behind T.O.P's Drug Scandal, And The Mysterious Trainee Woman". June 2, 2017. Retrieved June 8, 2017.

^ Jun, R. "BIGBANG's T.O.P To Be Dismissed From Duty For Duration of Prosecution". Soompi. Retrieved 8 June 2017.

^ "Medical expert comments on T.O.P's benzodiazepine overdose | allkpop.com". allkpop. Retrieved 2017-06-09.

^ "BIGBANG's T.O.P hospitalized for drug overdose". YonhapNews. June 6, 2017. Retrieved June 6, 2017.

^ "K-pop superstar T.O.P. in intensive care after overdose". BBC. June 8, 2017. Retrieved June 28, 2017.

^ Kim Jung-kyoon (June 30, 2017). "T.O.P admits to all charges at first hearing". Korea JoongAng Daily. Retrieved July 19, 2017.

^ "Big Bang's T.O.P pleads guilty to pot charges". The Jakarta Post. June 30, 2017. Retrieved 2017-07-19.

^ Park Hyeong-taek (June 29, 2017). "[SC현장] 탑, 대마초 4회 흡연 시인…"공소사실 모두 인정"" [[SC scene] Top, smoking four po ... "All the facts of the charges"]. Sports Chosun (in Korean). Retrieved July 19, 2017.

^ Riddhiman Mukhopadhyay (July 20, 2017). "Rapper T.O.P sentenced at final trial: Apologizes to fans for his actions". International Business Times. Retrieved July 21, 2017.

^ "(LEAD) BIGBANG's T.O.P. gets suspended sentence for marijuana use". Yonhap News Agency. July 20, 2017. Retrieved July 20, 2017.

^ "빅뱅 탑, 재복무심사에서 부적합 결론… 의경신분 박탈" [Big Bang tower is inadequate in re-examination ... Deprivation of state]. Sports Chosun (in Korean). July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.

^ "BIGBANG's T.O.P to lose police post after drug conviction". Yonhap News Agency. July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.

^ "탑, 의경 신분 박탈 '재복무 심사서 부적합 판정'" [Top, disqualification of state of rehabilitation]. Starin E-Daily (in Korean). July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.

^ "BigBang rapper T.O.P cannot continue serving military duty as a policeman". Starits Times. July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.

^ Lee Young-jae (August 28, 2017). "'대마초 흡연' 빅뱅 탑, 의경에서 사회복무 요원 됐다". Korea JoongAng Daily (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.

^ Kim Ji-heon (August 28, 2017). "'대마초' 빅뱅 탑, 오늘 의경 전역…사회복무요원으로 근무". Yonhap News Agency (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.

^ Kim Yoo-jin (August 28, 2017). "'대마초 논란' 탑, 보충역 통보받고 오늘 전역…사회복무요원으로 전환". Herald Economy (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.

^ Hae Kyung Heon (August 28, 2017). "대마초 집유판결 탑 결국 사회복무요원으로, 누리꾼 반응 '냉랭'". Sports Khan (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.

^ "Country report and updates: Korea, South - War Resisters' International". www.wri-irg.org.

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Conscription in South Korea

Conscription in South Korea has existed since 1957 and requires male citizens between the ages of 18 and 35 to perform about two years of compulsory military service.[1][2] Women are not required to perform military service, but may voluntarily enlist.[3]

Establishment Edit

The basis for military conscription in South Korea is the Constitution of the Republic of Korea, which was promulgated on July 17, 1948. The constitution states in Article 39, "All citizens shall have the duty of national defense under the conditions as prescribed by Act."[4][5] The Military Service Act of 1949, which was implemented in 1957, specified that compulsory military service is required for men ages 18 or older.[6][2] Conscription is managed by the Military Manpower Administration, which was created in 1948.[7]

Requirements Edit

Enlistment and physical exam Edit

By law, when a Korean man turns 18 years old, he is enlisted for "first citizen service," meaning he is liable for military duty, but is not yet required to serve.[6][8] When he turns 19 years old (or, in some instances, 20 years old), he is required to undergo a physical exam to determine whether he is suitable for military service. The table below shows the physical exam's possible grades and their outcomes, according to the Military Service Act.[9]

Grade Description Outcome

1, 2, 3, 4 "Those whose physical and psychological constitution is healthy enough to perform active or supplemental service." "To be enlisted for active duty service, supplemental service or the second citizen service, based on their qualifications, such as educational background and age."

5 "Those incapable of entering active or supplemental service, but capable of entering the second citizen service." "To be enlisted for the second citizen service."

6 "Those incapable of performing military service due to any disease or mental or physical incompetence." "To be exempted from military service."

7 "Those unable to be graded...due to any disease or mental or physical incompetence." "To undergo a follow-up physical examination" within two years.

Service types and length Edit

The length of compulsory military service in South Korea varies based on military branch.[10] Active duty soldiers serve 21 months in the Army or Marine Corps, 23 months in the Navy, and 24 months in the Air Force.[11] After conscripts finish their military service, they are automatically placed on the reserve roster and are obligated to attend a few days of annual military training for 6 years.[citation needed]

Non-active duty personnel, or "supplemental service" personnel serve for various lengths: 24 months for social work personnel or international cooperation service personnel; 34 months for arts and sports personnel or industrial technical personnel; and 36 months for public health doctors, lawyers, veterinarians, or expert researchers.[12]

South Korea currently has among the longest military service periods in the world, ranked behind Israel, Singapore, and North Korea.[citation needed] In 2010, there was growing public pressure to either shorten the length of conscription or to switch to voluntary military service, and calls from experts for a gradual phasing out of conscription rather than complete abolition.[13] However, in December 2010, after taking into consideration of the 2010 ROKS Cheonan sinking and Bombardment of Yeonpyeong incidents, the South Korean government said it would not reduce service periods.[14]

Exemptions for Olympic medalists Edit

Current conscription regulations stipulate that athletes who win medals in the Olympic Games or gold medals in the Asian Games are granted exemptions from military service and are placed in Grade 4.[15] They are required to do four weeks of basic military training and engage in sports field for 34 months. After that, they are automatically placed on the reserve roster, and are obligated to attend a few days of annual military training for six years. In practice, after athletes finish their four weeks of basic military training, they are able to continue their own sports career during the 34 months of duty.[16]

Notable athletes who have been granted exemptions from military service are the bronze medal-winning football team at the 2012 Summer Olympics,[17][18] 2008 Olympic gold medalists badminton player Lee Yong-dae[19] and swimmer Park Tae-hwan[20][21] and 2014 Asian Games gold medalist tennis player Hyeon Chung.[22]

Compensation Edit

The following data is from 'Regulation on Public Servant Compensation', implemented on 1 January 2017.[23] Exchange rate as of 2 May 2018 (₩1077 to $1.00USD)

Private (이등병) Private first class (일등병) Corporal (상등병) Sergeant (병장)

₩163,000

$151.35 (approx) per month ₩176,400

$163.79 (approx) per month ₩195,000

$181.06 (approx) per month ₩216,000

$200.56 (approx) per month

Equipment Edit

The Ministry of National Defense has revealed that it has failed to provide sneakers to 7,411 recruits who joined the military from 22 May to 4 June 2012, after the budget was insufficient for need. The Defense ministry originally projected the cost of each pair of sneakers to be 11,000 KRW. However, the actual cost turned out to be 15,000 KRW.[24]

The office of National Assembly member Kim Kwang-jin of Democratic United Party revealed that cadets in Korea Military Academy were provided with sneakers worth 60,000 KRW and tennis shoes. Cadets in Korea Army Academy at Yeongcheon were provided with sneakers worth 64,250 KRW, in addition to running shoes and soccer shoes.[25]

Dual citizens Edit

For dual citizens, or those with multiple citizenships, male South Koreans must choose their citizenship by the time they turn 18, before March 31 of that year. If these males choose to revoke their South Korean citizenship, they will not be required to complete their mandatory military service. However, if they fail to choose their citizenship by their 18th year, they will be subjected to fulfill their mandatory military service.[26] If males choose to renounce their citizenship by their 18th year, they are ineligible to gain a Korean work visa (F series) until after they turn 40 years of age. It may still be possible to gain an E series visa.

Controversies Edit

The South Korean public is sensitive towards the country's mandatory military service, but also has a low tolerance towards those who attempt to dodge or receive special treatment, especially after scandals of wealthy families caught trying to avoid their national duty. Those found or accused of draft dodging and negligence of duty often face harsh penalties and public backlash. According to Ha Jae-keun, a South Korean pop columnist, "The mood against draft-dodgers and negligence of duty is so hostile that nowadays entertainers feel it's better to get it over and done with".[27][28]

Steve Yoo Edit

In 2002, right before Korean American pop singer Steve Yoo was due to be drafted for his military service, he gave up his Korean nationality and became a naturalized U.S. citizen. He was born in Seoul and migrated to the United States at the age of 13. The South Korean government considered it an act of desertion and deported him, banning him from entering the country permanently.[29]

Song Seung-heon Edit

In late 2004, it was revealed that actor Song Seung-heon had avoided his draft by taking medication to fail the military physical examination. Song had previously been exempted by claiming to have severe diabetes and high blood pressure, but that was found by the South Korean government to be false.[30] Amidst press coverage and public outcry, Song publicly apologized and agreed to immediately serve his two-year term in the military. Song was discharged on 15 November 2006 with the rank of Corporal.[31][32]

MC Mong Edit

On 11 April 2011, rapper MC Mong was cleared of intentionally pulling out healthy teeth to be exempted from military duty but was sentenced to a suspended jail term of 6 months, probation for one year, and 120 hours of community service, for deliberately delaying enlistment on false grounds.[33] The court acknowledged that there was a delay in his military enlistment; however, they were unable to determine whether he was guilty of extracting teeth for the purpose of avoiding his military draft. In September 2011, it was reported that Mong has been banned by Korean Broadcasting System (KBS) and Munhwa Broadcasting Corporation (MBC) from appearing in its TV shows, for draft dodging.[34]

Kim Mu-yeol Edit

In June 2012 Kim Mu-yeol came under growing public criticism over allegations he dodged his compulsory military service. In a report released by the Korean Board of Audit and Inspection (BAI), Kim was deemed fit to serve in active duty as a level two recruit after a March 2001 physical examination. However, throughout 2007 to 2009, Kim was granted postponement on the grounds that he was taking civil service examinations or had been admitted to a work training facility, neither of which took place. During this time he reportedly earned approximately ₩300 million from films, musicals and television work. In December 2009, he received his final notice for enlistment, having used up the 730 days allowed for postponement. He submitted a request to change his military status in January 2010 because of a knee injury, which was rejected. Finally, a valid exemption was granted on the grounds that he was a "low-income individual" and the sole provider for his family. BAI's contention was that Kim's income is substantially higher than the standard for disqualification due to poverty; thus, the Military Manpower Administration was negligent in their duties by granting the exemption.[35][36][37]

Kim's agency Prain TPC defended him, stating that Kim had been supporting his family by working as a security guard, construction worker and at a mobile phone factory since his late teens. When his father collapsed from a cerebral hemorrhage and was diagnosed with cancer in 2008, the treatments incurred a lot of debt for the family. Their worsening financial condition caused them to become totally dependent on Kim, resulting in his said filing for an exemption in 2010.[38] Given the publicity, a reinvestigation into the case was launched and Kim was asked by the production company to leave the film 11 A.M. (he was replaced by Choi Daniel).[39][40] On 4 October 2012, Kim released a statement that though there was no wrongdoing on his part, he had decided to voluntarily enter the army "to recover his honor damaged by the rumors."[41][42]

T.O.P Edit

T.O.P began his two-year mandatory military service on February 9, 2017 as a conscripted police officer, where he was set to be discharged on November 8, 2018 after completing the requirements.[43] However, it was announced in June that he would be prosecuted without detention for use of marijuana.[44] He was subsequently transferred to a different police division to await notice of prosecution, and was suspended from police duty pending verdict on his case.[45] A few days after the announcement, T.O.P was found unconscious in police barracks due to a suspected anti-anxiety medicine overdose of prescribed benzodiazepine,[46] and was hospitalized.[47] On June 8, T.O.P's mother confirmed that her son had opened his eyes and was recovering.[48]

On June 29, T.O.P faced his first trial for the marijuana usage charges at the Seoul Central District Court.[49] He pleaded guilty to the charges against him and admitted that he did smoke marijuana on two out of the four instances.[50] T.O.P received two years of probation, with a possibility of ten months' jail time if he violates any terms.[51] At the second court hearing the following month, T.O.P was sentenced to 10 months in prison suspended for two years for illegal marijuana use.[52] He acknowledged all guilty charges. After undergoing a disciplinary review by the police to decide if T.O.P could return as a conscripted policeman or will complete his service as a public service officer,[53] the Seoul Metropolitan Police Agency reviewed T.O.P's current condition and decided T.O.P is unfit to resume service in his previous position.[54][55] A request was made to Army headquarters for a new position for T.O.P to determine either to serve as a public service worker of a full-time reserve soldier to complete his mandatory service.[56][57] T.O.P was eventually assigned reservist status by the Ministry of National Defense and transferred from police department.[58] He will complete his mandatory service as a public service worker.[59] The time T.O.P had been dismissed from duty during his prosecution will not count towards his total service.[60][61]

Conscientious objection Edit

The right to conscientious objection is not recognised in South Korea.[62] Usually, over 400 people are imprisoned at any one time for refusing military service, for political or religious reasons. This is contrary to international human rights standards and the government of Korea have been repeatedly criticised for not allowing those whose conscience prevents them from joining the military to undertake some kind of substitute service, rather than imprisoning them.

See also Edit

Republic of Korea Armed Forces

Republic of Korea Army

Republic of Korea Marine Corps

Republic of Korea Navy

Republic of Korea Air Force

References Edit

^ "병역이행안내 - 개요(총괄)" [Military Service Implementation Guide - General Overview]. Military Manpower Organization (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-12-28.

^ a b Lee, Namhee (2007). The Making of Minjung: Democracy and the Politics of Representation in South Korea. Cornell University Press. p. 91. ISBN 0801445663.

^ "S. Korea to expand women's role in military". Yonhap News Agency. 2017-12-20. Retrieved 2017-12-28.

^ "Constitution of the Republic of Korea" (PDF). 1987. p. 12. Retrieved 2017-12-27.

^ Kim, Jongcheol (2012). "Constitutional Law". Introduction to Korean Law. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 78. ISBN 3642316891.

^ a b "Military Service Act, Article 8". Korean Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-29.

^ "History". Military Manpower Administration. Retrieved 2017-12-29.

^ "Military Service Act, Article 5". Korean Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-29.

^ "Military Service Act, Articles 10-14". Korean Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-29.

^ Lent, Jesse (2016-04-01). "'Descendants Of The Sun' Star Song Joong Ki Discusses His Time In The South Korean Army". Korea Portal. Retrieved 2017-12-30.

^ "Military Service Act, Article 18". Korea Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-30.

^ "Military Service Act, Articles 26-43". Korea Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-30.

^ "Conscription 'Should Be Phased Out Slowly'". Chosun Ilbo. 2010-07-06. Retrieved 2017-12-30.

^ Kim, Christine (2010-12-22). "Plan to cut compulsory military service scrapped". Korea JoongAng Daily. Retrieved 2017-12-30.

^ "제68조의11(예술ㆍ체육요원의 추천 등) [Article 68-11: Recommendation of arts and sports personnel, etc.]". 병역법 시행령 [Military Service Act Implementation Rules]. South Korea: Ministry of Government Legislation. 29 November 2016. Retrieved 6 April 2018. 법 제33조의7제1항 전단에서 "대통령령으로 정하는 예술·체육 분야의 특기를 가진 사람"이란 다음 각 호의 어느 하나에 해당하는 사람을 말한다. ... 4. 올림픽대회에서 3위 이상으로 입상한 사람(단체경기종목의 경우에는 실제로 출전한 선수만 해당한다) 5. 아시아경기대회에서 1위로 입상한 사람(단체경기종목의 경우에는 실제로 출전한 선수만 해당한다). [In Article 33, Paragraph 7, Subparagraph 2 of the Act, 'a person having special talents in arts and athletics fields, as defined by presidential order' refers to persons to whom are applicable any one of the provisions of the following subparagraphs. ... 4. A person who received a prize for ranked third or above at the Olympics (in the case of team events, only applicable to athletes who actually participated). 5. A person who received a prize for ranking first at the Asian Games (in the case of team events, only applicable to athletes who actually participated).]

^ "리우에서도 떠오른 축구대표팀 '병역특례'".

^ "Footballer to Be Spared Military Service Despite IOC Probe". Chosun Ilbo. 14 August 2012. Retrieved 2 October 2012.

^ "Medal instead of military service". The Hankyoreh. 11 August 2012. Retrieved 25 February 2013.

^ "들쭉날쭉 병역특례기준 '형평성' 논란…병무청 '누적점수제' 추진" (in Korean). Yonhap News Agency. September 30, 2016.

^ "Park Tae-hwan Enters Army Boot Camp". Chosun Ilbo. 5 October 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2012.

^ "Star Swimmer Says Army Boot Camp Helped Him Grow". Chosun Ilbo. 1 November 2012. Retrieved 4 April 2013.

^ "Hyeon Chung Participates In Korean Military Training - ATP World Tour - Tennis - ATP World Tour - Tennis".

^ 공무원보수규정 '별표 13' 군인의 봉급표(제5조 및 별표 1 관련) . Korea Ministry of Government Legislation (in Korean). Retrieved 28 April 2015.

^ 조, 기호 (18 July 2012). "운동화 한 켤레 못 주는 군(軍)!". Seoul Broadcasting System. Retrieved 4 August 2012.

^ "[보도자료] 예산 없다던 국방부, 사관생도에게는 고가 외국브랜드 운동화 지급". Retrieved 4 August 2012.[dead link]

^ "FAQs-Dual Citizens | U.S. Embassy & Consulate in Korea". U.S. Embassy & Consulate in Korea. Retrieved 2017-10-12.

^ "South Korean singer Rain reports for military service". BBC News. 11 October 2011. Retrieved 2011-10-14.

^ Park, Eun-jee (16 January 2013). "Military service mischief a losing battle". Joongang Daily. Archived from the original on 29 June 2013. Retrieved 4 April 2013.

^ Seo, Ji-eun "Steve Yoo isn’t coming back to Korea" Archived 6 January 2013 at the Wayback Machine. Joongang Daily. 20 October 2011. retrieved 2011-11-08

^ (in Korean) "최지우, '승헌이에게 말 걸어볼까?"[permanent dead link] SSTV. 30 June 2009. Retrieved 2011-11-06

^ "Song Seung-heon, Jang Hyeok Discharged from Military" HanCinema. 16 November 2011. Retrieved 2011-10-14

^ (in Korean) "Song Seung-heon discharged from the army"Yahoo News Korea, 2006-11-18. Archived 14 June 2011 at the Wayback Machine.

^ "Rapper Gets Suspended Jail Term for Draft Dodging" Chosun Ilbo. 12 April 2011. Retrieved 2011-10-14

^ "KBS, MBC release list of 36 banned entertainers" Dong-A Ilbo. 28 September 2011. 2011-10-14

^ Sunwoo, Carla (22 June 2012). "Actor Kim Moo-yul was poor enough to dodge military service". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 27 January 2013. Retrieved 6 October 2012.

^ Lee, In-kyung (21 June 2012). "Kim Moo Yul Involved in Military Scandal after Avoiding Duties". enewsWorld. Retrieved 2012-10-06.

^ "High-Paid Actor Exempted from Draft for Poverty". The Chosun Ilbo. 22 June 2012. Retrieved 2012-10-06.

^ Moon, Gwang-lip (25 June 2012). "Agent says Kim Moo-yul's family situation was 'nearly impossible'". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 11 August 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2012.

^ Sunwoo, Carla (10 July 2012). "Kim Moo-yul kicked off movie set". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 26 January 2013. Retrieved 6 October 2012.

^ Sunwoo, Carla (11 July 2012). "Choi Daniel to replace Kim Moo-yul". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 5 August 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2012.

^ Lee, Hye-ji (5 October 2012). "Kim Moo-yeol to Enter Army, Cleaning out Exemption Rumors". 10Asia. Retrieved 2012-11-18.

^ Sunwoo, Carla (11 October 2011). "Kim Moo-yul enlists after rumors". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 26 October 2012. Retrieved 18 November 2012.

^ "BIGBANG's T.O.P confirms military enlistment date". Yibada. November 22, 2016.

^ "The Full Story Behind T.O.P's Drug Scandal, And The Mysterious Trainee Woman". June 2, 2017. Retrieved June 8, 2017.

^ Jun, R. "BIGBANG's T.O.P To Be Dismissed From Duty For Duration of Prosecution". Soompi. Retrieved 8 June 2017.

^ "Medical expert comments on T.O.P's benzodiazepine overdose | allkpop.com". allkpop. Retrieved 2017-06-09.

^ "BIGBANG's T.O.P hospitalized for drug overdose". YonhapNews. June 6, 2017. Retrieved June 6, 2017.

^ "K-pop superstar T.O.P. in intensive care after overdose". BBC. June 8, 2017. Retrieved June 28, 2017.

^ Kim Jung-kyoon (June 30, 2017). "T.O.P admits to all charges at first hearing". Korea JoongAng Daily. Retrieved July 19, 2017.

^ "Big Bang's T.O.P pleads guilty to pot charges". The Jakarta Post. June 30, 2017. Retrieved 2017-07-19.

^ Park Hyeong-taek (June 29, 2017). "[SC현장] 탑, 대마초 4회 흡연 시인…"공소사실 모두 인정"" [[SC scene] Top, smoking four po ... "All the facts of the charges"]. Sports Chosun (in Korean). Retrieved July 19, 2017.

^ Riddhiman Mukhopadhyay (July 20, 2017). "Rapper T.O.P sentenced at final trial: Apologizes to fans for his actions". International Business Times. Retrieved July 21, 2017.

^ "(LEAD) BIGBANG's T.O.P. gets suspended sentence for marijuana use". Yonhap News Agency. July 20, 2017. Retrieved July 20, 2017.

^ "빅뱅 탑, 재복무심사에서 부적합 결론… 의경신분 박탈" [Big Bang tower is inadequate in re-examination ... Deprivation of state]. Sports Chosun (in Korean). July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.

^ "BIGBANG's T.O.P to lose police post after drug conviction". Yonhap News Agency. July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.

^ "탑, 의경 신분 박탈 '재복무 심사서 부적합 판정'" [Top, disqualification of state of rehabilitation]. Starin E-Daily (in Korean). July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.

^ "BigBang rapper T.O.P cannot continue serving military duty as a policeman". Starits Times. July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.

^ Lee Young-jae (August 28, 2017). "'대마초 흡연' 빅뱅 탑, 의경에서 사회복무 요원 됐다". Korea JoongAng Daily (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.

^ Kim Ji-heon (August 28, 2017). "'대마초' 빅뱅 탑, 오늘 의경 전역…사회복무요원으로 근무". Yonhap News Agency (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.

^ Kim Yoo-jin (August 28, 2017). "'대마초 논란' 탑, 보충역 통보받고 오늘 전역…사회복무요원으로 전환". Herald Economy (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.

^ Hae Kyung Heon (August 28, 2017). "대마초 집유판결 탑 결국 사회복무요원으로, 누리꾼 반응 '냉랭'". Sports Khan (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.

^ "Country report and updates: Korea, South - War Resisters' International". www.wri-irg.org.

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Conscription in South Korea

Conscription in South Korea has existed since 1957 and requires male citizens between the ages of 18 and 35 to perform about two years of compulsory military service.[1][2] Women are not required to perform military service, but may voluntarily enlist.[3]

Establishment Edit

The basis for military conscription in South Korea is the Constitution of the Republic of Korea, which was promulgated on July 17, 1948. The constitution states in Article 39, "All citizens shall have the duty of national defense under the conditions as prescribed by Act."[4][5] The Military Service Act of 1949, which was implemented in 1957, specified that compulsory military service is required for men ages 18 or older.[6][2] Conscription is managed by the Military Manpower Administration, which was created in 1948.[7]

Requirements Edit

Enlistment and physical exam Edit

By law, when a Korean man turns 18 years old, he is enlisted for "first citizen service," meaning he is liable for military duty, but is not yet required to serve.[6][8] When he turns 19 years old (or, in some instances, 20 years old), he is required to undergo a physical exam to determine whether he is suitable for military service. The table below shows the physical exam's possible grades and their outcomes, according to the Military Service Act.[9]

Grade Description Outcome

1, 2, 3, 4 "Those whose physical and psychological constitution is healthy enough to perform active or supplemental service." "To be enlisted for active duty service, supplemental service or the second citizen service, based on their qualifications, such as educational background and age."

5 "Those incapable of entering active or supplemental service, but capable of entering the second citizen service." "To be enlisted for the second citizen service."

6 "Those incapable of performing military service due to any disease or mental or physical incompetence." "To be exempted from military service."

7 "Those unable to be graded...due to any disease or mental or physical incompetence." "To undergo a follow-up physical examination" within two years.

Service types and length Edit

The length of compulsory military service in South Korea varies based on military branch.[10] Active duty soldiers serve 21 months in the Army or Marine Corps, 23 months in the Navy, and 24 months in the Air Force.[11] After conscripts finish their military service, they are automatically placed on the reserve roster and are obligated to attend a few days of annual military training for 6 years.[citation needed]

Non-active duty personnel, or "supplemental service" personnel serve for various lengths: 24 months for social work personnel or international cooperation service personnel; 34 months for arts and sports personnel or industrial technical personnel; and 36 months for public health doctors, lawyers, veterinarians, or expert researchers.[12]

South Korea currently has among the longest military service periods in the world, ranked behind Israel, Singapore, and North Korea.[citation needed] In 2010, there was growing public pressure to either shorten the length of conscription or to switch to voluntary military service, and calls from experts for a gradual phasing out of conscription rather than complete abolition.[13] However, in December 2010, after taking into consideration of the 2010 ROKS Cheonan sinking and Bombardment of Yeonpyeong incidents, the South Korean government said it would not reduce service periods.[14]

Exemptions for Olympic medalists Edit

Current conscription regulations stipulate that athletes who win medals in the Olympic Games or gold medals in the Asian Games are granted exemptions from military service and are placed in Grade 4.[15] They are required to do four weeks of basic military training and engage in sports field for 34 months. After that, they are automatically placed on the reserve roster, and are obligated to attend a few days of annual military training for six years. In practice, after athletes finish their four weeks of basic military training, they are able to continue their own sports career during the 34 months of duty.[16]

Notable athletes who have been granted exemptions from military service are the bronze medal-winning football team at the 2012 Summer Olympics,[17][18] 2008 Olympic gold medalists badminton player Lee Yong-dae[19] and swimmer Park Tae-hwan[20][21] and 2014 Asian Games gold medalist tennis player Hyeon Chung.[22]

Compensation Edit

The following data is from 'Regulation on Public Servant Compensation', implemented on 1 January 2017.[23] Exchange rate as of 2 May 2018 (₩1077 to $1.00USD)

Private (이등병) Private first class (일등병) Corporal (상등병) Sergeant (병장)

₩163,000

$151.35 (approx) per month ₩176,400

$163.79 (approx) per month ₩195,000

$181.06 (approx) per month ₩216,000

$200.56 (approx) per month

Equipment Edit

The Ministry of National Defense has revealed that it has failed to provide sneakers to 7,411 recruits who joined the military from 22 May to 4 June 2012, after the budget was insufficient for need. The Defense ministry originally projected the cost of each pair of sneakers to be 11,000 KRW. However, the actual cost turned out to be 15,000 KRW.[24]

The office of National Assembly member Kim Kwang-jin of Democratic United Party revealed that cadets in Korea Military Academy were provided with sneakers worth 60,000 KRW and tennis shoes. Cadets in Korea Army Academy at Yeongcheon were provided with sneakers worth 64,250 KRW, in addition to running shoes and soccer shoes.[25]

Dual citizens Edit

For dual citizens, or those with multiple citizenships, male South Koreans must choose their citizenship by the time they turn 18, before March 31 of that year. If these males choose to revoke their South Korean citizenship, they will not be required to complete their mandatory military service. However, if they fail to choose their citizenship by their 18th year, they will be subjected to fulfill their mandatory military service.[26] If males choose to renounce their citizenship by their 18th year, they are ineligible to gain a Korean work visa (F series) until after they turn 40 years of age. It may still be possible to gain an E series visa.

Controversies Edit

The South Korean public is sensitive towards the country's mandatory military service, but also has a low tolerance towards those who attempt to dodge or receive special treatment, especially after scandals of wealthy families caught trying to avoid their national duty. Those found or accused of draft dodging and negligence of duty often face harsh penalties and public backlash. According to Ha Jae-keun, a South Korean pop columnist, "The mood against draft-dodgers and negligence of duty is so hostile that nowadays entertainers feel it's better to get it over and done with".[27][28]

Steve Yoo Edit

In 2002, right before Korean American pop singer Steve Yoo was due to be drafted for his military service, he gave up his Korean nationality and became a naturalized U.S. citizen. He was born in Seoul and migrated to the United States at the age of 13. The South Korean government considered it an act of desertion and deported him, banning him from entering the country permanently.[29]

Song Seung-heon Edit

In late 2004, it was revealed that actor Song Seung-heon had avoided his draft by taking medication to fail the military physical examination. Song had previously been exempted by claiming to have severe diabetes and high blood pressure, but that was found by the South Korean government to be false.[30] Amidst press coverage and public outcry, Song publicly apologized and agreed to immediately serve his two-year term in the military. Song was discharged on 15 November 2006 with the rank of Corporal.[31][32]

MC Mong Edit

On 11 April 2011, rapper MC Mong was cleared of intentionally pulling out healthy teeth to be exempted from military duty but was sentenced to a suspended jail term of 6 months, probation for one year, and 120 hours of community service, for deliberately delaying enlistment on false grounds.[33] The court acknowledged that there was a delay in his military enlistment; however, they were unable to determine whether he was guilty of extracting teeth for the purpose of avoiding his military draft. In September 2011, it was reported that Mong has been banned by Korean Broadcasting System (KBS) and Munhwa Broadcasting Corporation (MBC) from appearing in its TV shows, for draft dodging.[34]

Kim Mu-yeol Edit

In June 2012 Kim Mu-yeol came under growing public criticism over allegations he dodged his compulsory military service. In a report released by the Korean Board of Audit and Inspection (BAI), Kim was deemed fit to serve in active duty as a level two recruit after a March 2001 physical examination. However, throughout 2007 to 2009, Kim was granted postponement on the grounds that he was taking civil service examinations or had been admitted to a work training facility, neither of which took place. During this time he reportedly earned approximately ₩300 million from films, musicals and television work. In December 2009, he received his final notice for enlistment, having used up the 730 days allowed for postponement. He submitted a request to change his military status in January 2010 because of a knee injury, which was rejected. Finally, a valid exemption was granted on the grounds that he was a "low-income individual" and the sole provider for his family. BAI's contention was that Kim's income is substantially higher than the standard for disqualification due to poverty; thus, the Military Manpower Administration was negligent in their duties by granting the exemption.[35][36][37]

Kim's agency Prain TPC defended him, stating that Kim had been supporting his family by working as a security guard, construction worker and at a mobile phone factory since his late teens. When his father collapsed from a cerebral hemorrhage and was diagnosed with cancer in 2008, the treatments incurred a lot of debt for the family. Their worsening financial condition caused them to become totally dependent on Kim, resulting in his said filing for an exemption in 2010.[38] Given the publicity, a reinvestigation into the case was launched and Kim was asked by the production company to leave the film 11 A.M. (he was replaced by Choi Daniel).[39][40] On 4 October 2012, Kim released a statement that though there was no wrongdoing on his part, he had decided to voluntarily enter the army "to recover his honor damaged by the rumors."[41][42]

T.O.P Edit

T.O.P began his two-year mandatory military service on February 9, 2017 as a conscripted police officer, where he was set to be discharged on November 8, 2018 after completing the requirements.[43] However, it was announced in June that he would be prosecuted without detention for use of marijuana.[44] He was subsequently transferred to a different police division to await notice of prosecution, and was suspended from police duty pending verdict on his case.[45] A few days after the announcement, T.O.P was found unconscious in police barracks due to a suspected anti-anxiety medicine overdose of prescribed benzodiazepine,[46] and was hospitalized.[47] On June 8, T.O.P's mother confirmed that her son had opened his eyes and was recovering.[48]

On June 29, T.O.P faced his first trial for the marijuana usage charges at the Seoul Central District Court.[49] He pleaded guilty to the charges against him and admitted that he did smoke marijuana on two out of the four instances.[50] T.O.P received two years of probation, with a possibility of ten months' jail time if he violates any terms.[51] At the second court hearing the following month, T.O.P was sentenced to 10 months in prison suspended for two years for illegal marijuana use.[52] He acknowledged all guilty charges. After undergoing a disciplinary review by the police to decide if T.O.P could return as a conscripted policeman or will complete his service as a public service officer,[53] the Seoul Metropolitan Police Agency reviewed T.O.P's current condition and decided T.O.P is unfit to resume service in his previous position.[54][55] A request was made to Army headquarters for a new position for T.O.P to determine either to serve as a public service worker of a full-time reserve soldier to complete his mandatory service.[56][57] T.O.P was eventually assigned reservist status by the Ministry of National Defense and transferred from police department.[58] He will complete his mandatory service as a public service worker.[59] The time T.O.P had been dismissed from duty during his prosecution will not count towards his total service.[60][61]

Conscientious objection Edit

The right to conscientious objection is not recognised in South Korea.[62] Usually, over 400 people are imprisoned at any one time for refusing military service, for political or religious reasons. This is contrary to international human rights standards and the government of Korea have been repeatedly criticised for not allowing those whose conscience prevents them from joining the military to undertake some kind of substitute service, rather than imprisoning them.

See also Edit

Republic of Korea Armed Forces

Republic of Korea Army

Republic of Korea Marine Corps

Republic of Korea Navy

Republic of Korea Air Force

References Edit

^ "병역이행안내 - 개요(총괄)" [Military Service Implementation Guide - General Overview]. Military Manpower Organization (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-12-28.

^ a b Lee, Namhee (2007). The Making of Minjung: Democracy and the Politics of Representation in South Korea. Cornell University Press. p. 91. ISBN 0801445663.

^ "S. Korea to expand women's role in military". Yonhap News Agency. 2017-12-20. Retrieved 2017-12-28.

^ "Constitution of the Republic of Korea" (PDF). 1987. p. 12. Retrieved 2017-12-27.

^ Kim, Jongcheol (2012). "Constitutional Law". Introduction to Korean Law. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 78. ISBN 3642316891.

^ a b "Military Service Act, Article 8". Korean Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-29.

^ "History". Military Manpower Administration. Retrieved 2017-12-29.

^ "Military Service Act, Article 5". Korean Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-29.

^ "Military Service Act, Articles 10-14". Korean Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-29.

^ Lent, Jesse (2016-04-01). "'Descendants Of The Sun' Star Song Joong Ki Discusses His Time In The South Korean Army". Korea Portal. Retrieved 2017-12-30.

^ "Military Service Act, Article 18". Korea Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-30.

^ "Military Service Act, Articles 26-43". Korea Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-30.

^ "Conscription 'Should Be Phased Out Slowly'". Chosun Ilbo. 2010-07-06. Retrieved 2017-12-30.

^ Kim, Christine (2010-12-22). "Plan to cut compulsory military service scrapped". Korea JoongAng Daily. Retrieved 2017-12-30.

^ "제68조의11(예술ㆍ체육요원의 추천 등) [Article 68-11: Recommendation of arts and sports personnel, etc.]". 병역법 시행령 [Military Service Act Implementation Rules]. South Korea: Ministry of Government Legislation. 29 November 2016. Retrieved 6 April 2018. 법 제33조의7제1항 전단에서 "대통령령으로 정하는 예술·체육 분야의 특기를 가진 사람"이란 다음 각 호의 어느 하나에 해당하는 사람을 말한다. ... 4. 올림픽대회에서 3위 이상으로 입상한 사람(단체경기종목의 경우에는 실제로 출전한 선수만 해당한다) 5. 아시아경기대회에서 1위로 입상한 사람(단체경기종목의 경우에는 실제로 출전한 선수만 해당한다). [In Article 33, Paragraph 7, Subparagraph 2 of the Act, 'a person having special talents in arts and athletics fields, as defined by presidential order' refers to persons to whom are applicable any one of the provisions of the following subparagraphs. ... 4. A person who received a prize for ranked third or above at the Olympics (in the case of team events, only applicable to athletes who actually participated). 5. A person who received a prize for ranking first at the Asian Games (in the case of team events, only applicable to athletes who actually participated).]

^ "리우에서도 떠오른 축구대표팀 '병역특례'".

^ "Footballer to Be Spared Military Service Despite IOC Probe". Chosun Ilbo. 14 August 2012. Retrieved 2 October 2012.

^ "Medal instead of military service". The Hankyoreh. 11 August 2012. Retrieved 25 February 2013.

^ "들쭉날쭉 병역특례기준 '형평성' 논란…병무청 '누적점수제' 추진" (in Korean). Yonhap News Agency. September 30, 2016.

^ "Park Tae-hwan Enters Army Boot Camp". Chosun Ilbo. 5 October 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2012.

^ "Star Swimmer Says Army Boot Camp Helped Him Grow". Chosun Ilbo. 1 November 2012. Retrieved 4 April 2013.

^ "Hyeon Chung Participates In Korean Military Training - ATP World Tour - Tennis - ATP World Tour - Tennis".

^ 공무원보수규정 '별표 13' 군인의 봉급표(제5조 및 별표 1 관련) . Korea Ministry of Government Legislation (in Korean). Retrieved 28 April 2015.

^ 조, 기호 (18 July 2012). "운동화 한 켤레 못 주는 군(軍)!". Seoul Broadcasting System. Retrieved 4 August 2012.

^ "[보도자료] 예산 없다던 국방부, 사관생도에게는 고가 외국브랜드 운동화 지급". Retrieved 4 August 2012.[dead link]

^ "FAQs-Dual Citizens | U.S. Embassy & Consulate in Korea". U.S. Embassy & Consulate in Korea. Retrieved 2017-10-12.

^ "South Korean singer Rain reports for military service". BBC News. 11 October 2011. Retrieved 2011-10-14.

^ Park, Eun-jee (16 January 2013). "Military service mischief a losing battle". Joongang Daily. Archived from the original on 29 June 2013. Retrieved 4 April 2013.

^ Seo, Ji-eun "Steve Yoo isn’t coming back to Korea" Archived 6 January 2013 at the Wayback Machine. Joongang Daily. 20 October 2011. retrieved 2011-11-08

^ (in Korean) "최지우, '승헌이에게 말 걸어볼까?"[permanent dead link] SSTV. 30 June 2009. Retrieved 2011-11-06

^ "Song Seung-heon, Jang Hyeok Discharged from Military" HanCinema. 16 November 2011. Retrieved 2011-10-14

^ (in Korean) "Song Seung-heon discharged from the army"Yahoo News Korea, 2006-11-18. Archived 14 June 2011 at the Wayback Machine.

^ "Rapper Gets Suspended Jail Term for Draft Dodging" Chosun Ilbo. 12 April 2011. Retrieved 2011-10-14

^ "KBS, MBC release list of 36 banned entertainers" Dong-A Ilbo. 28 September 2011. 2011-10-14

^ Sunwoo, Carla (22 June 2012). "Actor Kim Moo-yul was poor enough to dodge military service". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 27 January 2013. Retrieved 6 October 2012.

^ Lee, In-kyung (21 June 2012). "Kim Moo Yul Involved in Military Scandal after Avoiding Duties". enewsWorld. Retrieved 2012-10-06.

^ "High-Paid Actor Exempted from Draft for Poverty". The Chosun Ilbo. 22 June 2012. Retrieved 2012-10-06.

^ Moon, Gwang-lip (25 June 2012). "Agent says Kim Moo-yul's family situation was 'nearly impossible'". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 11 August 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2012.

^ Sunwoo, Carla (10 July 2012). "Kim Moo-yul kicked off movie set". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 26 January 2013. Retrieved 6 October 2012.

^ Sunwoo, Carla (11 July 2012). "Choi Daniel to replace Kim Moo-yul". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 5 August 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2012.

^ Lee, Hye-ji (5 October 2012). "Kim Moo-yeol to Enter Army, Cleaning out Exemption Rumors". 10Asia. Retrieved 2012-11-18.

^ Sunwoo, Carla (11 October 2011). "Kim Moo-yul enlists after rumors". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 26 October 2012. Retrieved 18 November 2012.

^ "BIGBANG's T.O.P confirms military enlistment date". Yibada. November 22, 2016.

^ "The Full Story Behind T.O.P's Drug Scandal, And The Mysterious Trainee Woman". June 2, 2017. Retrieved June 8, 2017.

^ Jun, R. "BIGBANG's T.O.P To Be Dismissed From Duty For Duration of Prosecution". Soompi. Retrieved 8 June 2017.

^ "Medical expert comments on T.O.P's benzodiazepine overdose | allkpop.com". allkpop. Retrieved 2017-06-09.

^ "BIGBANG's T.O.P hospitalized for drug overdose". YonhapNews. June 6, 2017. Retrieved June 6, 2017.

^ "K-pop superstar T.O.P. in intensive care after overdose". BBC. June 8, 2017. Retrieved June 28, 2017.

^ Kim Jung-kyoon (June 30, 2017). "T.O.P admits to all charges at first hearing". Korea JoongAng Daily. Retrieved July 19, 2017.

^ "Big Bang's T.O.P pleads guilty to pot charges". The Jakarta Post. June 30, 2017. Retrieved 2017-07-19.

^ Park Hyeong-taek (June 29, 2017). "[SC현장] 탑, 대마초 4회 흡연 시인…"공소사실 모두 인정"" [[SC scene] Top, smoking four po ... "All the facts of the charges"]. Sports Chosun (in Korean). Retrieved July 19, 2017.

^ Riddhiman Mukhopadhyay (July 20, 2017). "Rapper T.O.P sentenced at final trial: Apologizes to fans for his actions". International Business Times. Retrieved July 21, 2017.

^ "(LEAD) BIGBANG's T.O.P. gets suspended sentence for marijuana use". Yonhap News Agency. July 20, 2017. Retrieved July 20, 2017.

^ "빅뱅 탑, 재복무심사에서 부적합 결론… 의경신분 박탈" [Big Bang tower is inadequate in re-examination ... Deprivation of state]. Sports Chosun (in Korean). July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.

^ "BIGBANG's T.O.P to lose police post after drug conviction". Yonhap News Agency. July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.

^ "탑, 의경 신분 박탈 '재복무 심사서 부적합 판정'" [Top, disqualification of state of rehabilitation]. Starin E-Daily (in Korean). July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.

^ "BigBang rapper T.O.P cannot continue serving military duty as a policeman". Starits Times. July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.

^ Lee Young-jae (August 28, 2017). "'대마초 흡연' 빅뱅 탑, 의경에서 사회복무 요원 됐다". Korea JoongAng Daily (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.

^ Kim Ji-heon (August 28, 2017). "'대마초' 빅뱅 탑, 오늘 의경 전역…사회복무요원으로 근무". Yonhap News Agency (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.

^ Kim Yoo-jin (August 28, 2017). "'대마초 논란' 탑, 보충역 통보받고 오늘 전역…사회복무요원으로 전환". Herald Economy (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.

^ Hae Kyung Heon (August 28, 2017). "대마초 집유판결 탑 결국 사회복무요원으로, 누리꾼 반응 '냉랭'". Sports Khan (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.

^ "Country report and updates: Korea, South - War Resisters' International". www.wri-irg.org.

Exter

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Date: September 29th, 2017 2:34 AM
Author: nyuug (Cucking niggaz with dat Big Korean Cock. All DAY.)

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Date: May 28th, 2018 11:46 PM
Author: The Sheer Entitled Caucasity

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Conscription in South Korea

Conscription in South Korea has existed since 1957 and requires male citizens between the ages of 18 and 35 to perform about two years of compulsory military service.[1][2] Women are not required to perform military service, but may voluntarily enlist.[3]

Establishment Edit

The basis for military conscription in South Korea is the Constitution of the Republic of Korea, which was promulgated on July 17, 1948. The constitution states in Article 39, "All citizens shall have the duty of national defense under the conditions as prescribed by Act."[4][5] The Military Service Act of 1949, which was implemented in 1957, specified that compulsory military service is required for men ages 18 or older.[6][2] Conscription is managed by the Military Manpower Administration, which was created in 1948.[7]

Requirements Edit

Enlistment and physical exam Edit

By law, when a Korean man turns 18 years old, he is enlisted for "first citizen service," meaning he is liable for military duty, but is not yet required to serve.[6][8] When he turns 19 years old (or, in some instances, 20 years old), he is required to undergo a physical exam to determine whether he is suitable for military service. The table below shows the physical exam's possible grades and their outcomes, according to the Military Service Act.[9]

Grade Description Outcome

1, 2, 3, 4 "Those whose physical and psychological constitution is healthy enough to perform active or supplemental service." "To be enlisted for active duty service, supplemental service or the second citizen service, based on their qualifications, such as educational background and age."

5 "Those incapable of entering active or supplemental service, but capable of entering the second citizen service." "To be enlisted for the second citizen service."

6 "Those incapable of performing military service due to any disease or mental or physical incompetence." "To be exempted from military service."

7 "Those unable to be graded...due to any disease or mental or physical incompetence." "To undergo a follow-up physical examination" within two years.

Service types and length Edit

The length of compulsory military service in South Korea varies based on military branch.[10] Active duty soldiers serve 21 months in the Army or Marine Corps, 23 months in the Navy, and 24 months in the Air Force.[11] After conscripts finish their military service, they are automatically placed on the reserve roster and are obligated to attend a few days of annual military training for 6 years.[citation needed]

Non-active duty personnel, or "supplemental service" personnel serve for various lengths: 24 months for social work personnel or international cooperation service personnel; 34 months for arts and sports personnel or industrial technical personnel; and 36 months for public health doctors, lawyers, veterinarians, or expert researchers.[12]

South Korea currently has among the longest military service periods in the world, ranked behind Israel, Singapore, and North Korea.[citation needed] In 2010, there was growing public pressure to either shorten the length of conscription or to switch to voluntary military service, and calls from experts for a gradual phasing out of conscription rather than complete abolition.[13] However, in December 2010, after taking into consideration of the 2010 ROKS Cheonan sinking and Bombardment of Yeonpyeong incidents, the South Korean government said it would not reduce service periods.[14]

Exemptions for Olympic medalists Edit

Current conscription regulations stipulate that athletes who win medals in the Olympic Games or gold medals in the Asian Games are granted exemptions from military service and are placed in Grade 4.[15] They are required to do four weeks of basic military training and engage in sports field for 34 months. After that, they are automatically placed on the reserve roster, and are obligated to attend a few days of annual military training for six years. In practice, after athletes finish their four weeks of basic military training, they are able to continue their own sports career during the 34 months of duty.[16]

Notable athletes who have been granted exemptions from military service are the bronze medal-winning football team at the 2012 Summer Olympics,[17][18] 2008 Olympic gold medalists badminton player Lee Yong-dae[19] and swimmer Park Tae-hwan[20][21] and 2014 Asian Games gold medalist tennis player Hyeon Chung.[22]

Compensation Edit

The following data is from 'Regulation on Public Servant Compensation', implemented on 1 January 2017.[23] Exchange rate as of 2 May 2018 (₩1077 to $1.00USD)

Private (이등병) Private first class (일등병) Corporal (상등병) Sergeant (병장)

₩163,000

$151.35 (approx) per month ₩176,400

$163.79 (approx) per month ₩195,000

$181.06 (approx) per month ₩216,000

$200.56 (approx) per month

Equipment Edit

The Ministry of National Defense has revealed that it has failed to provide sneakers to 7,411 recruits who joined the military from 22 May to 4 June 2012, after the budget was insufficient for need. The Defense ministry originally projected the cost of each pair of sneakers to be 11,000 KRW. However, the actual cost turned out to be 15,000 KRW.[24]

The office of National Assembly member Kim Kwang-jin of Democratic United Party revealed that cadets in Korea Military Academy were provided with sneakers worth 60,000 KRW and tennis shoes. Cadets in Korea Army Academy at Yeongcheon were provided with sneakers worth 64,250 KRW, in addition to running shoes and soccer shoes.[25]

Dual citizens Edit

For dual citizens, or those with multiple citizenships, male South Koreans must choose their citizenship by the time they turn 18, before March 31 of that year. If these males choose to revoke their South Korean citizenship, they will not be required to complete their mandatory military service. However, if they fail to choose their citizenship by their 18th year, they will be subjected to fulfill their mandatory military service.[26] If males choose to renounce their citizenship by their 18th year, they are ineligible to gain a Korean work visa (F series) until after they turn 40 years of age. It may still be possible to gain an E series visa.

Controversies Edit

The South Korean public is sensitive towards the country's mandatory military service, but also has a low tolerance towards those who attempt to dodge or receive special treatment, especially after scandals of wealthy families caught trying to avoid their national duty. Those found or accused of draft dodging and negligence of duty often face harsh penalties and public backlash. According to Ha Jae-keun, a South Korean pop columnist, "The mood against draft-dodgers and negligence of duty is so hostile that nowadays entertainers feel it's better to get it over and done with".[27][28]

Steve Yoo Edit

In 2002, right before Korean American pop singer Steve Yoo was due to be drafted for his military service, he gave up his Korean nationality and became a naturalized U.S. citizen. He was born in Seoul and migrated to the United States at the age of 13. The South Korean government considered it an act of desertion and deported him, banning him from entering the country permanently.[29]

Song Seung-heon Edit

In late 2004, it was revealed that actor Song Seung-heon had avoided his draft by taking medication to fail the military physical examination. Song had previously been exempted by claiming to have severe diabetes and high blood pressure, but that was found by the South Korean government to be false.[30] Amidst press coverage and public outcry, Song publicly apologized and agreed to immediately serve his two-year term in the military. Song was discharged on 15 November 2006 with the rank of Corporal.[31][32]

MC Mong Edit

On 11 April 2011, rapper MC Mong was cleared of intentionally pulling out healthy teeth to be exempted from military duty but was sentenced to a suspended jail term of 6 months, probation for one year, and 120 hours of community service, for deliberately delaying enlistment on false grounds.[33] The court acknowledged that there was a delay in his military enlistment; however, they were unable to determine whether he was guilty of extracting teeth for the purpose of avoiding his military draft. In September 2011, it was reported that Mong has been banned by Korean Broadcasting System (KBS) and Munhwa Broadcasting Corporation (MBC) from appearing in its TV shows, for draft dodging.[34]

Kim Mu-yeol Edit

In June 2012 Kim Mu-yeol came under growing public criticism over allegations he dodged his compulsory military service. In a report released by the Korean Board of Audit and Inspection (BAI), Kim was deemed fit to serve in active duty as a level two recruit after a March 2001 physical examination. However, throughout 2007 to 2009, Kim was granted postponement on the grounds that he was taking civil service examinations or had been admitted to a work training facility, neither of which took place. During this time he reportedly earned approximately ₩300 million from films, musicals and television work. In December 2009, he received his final notice for enlistment, having used up the 730 days allowed for postponement. He submitted a request to change his military status in January 2010 because of a knee injury, which was rejected. Finally, a valid exemption was granted on the grounds that he was a "low-income individual" and the sole provider for his family. BAI's contention was that Kim's income is substantially higher than the standard for disqualification due to poverty; thus, the Military Manpower Administration was negligent in their duties by granting the exemption.[35][36][37]

Kim's agency Prain TPC defended him, stating that Kim had been supporting his family by working as a security guard, construction worker and at a mobile phone factory since his late teens. When his father collapsed from a cerebral hemorrhage and was diagnosed with cancer in 2008, the treatments incurred a lot of debt for the family. Their worsening financial condition caused them to become totally dependent on Kim, resulting in his said filing for an exemption in 2010.[38] Given the publicity, a reinvestigation into the case was launched and Kim was asked by the production company to leave the film 11 A.M. (he was replaced by Choi Daniel).[39][40] On 4 October 2012, Kim released a statement that though there was no wrongdoing on his part, he had decided to voluntarily enter the army "to recover his honor damaged by the rumors."[41][42]

T.O.P Edit

T.O.P began his two-year mandatory military service on February 9, 2017 as a conscripted police officer, where he was set to be discharged on November 8, 2018 after completing the requirements.[43] However, it was announced in June that he would be prosecuted without detention for use of marijuana.[44] He was subsequently transferred to a different police division to await notice of prosecution, and was suspended from police duty pending verdict on his case.[45] A few days after the announcement, T.O.P was found unconscious in police barracks due to a suspected anti-anxiety medicine overdose of prescribed benzodiazepine,[46] and was hospitalized.[47] On June 8, T.O.P's mother confirmed that her son had opened his eyes and was recovering.[48]

On June 29, T.O.P faced his first trial for the marijuana usage charges at the Seoul Central District Court.[49] He pleaded guilty to the charges against him and admitted that he did smoke marijuana on two out of the four instances.[50] T.O.P received two years of probation, with a possibility of ten months' jail time if he violates any terms.[51] At the second court hearing the following month, T.O.P was sentenced to 10 months in prison suspended for two years for illegal marijuana use.[52] He acknowledged all guilty charges. After undergoing a disciplinary review by the police to decide if T.O.P could return as a conscripted policeman or will complete his service as a public service officer,[53] the Seoul Metropolitan Police Agency reviewed T.O.P's current condition and decided T.O.P is unfit to resume service in his previous position.[54][55] A request was made to Army headquarters for a new position for T.O.P to determine either to serve as a public service worker of a full-time reserve soldier to complete his mandatory service.[56][57] T.O.P was eventually assigned reservist status by the Ministry of National Defense and transferred from police department.[58] He will complete his mandatory service as a public service worker.[59] The time T.O.P had been dismissed from duty during his prosecution will not count towards his total service.[60][61]

Conscientious objection Edit

The right to conscientious objection is not recognised in South Korea.[62] Usually, over 400 people are imprisoned at any one time for refusing military service, for political or religious reasons. This is contrary to international human rights standards and the government of Korea have been repeatedly criticised for not allowing those whose conscience prevents them from joining the military to undertake some kind of substitute service, rather than imprisoning them.

See also Edit

Republic of Korea Armed Forces

Republic of Korea Army

Republic of Korea Marine Corps

Republic of Korea Navy

Republic of Korea Air Force

References Edit

^ "병역이행안내 - 개요(총괄)" [Military Service Implementation Guide - General Overview]. Military Manpower Organization (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-12-28.

^ a b Lee, Namhee (2007). The Making of Minjung: Democracy and the Politics of Representation in South Korea. Cornell University Press. p. 91. ISBN 0801445663.

^ "S. Korea to expand women's role in military". Yonhap News Agency. 2017-12-20. Retrieved 2017-12-28.

^ "Constitution of the Republic of Korea" (PDF). 1987. p. 12. Retrieved 2017-12-27.

^ Kim, Jongcheol (2012). "Constitutional Law". Introduction to Korean Law. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 78. ISBN 3642316891.

^ a b "Military Service Act, Article 8". Korean Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-29.

^ "History". Military Manpower Administration. Retrieved 2017-12-29.

^ "Military Service Act, Article 5". Korean Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-29.

^ "Military Service Act, Articles 10-14". Korean Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-29.

^ Lent, Jesse (2016-04-01). "'Descendants Of The Sun' Star Song Joong Ki Discusses His Time In The South Korean Army". Korea Portal. Retrieved 2017-12-30.

^ "Military Service Act, Article 18". Korea Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-30.

^ "Military Service Act, Articles 26-43". Korea Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-30.

^ "Conscription 'Should Be Phased Out Slowly'". Chosun Ilbo. 2010-07-06. Retrieved 2017-12-30.

^ Kim, Christine (2010-12-22). "Plan to cut compulsory military service scrapped". Korea JoongAng Daily. Retrieved 2017-12-30.

^ "제68조의11(예술ㆍ체육요원의 추천 등) [Article 68-11: Recommendation of arts and sports personnel, etc.]". 병역법 시행령 [Military Service Act Implementation Rules]. South Korea: Ministry of Government Legislation. 29 November 2016. Retrieved 6 April 2018. 법 제33조의7제1항 전단에서 "대통령령으로 정하는 예술·체육 분야의 특기를 가진 사람"이란 다음 각 호의 어느 하나에 해당하는 사람을 말한다. ... 4. 올림픽대회에서 3위 이상으로 입상한 사람(단체경기종목의 경우에는 실제로 출전한 선수만 해당한다) 5. 아시아경기대회에서 1위로 입상한 사람(단체경기종목의 경우에는 실제로 출전한 선수만 해당한다). [In Article 33, Paragraph 7, Subparagraph 2 of the Act, 'a person having special talents in arts and athletics fields, as defined by presidential order' refers to persons to whom are applicable any one of the provisions of the following subparagraphs. ... 4. A person who received a prize for ranked third or above at the Olympics (in the case of team events, only applicable to athletes who actually participated). 5. A person who received a prize for ranking first at the Asian Games (in the case of team events, only applicable to athletes who actually participated).]

^ "리우에서도 떠오른 축구대표팀 '병역특례'".

^ "Footballer to Be Spared Military Service Despite IOC Probe". Chosun Ilbo. 14 August 2012. Retrieved 2 October 2012.

^ "Medal instead of military service". The Hankyoreh. 11 August 2012. Retrieved 25 February 2013.

^ "들쭉날쭉 병역특례기준 '형평성' 논란…병무청 '누적점수제' 추진" (in Korean). Yonhap News Agency. September 30, 2016.

^ "Park Tae-hwan Enters Army Boot Camp". Chosun Ilbo. 5 October 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2012.

^ "Star Swimmer Says Army Boot Camp Helped Him Grow". Chosun Ilbo. 1 November 2012. Retrieved 4 April 2013.

^ "Hyeon Chung Participates In Korean Military Training - ATP World Tour - Tennis - ATP World Tour - Tennis".

^ 공무원보수규정 '별표 13' 군인의 봉급표(제5조 및 별표 1 관련) . Korea Ministry of Government Legislation (in Korean). Retrieved 28 April 2015.

^ 조, 기호 (18 July 2012). "운동화 한 켤레 못 주는 군(軍)!". Seoul Broadcasting System. Retrieved 4 August 2012.

^ "[보도자료] 예산 없다던 국방부, 사관생도에게는 고가 외국브랜드 운동화 지급". Retrieved 4 August 2012.[dead link]

^ "FAQs-Dual Citizens | U.S. Embassy & Consulate in Korea". U.S. Embassy & Consulate in Korea. Retrieved 2017-10-12.

^ "South Korean singer Rain reports for military service". BBC News. 11 October 2011. Retrieved 2011-10-14.

^ Park, Eun-jee (16 January 2013). "Military service mischief a losing battle". Joongang Daily. Archived from the original on 29 June 2013. Retrieved 4 April 2013.

^ Seo, Ji-eun "Steve Yoo isn’t coming back to Korea" Archived 6 January 2013 at the Wayback Machine. Joongang Daily. 20 October 2011. retrieved 2011-11-08

^ (in Korean) "최지우, '승헌이에게 말 걸어볼까?"[permanent dead link] SSTV. 30 June 2009. Retrieved 2011-11-06

^ "Song Seung-heon, Jang Hyeok Discharged from Military" HanCinema. 16 November 2011. Retrieved 2011-10-14

^ (in Korean) "Song Seung-heon discharged from the army"Yahoo News Korea, 2006-11-18. Archived 14 June 2011 at the Wayback Machine.

^ "Rapper Gets Suspended Jail Term for Draft Dodging" Chosun Ilbo. 12 April 2011. Retrieved 2011-10-14

^ "KBS, MBC release list of 36 banned entertainers" Dong-A Ilbo. 28 September 2011. 2011-10-14

^ Sunwoo, Carla (22 June 2012). "Actor Kim Moo-yul was poor enough to dodge military service". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 27 January 2013. Retrieved 6 October 2012.

^ Lee, In-kyung (21 June 2012). "Kim Moo Yul Involved in Military Scandal after Avoiding Duties". enewsWorld. Retrieved 2012-10-06.

^ "High-Paid Actor Exempted from Draft for Poverty". The Chosun Ilbo. 22 June 2012. Retrieved 2012-10-06.

^ Moon, Gwang-lip (25 June 2012). "Agent says Kim Moo-yul's family situation was 'nearly impossible'". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 11 August 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2012.

^ Sunwoo, Carla (10 July 2012). "Kim Moo-yul kicked off movie set". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 26 January 2013. Retrieved 6 October 2012.

^ Sunwoo, Carla (11 July 2012). "Choi Daniel to replace Kim Moo-yul". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 5 August 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2012.

^ Lee, Hye-ji (5 October 2012). "Kim Moo-yeol to Enter Army, Cleaning out Exemption Rumors". 10Asia. Retrieved 2012-11-18.

^ Sunwoo, Carla (11 October 2011). "Kim Moo-yul enlists after rumors". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 26 October 2012. Retrieved 18 November 2012.

^ "BIGBANG's T.O.P confirms military enlistment date". Yibada. November 22, 2016.

^ "The Full Story Behind T.O.P's Drug Scandal, And The Mysterious Trainee Woman". June 2, 2017. Retrieved June 8, 2017.

^ Jun, R. "BIGBANG's T.O.P To Be Dismissed From Duty For Duration of Prosecution". Soompi. Retrieved 8 June 2017.

^ "Medical expert comments on T.O.P's benzodiazepine overdose | allkpop.com". allkpop. Retrieved 2017-06-09.

^ "BIGBANG's T.O.P hospitalized for drug overdose". YonhapNews. June 6, 2017. Retrieved June 6, 2017.

^ "K-pop superstar T.O.P. in intensive care after overdose". BBC. June 8, 2017. Retrieved June 28, 2017.

^ Kim Jung-kyoon (June 30, 2017). "T.O.P admits to all charges at first hearing". Korea JoongAng Daily. Retrieved July 19, 2017.

^ "Big Bang's T.O.P pleads guilty to pot charges". The Jakarta Post. June 30, 2017. Retrieved 2017-07-19.

^ Park Hyeong-taek (June 29, 2017). "[SC현장] 탑, 대마초 4회 흡연 시인…"공소사실 모두 인정"" [[SC scene] Top, smoking four po ... "All the facts of the charges"]. Sports Chosun (in Korean). Retrieved July 19, 2017.

^ Riddhiman Mukhopadhyay (July 20, 2017). "Rapper T.O.P sentenced at final trial: Apologizes to fans for his actions". International Business Times. Retrieved July 21, 2017.

^ "(LEAD) BIGBANG's T.O.P. gets suspended sentence for marijuana use". Yonhap News Agency. July 20, 2017. Retrieved July 20, 2017.

^ "빅뱅 탑, 재복무심사에서 부적합 결론… 의경신분 박탈" [Big Bang tower is inadequate in re-examination ... Deprivation of state]. Sports Chosun (in Korean). July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.

^ "BIGBANG's T.O.P to lose police post after drug conviction". Yonhap News Agency. July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.

^ "탑, 의경 신분 박탈 '재복무 심사서 부적합 판정'" [Top, disqualification of state of rehabilitation]. Starin E-Daily (in Korean). July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.

^ "BigBang rapper T.O.P cannot continue serving military duty as a policeman". Starits Times. July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.

^ Lee Young-jae (August 28, 2017). "'대마초 흡연' 빅뱅 탑, 의경에서 사회복무 요원 됐다". Korea JoongAng Daily (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.

^ Kim Ji-heon (August 28, 2017). "'대마초' 빅뱅 탑, 오늘 의경 전역…사회복무요원으로 근무". Yonhap News Agency (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.

^ Kim Yoo-jin (August 28, 2017). "'대마초 논란' 탑, 보충역 통보받고 오늘 전역…사회복무요원으로 전환". Herald Economy (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.

^ Hae Kyung Heon (August 28, 2017). "대마초 집유판결 탑 결국 사회복무요원으로, 누리꾼 반응 '냉랭'". Sports Khan (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.

^ "Country report and updates: Korea, South - War Resisters' International". www.wri-irg.org.

Exter

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Conscription in South Korea

Conscription in South Korea has existed since 1957 and requires male citizens between the ages of 18 and 35 to perform about two years of compulsory military service.[1][2] Women are not required to perform military service, but may voluntarily enlist.[3]

Establishment Edit

The basis for military conscription in South Korea is the Constitution of the Republic of Korea, which was promulgated on July 17, 1948. The constitution states in Article 39, "All citizens shall have the duty of national defense under the conditions as prescribed by Act."[4][5] The Military Service Act of 1949, which was implemented in 1957, specified that compulsory military service is required for men ages 18 or older.[6][2] Conscription is managed by the Military Manpower Administration, which was created in 1948.[7]

Requirements Edit

Enlistment and physical exam Edit

By law, when a Korean man turns 18 years old, he is enlisted for "first citizen service," meaning he is liable for military duty, but is not yet required to serve.[6][8] When he turns 19 years old (or, in some instances, 20 years old), he is required to undergo a physical exam to determine whether he is suitable for military service. The table below shows the physical exam's possible grades and their outcomes, according to the Military Service Act.[9]

Grade Description Outcome

1, 2, 3, 4 "Those whose physical and psychological constitution is healthy enough to perform active or supplemental service." "To be enlisted for active duty service, supplemental service or the second citizen service, based on their qualifications, such as educational background and age."

5 "Those incapable of entering active or supplemental service, but capable of entering the second citizen service." "To be enlisted for the second citizen service."

6 "Those incapable of performing military service due to any disease or mental or physical incompetence." "To be exempted from military service."

7 "Those unable to be graded...due to any disease or mental or physical incompetence." "To undergo a follow-up physical examination" within two years.

Service types and length Edit

The length of compulsory military service in South Korea varies based on military branch.[10] Active duty soldiers serve 21 months in the Army or Marine Corps, 23 months in the Navy, and 24 months in the Air Force.[11] After conscripts finish their military service, they are automatically placed on the reserve roster and are obligated to attend a few days of annual military training for 6 years.[citation needed]

Non-active duty personnel, or "supplemental service" personnel serve for various lengths: 24 months for social work personnel or international cooperation service personnel; 34 months for arts and sports personnel or industrial technical personnel; and 36 months for public health doctors, lawyers, veterinarians, or expert researchers.[12]

South Korea currently has among the longest military service periods in the world, ranked behind Israel, Singapore, and North Korea.[citation needed] In 2010, there was growing public pressure to either shorten the length of conscription or to switch to voluntary military service, and calls from experts for a gradual phasing out of conscription rather than complete abolition.[13] However, in December 2010, after taking into consideration of the 2010 ROKS Cheonan sinking and Bombardment of Yeonpyeong incidents, the South Korean government said it would not reduce service periods.[14]

Exemptions for Olympic medalists Edit

Current conscription regulations stipulate that athletes who win medals in the Olympic Games or gold medals in the Asian Games are granted exemptions from military service and are placed in Grade 4.[15] They are required to do four weeks of basic military training and engage in sports field for 34 months. After that, they are automatically placed on the reserve roster, and are obligated to attend a few days of annual military training for six years. In practice, after athletes finish their four weeks of basic military training, they are able to continue their own sports career during the 34 months of duty.[16]

Notable athletes who have been granted exemptions from military service are the bronze medal-winning football team at the 2012 Summer Olympics,[17][18] 2008 Olympic gold medalists badminton player Lee Yong-dae[19] and swimmer Park Tae-hwan[20][21] and 2014 Asian Games gold medalist tennis player Hyeon Chung.[22]

Compensation Edit

The following data is from 'Regulation on Public Servant Compensation', implemented on 1 January 2017.[23] Exchange rate as of 2 May 2018 (₩1077 to $1.00USD)

Private (이등병) Private first class (일등병) Corporal (상등병) Sergeant (병장)

₩163,000

$151.35 (approx) per month ₩176,400

$163.79 (approx) per month ₩195,000

$181.06 (approx) per month ₩216,000

$200.56 (approx) per month

Equipment Edit

The Ministry of National Defense has revealed that it has failed to provide sneakers to 7,411 recruits who joined the military from 22 May to 4 June 2012, after the budget was insufficient for need. The Defense ministry originally projected the cost of each pair of sneakers to be 11,000 KRW. However, the actual cost turned out to be 15,000 KRW.[24]

The office of National Assembly member Kim Kwang-jin of Democratic United Party revealed that cadets in Korea Military Academy were provided with sneakers worth 60,000 KRW and tennis shoes. Cadets in Korea Army Academy at Yeongcheon were provided with sneakers worth 64,250 KRW, in addition to running shoes and soccer shoes.[25]

Dual citizens Edit

For dual citizens, or those with multiple citizenships, male South Koreans must choose their citizenship by the time they turn 18, before March 31 of that year. If these males choose to revoke their South Korean citizenship, they will not be required to complete their mandatory military service. However, if they fail to choose their citizenship by their 18th year, they will be subjected to fulfill their mandatory military service.[26] If males choose to renounce their citizenship by their 18th year, they are ineligible to gain a Korean work visa (F series) until after they turn 40 years of age. It may still be possible to gain an E series visa.

Controversies Edit

The South Korean public is sensitive towards the country's mandatory military service, but also has a low tolerance towards those who attempt to dodge or receive special treatment, especially after scandals of wealthy families caught trying to avoid their national duty. Those found or accused of draft dodging and negligence of duty often face harsh penalties and public backlash. According to Ha Jae-keun, a South Korean pop columnist, "The mood against draft-dodgers and negligence of duty is so hostile that nowadays entertainers feel it's better to get it over and done with".[27][28]

Steve Yoo Edit

In 2002, right before Korean American pop singer Steve Yoo was due to be drafted for his military service, he gave up his Korean nationality and became a naturalized U.S. citizen. He was born in Seoul and migrated to the United States at the age of 13. The South Korean government considered it an act of desertion and deported him, banning him from entering the country permanently.[29]

Song Seung-heon Edit

In late 2004, it was revealed that actor Song Seung-heon had avoided his draft by taking medication to fail the military physical examination. Song had previously been exempted by claiming to have severe diabetes and high blood pressure, but that was found by the South Korean government to be false.[30] Amidst press coverage and public outcry, Song publicly apologized and agreed to immediately serve his two-year term in the military. Song was discharged on 15 November 2006 with the rank of Corporal.[31][32]

MC Mong Edit

On 11 April 2011, rapper MC Mong was cleared of intentionally pulling out healthy teeth to be exempted from military duty but was sentenced to a suspended jail term of 6 months, probation for one year, and 120 hours of community service, for deliberately delaying enlistment on false grounds.[33] The court acknowledged that there was a delay in his military enlistment; however, they were unable to determine whether he was guilty of extracting teeth for the purpose of avoiding his military draft. In September 2011, it was reported that Mong has been banned by Korean Broadcasting System (KBS) and Munhwa Broadcasting Corporation (MBC) from appearing in its TV shows, for draft dodging.[34]

Kim Mu-yeol Edit

In June 2012 Kim Mu-yeol came under growing public criticism over allegations he dodged his compulsory military service. In a report released by the Korean Board of Audit and Inspection (BAI), Kim was deemed fit to serve in active duty as a level two recruit after a March 2001 physical examination. However, throughout 2007 to 2009, Kim was granted postponement on the grounds that he was taking civil service examinations or had been admitted to a work training facility, neither of which took place. During this time he reportedly earned approximately ₩300 million from films, musicals and television work. In December 2009, he received his final notice for enlistment, having used up the 730 days allowed for postponement. He submitted a request to change his military status in January 2010 because of a knee injury, which was rejected. Finally, a valid exemption was granted on the grounds that he was a "low-income individual" and the sole provider for his family. BAI's contention was that Kim's income is substantially higher than the standard for disqualification due to poverty; thus, the Military Manpower Administration was negligent in their duties by granting the exemption.[35][36][37]

Kim's agency Prain TPC defended him, stating that Kim had been supporting his family by working as a security guard, construction worker and at a mobile phone factory since his late teens. When his father collapsed from a cerebral hemorrhage and was diagnosed with cancer in 2008, the treatments incurred a lot of debt for the family. Their worsening financial condition caused them to become totally dependent on Kim, resulting in his said filing for an exemption in 2010.[38] Given the publicity, a reinvestigation into the case was launched and Kim was asked by the production company to leave the film 11 A.M. (he was replaced by Choi Daniel).[39][40] On 4 October 2012, Kim released a statement that though there was no wrongdoing on his part, he had decided to voluntarily enter the army "to recover his honor damaged by the rumors."[41][42]

T.O.P Edit

T.O.P began his two-year mandatory military service on February 9, 2017 as a conscripted police officer, where he was set to be discharged on November 8, 2018 after completing the requirements.[43] However, it was announced in June that he would be prosecuted without detention for use of marijuana.[44] He was subsequently transferred to a different police division to await notice of prosecution, and was suspended from police duty pending verdict on his case.[45] A few days after the announcement, T.O.P was found unconscious in police barracks due to a suspected anti-anxiety medicine overdose of prescribed benzodiazepine,[46] and was hospitalized.[47] On June 8, T.O.P's mother confirmed that her son had opened his eyes and was recovering.[48]

On June 29, T.O.P faced his first trial for the marijuana usage charges at the Seoul Central District Court.[49] He pleaded guilty to the charges against him and admitted that he did smoke marijuana on two out of the four instances.[50] T.O.P received two years of probation, with a possibility of ten months' jail time if he violates any terms.[51] At the second court hearing the following month, T.O.P was sentenced to 10 months in prison suspended for two years for illegal marijuana use.[52] He acknowledged all guilty charges. After undergoing a disciplinary review by the police to decide if T.O.P could return as a conscripted policeman or will complete his service as a public service officer,[53] the Seoul Metropolitan Police Agency reviewed T.O.P's current condition and decided T.O.P is unfit to resume service in his previous position.[54][55] A request was made to Army headquarters for a new position for T.O.P to determine either to serve as a public service worker of a full-time reserve soldier to complete his mandatory service.[56][57] T.O.P was eventually assigned reservist status by the Ministry of National Defense and transferred from police department.[58] He will complete his mandatory service as a public service worker.[59] The time T.O.P had been dismissed from duty during his prosecution will not count towards his total service.[60][61]

Conscientious objection Edit

The right to conscientious objection is not recognised in South Korea.[62] Usually, over 400 people are imprisoned at any one time for refusing military service, for political or religious reasons. This is contrary to international human rights standards and the government of Korea have been repeatedly criticised for not allowing those whose conscience prevents them from joining the military to undertake some kind of substitute service, rather than imprisoning them.

See also Edit

Republic of Korea Armed Forces

Republic of Korea Army

Republic of Korea Marine Corps

Republic of Korea Navy

Republic of Korea Air Force

References Edit

^ "병역이행안내 - 개요(총괄)" [Military Service Implementation Guide - General Overview]. Military Manpower Organization (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-12-28.

^ a b Lee, Namhee (2007). The Making of Minjung: Democracy and the Politics of Representation in South Korea. Cornell University Press. p. 91. ISBN 0801445663.

^ "S. Korea to expand women's role in military". Yonhap News Agency. 2017-12-20. Retrieved 2017-12-28.

^ "Constitution of the Republic of Korea" (PDF). 1987. p. 12. Retrieved 2017-12-27.

^ Kim, Jongcheol (2012). "Constitutional Law". Introduction to Korean Law. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 78. ISBN 3642316891.

^ a b "Military Service Act, Article 8". Korean Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-29.

^ "History". Military Manpower Administration. Retrieved 2017-12-29.

^ "Military Service Act, Article 5". Korean Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-29.

^ "Military Service Act, Articles 10-14". Korean Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-29.

^ Lent, Jesse (2016-04-01). "'Descendants Of The Sun' Star Song Joong Ki Discusses His Time In The South Korean Army". Korea Portal. Retrieved 2017-12-30.

^ "Military Service Act, Article 18". Korea Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-30.

^ "Military Service Act, Articles 26-43". Korea Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-30.

^ "Conscription 'Should Be Phased Out Slowly'". Chosun Ilbo. 2010-07-06. Retrieved 2017-12-30.

^ Kim, Christine (2010-12-22). "Plan to cut compulsory military service scrapped". Korea JoongAng Daily. Retrieved 2017-12-30.

^ "제68조의11(예술ㆍ체육요원의 추천 등) [Article 68-11: Recommendation of arts and sports personnel, etc.]". 병역법 시행령 [Military Service Act Implementation Rules]. South Korea: Ministry of Government Legislation. 29 November 2016. Retrieved 6 April 2018. 법 제33조의7제1항 전단에서 "대통령령으로 정하는 예술·체육 분야의 특기를 가진 사람"이란 다음 각 호의 어느 하나에 해당하는 사람을 말한다. ... 4. 올림픽대회에서 3위 이상으로 입상한 사람(단체경기종목의 경우에는 실제로 출전한 선수만 해당한다) 5. 아시아경기대회에서 1위로 입상한 사람(단체경기종목의 경우에는 실제로 출전한 선수만 해당한다). [In Article 33, Paragraph 7, Subparagraph 2 of the Act, 'a person having special talents in arts and athletics fields, as defined by presidential order' refers to persons to whom are applicable any one of the provisions of the following subparagraphs. ... 4. A person who received a prize for ranked third or above at the Olympics (in the case of team events, only applicable to athletes who actually participated). 5. A person who received a prize for ranking first at the Asian Games (in the case of team events, only applicable to athletes who actually participated).]

^ "리우에서도 떠오른 축구대표팀 '병역특례'".

^ "Footballer to Be Spared Military Service Despite IOC Probe". Chosun Ilbo. 14 August 2012. Retrieved 2 October 2012.

^ "Medal instead of military service". The Hankyoreh. 11 August 2012. Retrieved 25 February 2013.

^ "들쭉날쭉 병역특례기준 '형평성' 논란…병무청 '누적점수제' 추진" (in Korean). Yonhap News Agency. September 30, 2016.

^ "Park Tae-hwan Enters Army Boot Camp". Chosun Ilbo. 5 October 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2012.

^ "Star Swimmer Says Army Boot Camp Helped Him Grow". Chosun Ilbo. 1 November 2012. Retrieved 4 April 2013.

^ "Hyeon Chung Participates In Korean Military Training - ATP World Tour - Tennis - ATP World Tour - Tennis".

^ 공무원보수규정 '별표 13' 군인의 봉급표(제5조 및 별표 1 관련) . Korea Ministry of Government Legislation (in Korean). Retrieved 28 April 2015.

^ 조, 기호 (18 July 2012). "운동화 한 켤레 못 주는 군(軍)!". Seoul Broadcasting System. Retrieved 4 August 2012.

^ "[보도자료] 예산 없다던 국방부, 사관생도에게는 고가 외국브랜드 운동화 지급". Retrieved 4 August 2012.[dead link]

^ "FAQs-Dual Citizens | U.S. Embassy & Consulate in Korea". U.S. Embassy & Consulate in Korea. Retrieved 2017-10-12.

^ "South Korean singer Rain reports for military service". BBC News. 11 October 2011. Retrieved 2011-10-14.

^ Park, Eun-jee (16 January 2013). "Military service mischief a losing battle". Joongang Daily. Archived from the original on 29 June 2013. Retrieved 4 April 2013.

^ Seo, Ji-eun "Steve Yoo isn’t coming back to Korea" Archived 6 January 2013 at the Wayback Machine. Joongang Daily. 20 October 2011. retrieved 2011-11-08

^ (in Korean) "최지우, '승헌이에게 말 걸어볼까?"[permanent dead link] SSTV. 30 June 2009. Retrieved 2011-11-06

^ "Song Seung-heon, Jang Hyeok Discharged from Military" HanCinema. 16 November 2011. Retrieved 2011-10-14

^ (in Korean) "Song Seung-heon discharged from the army"Yahoo News Korea, 2006-11-18. Archived 14 June 2011 at the Wayback Machine.

^ "Rapper Gets Suspended Jail Term for Draft Dodging" Chosun Ilbo. 12 April 2011. Retrieved 2011-10-14

^ "KBS, MBC release list of 36 banned entertainers" Dong-A Ilbo. 28 September 2011. 2011-10-14

^ Sunwoo, Carla (22 June 2012). "Actor Kim Moo-yul was poor enough to dodge military service". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 27 January 2013. Retrieved 6 October 2012.

^ Lee, In-kyung (21 June 2012). "Kim Moo Yul Involved in Military Scandal after Avoiding Duties". enewsWorld. Retrieved 2012-10-06.

^ "High-Paid Actor Exempted from Draft for Poverty". The Chosun Ilbo. 22 June 2012. Retrieved 2012-10-06.

^ Moon, Gwang-lip (25 June 2012). "Agent says Kim Moo-yul's family situation was 'nearly impossible'". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 11 August 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2012.

^ Sunwoo, Carla (10 July 2012). "Kim Moo-yul kicked off movie set". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 26 January 2013. Retrieved 6 October 2012.

^ Sunwoo, Carla (11 July 2012). "Choi Daniel to replace Kim Moo-yul". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 5 August 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2012.

^ Lee, Hye-ji (5 October 2012). "Kim Moo-yeol to Enter Army, Cleaning out Exemption Rumors". 10Asia. Retrieved 2012-11-18.

^ Sunwoo, Carla (11 October 2011). "Kim Moo-yul enlists after rumors". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 26 October 2012. Retrieved 18 November 2012.

^ "BIGBANG's T.O.P confirms military enlistment date". Yibada. November 22, 2016.

^ "The Full Story Behind T.O.P's Drug Scandal, And The Mysterious Trainee Woman". June 2, 2017. Retrieved June 8, 2017.

^ Jun, R. "BIGBANG's T.O.P To Be Dismissed From Duty For Duration of Prosecution". Soompi. Retrieved 8 June 2017.

^ "Medical expert comments on T.O.P's benzodiazepine overdose | allkpop.com". allkpop. Retrieved 2017-06-09.

^ "BIGBANG's T.O.P hospitalized for drug overdose". YonhapNews. June 6, 2017. Retrieved June 6, 2017.

^ "K-pop superstar T.O.P. in intensive care after overdose". BBC. June 8, 2017. Retrieved June 28, 2017.

^ Kim Jung-kyoon (June 30, 2017). "T.O.P admits to all charges at first hearing". Korea JoongAng Daily. Retrieved July 19, 2017.

^ "Big Bang's T.O.P pleads guilty to pot charges". The Jakarta Post. June 30, 2017. Retrieved 2017-07-19.

^ Park Hyeong-taek (June 29, 2017). "[SC현장] 탑, 대마초 4회 흡연 시인…"공소사실 모두 인정"" [[SC scene] Top, smoking four po ... "All the facts of the charges"]. Sports Chosun (in Korean). Retrieved July 19, 2017.

^ Riddhiman Mukhopadhyay (July 20, 2017). "Rapper T.O.P sentenced at final trial: Apologizes to fans for his actions". International Business Times. Retrieved July 21, 2017.

^ "(LEAD) BIGBANG's T.O.P. gets suspended sentence for marijuana use". Yonhap News Agency. July 20, 2017. Retrieved July 20, 2017.

^ "빅뱅 탑, 재복무심사에서 부적합 결론… 의경신분 박탈" [Big Bang tower is inadequate in re-examination ... Deprivation of state]. Sports Chosun (in Korean). July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.

^ "BIGBANG's T.O.P to lose police post after drug conviction". Yonhap News Agency. July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.

^ "탑, 의경 신분 박탈 '재복무 심사서 부적합 판정'" [Top, disqualification of state of rehabilitation]. Starin E-Daily (in Korean). July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.

^ "BigBang rapper T.O.P cannot continue serving military duty as a policeman". Starits Times. July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.

^ Lee Young-jae (August 28, 2017). "'대마초 흡연' 빅뱅 탑, 의경에서 사회복무 요원 됐다". Korea JoongAng Daily (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.

^ Kim Ji-heon (August 28, 2017). "'대마초' 빅뱅 탑, 오늘 의경 전역…사회복무요원으로 근무". Yonhap News Agency (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.

^ Kim Yoo-jin (August 28, 2017). "'대마초 논란' 탑, 보충역 통보받고 오늘 전역…사회복무요원으로 전환". Herald Economy (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.

^ Hae Kyung Heon (August 28, 2017). "대마초 집유판결 탑 결국 사회복무요원으로, 누리꾼 반응 '냉랭'". Sports Khan (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.

^ "Country report and updates: Korea, South - War Resisters' International". www.wri-irg.org.

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Date: March 28th, 2018 10:27 PM
Author: nyuug (Creampieing Norwegian beauties)

DTP bump.

http://xoxohth.com/thread.php?thread_id=3932537&mc=8&forum_id=2

(http://www.autoadmit.com/thread.php?thread_id=3345436&forum_id=2#35713485)



Reply Favorite

Date: May 28th, 2018 11:44 PM
Author: The Sheer Entitled Caucasity

Wikipedia Search

EditWatch this pageRead in another language

Conscription in South Korea

Conscription in South Korea has existed since 1957 and requires male citizens between the ages of 18 and 35 to perform about two years of compulsory military service.[1][2] Women are not required to perform military service, but may voluntarily enlist.[3]

Establishment Edit

The basis for military conscription in South Korea is the Constitution of the Republic of Korea, which was promulgated on July 17, 1948. The constitution states in Article 39, "All citizens shall have the duty of national defense under the conditions as prescribed by Act."[4][5] The Military Service Act of 1949, which was implemented in 1957, specified that compulsory military service is required for men ages 18 or older.[6][2] Conscription is managed by the Military Manpower Administration, which was created in 1948.[7]

Requirements Edit

Enlistment and physical exam Edit

By law, when a Korean man turns 18 years old, he is enlisted for "first citizen service," meaning he is liable for military duty, but is not yet required to serve.[6][8] When he turns 19 years old (or, in some instances, 20 years old), he is required to undergo a physical exam to determine whether he is suitable for military service. The table below shows the physical exam's possible grades and their outcomes, according to the Military Service Act.[9]

Grade Description Outcome

1, 2, 3, 4 "Those whose physical and psychological constitution is healthy enough to perform active or supplemental service." "To be enlisted for active duty service, supplemental service or the second citizen service, based on their qualifications, such as educational background and age."

5 "Those incapable of entering active or supplemental service, but capable of entering the second citizen service." "To be enlisted for the second citizen service."

6 "Those incapable of performing military service due to any disease or mental or physical incompetence." "To be exempted from military service."

7 "Those unable to be graded...due to any disease or mental or physical incompetence." "To undergo a follow-up physical examination" within two years.

Service types and length Edit

The length of compulsory military service in South Korea varies based on military branch.[10] Active duty soldiers serve 21 months in the Army or Marine Corps, 23 months in the Navy, and 24 months in the Air Force.[11] After conscripts finish their military service, they are automatically placed on the reserve roster and are obligated to attend a few days of annual military training for 6 years.[citation needed]

Non-active duty personnel, or "supplemental service" personnel serve for various lengths: 24 months for social work personnel or international cooperation service personnel; 34 months for arts and sports personnel or industrial technical personnel; and 36 months for public health doctors, lawyers, veterinarians, or expert researchers.[12]

South Korea currently has among the longest military service periods in the world, ranked behind Israel, Singapore, and North Korea.[citation needed] In 2010, there was growing public pressure to either shorten the length of conscription or to switch to voluntary military service, and calls from experts for a gradual phasing out of conscription rather than complete abolition.[13] However, in December 2010, after taking into consideration of the 2010 ROKS Cheonan sinking and Bombardment of Yeonpyeong incidents, the South Korean government said it would not reduce service periods.[14]

Exemptions for Olympic medalists Edit

Current conscription regulations stipulate that athletes who win medals in the Olympic Games or gold medals in the Asian Games are granted exemptions from military service and are placed in Grade 4.[15] They are required to do four weeks of basic military training and engage in sports field for 34 months. After that, they are automatically placed on the reserve roster, and are obligated to attend a few days of annual military training for six years. In practice, after athletes finish their four weeks of basic military training, they are able to continue their own sports career during the 34 months of duty.[16]

Notable athletes who have been granted exemptions from military service are the bronze medal-winning football team at the 2012 Summer Olympics,[17][18] 2008 Olympic gold medalists badminton player Lee Yong-dae[19] and swimmer Park Tae-hwan[20][21] and 2014 Asian Games gold medalist tennis player Hyeon Chung.[22]

Compensation Edit

The following data is from 'Regulation on Public Servant Compensation', implemented on 1 January 2017.[23] Exchange rate as of 2 May 2018 (₩1077 to $1.00USD)

Private (이등병) Private first class (일등병) Corporal (상등병) Sergeant (병장)

₩163,000

$151.35 (approx) per month ₩176,400

$163.79 (approx) per month ₩195,000

$181.06 (approx) per month ₩216,000

$200.56 (approx) per month

Equipment Edit

The Ministry of National Defense has revealed that it has failed to provide sneakers to 7,411 recruits who joined the military from 22 May to 4 June 2012, after the budget was insufficient for need. The Defense ministry originally projected the cost of each pair of sneakers to be 11,000 KRW. However, the actual cost turned out to be 15,000 KRW.[24]

The office of National Assembly member Kim Kwang-jin of Democratic United Party revealed that cadets in Korea Military Academy were provided with sneakers worth 60,000 KRW and tennis shoes. Cadets in Korea Army Academy at Yeongcheon were provided with sneakers worth 64,250 KRW, in addition to running shoes and soccer shoes.[25]

Dual citizens Edit

For dual citizens, or those with multiple citizenships, male South Koreans must choose their citizenship by the time they turn 18, before March 31 of that year. If these males choose to revoke their South Korean citizenship, they will not be required to complete their mandatory military service. However, if they fail to choose their citizenship by their 18th year, they will be subjected to fulfill their mandatory military service.[26] If males choose to renounce their citizenship by their 18th year, they are ineligible to gain a Korean work visa (F series) until after they turn 40 years of age. It may still be possible to gain an E series visa.

Controversies Edit

The South Korean public is sensitive towards the country's mandatory military service, but also has a low tolerance towards those who attempt to dodge or receive special treatment, especially after scandals of wealthy families caught trying to avoid their national duty. Those found or accused of draft dodging and negligence of duty often face harsh penalties and public backlash. According to Ha Jae-keun, a South Korean pop columnist, "The mood against draft-dodgers and negligence of duty is so hostile that nowadays entertainers feel it's better to get it over and done with".[27][28]

Steve Yoo Edit

In 2002, right before Korean American pop singer Steve Yoo was due to be drafted for his military service, he gave up his Korean nationality and became a naturalized U.S. citizen. He was born in Seoul and migrated to the United States at the age of 13. The South Korean government considered it an act of desertion and deported him, banning him from entering the country permanently.[29]

Song Seung-heon Edit

In late 2004, it was revealed that actor Song Seung-heon had avoided his draft by taking medication to fail the military physical examination. Song had previously been exempted by claiming to have severe diabetes and high blood pressure, but that was found by the South Korean government to be false.[30] Amidst press coverage and public outcry, Song publicly apologized and agreed to immediately serve his two-year term in the military. Song was discharged on 15 November 2006 with the rank of Corporal.[31][32]

MC Mong Edit

On 11 April 2011, rapper MC Mong was cleared of intentionally pulling out healthy teeth to be exempted from military duty but was sentenced to a suspended jail term of 6 months, probation for one year, and 120 hours of community service, for deliberately delaying enlistment on false grounds.[33] The court acknowledged that there was a delay in his military enlistment; however, they were unable to determine whether he was guilty of extracting teeth for the purpose of avoiding his military draft. In September 2011, it was reported that Mong has been banned by Korean Broadcasting System (KBS) and Munhwa Broadcasting Corporation (MBC) from appearing in its TV shows, for draft dodging.[34]

Kim Mu-yeol Edit

In June 2012 Kim Mu-yeol came under growing public criticism over allegations he dodged his compulsory military service. In a report released by the Korean Board of Audit and Inspection (BAI), Kim was deemed fit to serve in active duty as a level two recruit after a March 2001 physical examination. However, throughout 2007 to 2009, Kim was granted postponement on the grounds that he was taking civil service examinations or had been admitted to a work training facility, neither of which took place. During this time he reportedly earned approximately ₩300 million from films, musicals and television work. In December 2009, he received his final notice for enlistment, having used up the 730 days allowed for postponement. He submitted a request to change his military status in January 2010 because of a knee injury, which was rejected. Finally, a valid exemption was granted on the grounds that he was a "low-income individual" and the sole provider for his family. BAI's contention was that Kim's income is substantially higher than the standard for disqualification due to poverty; thus, the Military Manpower Administration was negligent in their duties by granting the exemption.[35][36][37]

Kim's agency Prain TPC defended him, stating that Kim had been supporting his family by working as a security guard, construction worker and at a mobile phone factory since his late teens. When his father collapsed from a cerebral hemorrhage and was diagnosed with cancer in 2008, the treatments incurred a lot of debt for the family. Their worsening financial condition caused them to become totally dependent on Kim, resulting in his said filing for an exemption in 2010.[38] Given the publicity, a reinvestigation into the case was launched and Kim was asked by the production company to leave the film 11 A.M. (he was replaced by Choi Daniel).[39][40] On 4 October 2012, Kim released a statement that though there was no wrongdoing on his part, he had decided to voluntarily enter the army "to recover his honor damaged by the rumors."[41][42]

T.O.P Edit

T.O.P began his two-year mandatory military service on February 9, 2017 as a conscripted police officer, where he was set to be discharged on November 8, 2018 after completing the requirements.[43] However, it was announced in June that he would be prosecuted without detention for use of marijuana.[44] He was subsequently transferred to a different police division to await notice of prosecution, and was suspended from police duty pending verdict on his case.[45] A few days after the announcement, T.O.P was found unconscious in police barracks due to a suspected anti-anxiety medicine overdose of prescribed benzodiazepine,[46] and was hospitalized.[47] On June 8, T.O.P's mother confirmed that her son had opened his eyes and was recovering.[48]

On June 29, T.O.P faced his first trial for the marijuana usage charges at the Seoul Central District Court.[49] He pleaded guilty to the charges against him and admitted that he did smoke marijuana on two out of the four instances.[50] T.O.P received two years of probation, with a possibility of ten months' jail time if he violates any terms.[51] At the second court hearing the following month, T.O.P was sentenced to 10 months in prison suspended for two years for illegal marijuana use.[52] He acknowledged all guilty charges. After undergoing a disciplinary review by the police to decide if T.O.P could return as a conscripted policeman or will complete his service as a public service officer,[53] the Seoul Metropolitan Police Agency reviewed T.O.P's current condition and decided T.O.P is unfit to resume service in his previous position.[54][55] A request was made to Army headquarters for a new position for T.O.P to determine either to serve as a public service worker of a full-time reserve soldier to complete his mandatory service.[56][57] T.O.P was eventually assigned reservist status by the Ministry of National Defense and transferred from police department.[58] He will complete his mandatory service as a public service worker.[59] The time T.O.P had been dismissed from duty during his prosecution will not count towards his total service.[60][61]

Conscientious objection Edit

The right to conscientious objection is not recognised in South Korea.[62] Usually, over 400 people are imprisoned at any one time for refusing military service, for political or religious reasons. This is contrary to international human rights standards and the government of Korea have been repeatedly criticised for not allowing those whose conscience prevents them from joining the military to undertake some kind of substitute service, rather than imprisoning them.

See also Edit

Republic of Korea Armed Forces

Republic of Korea Army

Republic of Korea Marine Corps

Republic of Korea Navy

Republic of Korea Air Force

References Edit

^ "병역이행안내 - 개요(총괄)" [Military Service Implementation Guide - General Overview]. Military Manpower Organization (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-12-28.

^ a b Lee, Namhee (2007). The Making of Minjung: Democracy and the Politics of Representation in South Korea. Cornell University Press. p. 91. ISBN 0801445663.

^ "S. Korea to expand women's role in military". Yonhap News Agency. 2017-12-20. Retrieved 2017-12-28.

^ "Constitution of the Republic of Korea" (PDF). 1987. p. 12. Retrieved 2017-12-27.

^ Kim, Jongcheol (2012). "Constitutional Law". Introduction to Korean Law. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 78. ISBN 3642316891.

^ a b "Military Service Act, Article 8". Korean Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-29.

^ "History". Military Manpower Administration. Retrieved 2017-12-29.

^ "Military Service Act, Article 5". Korean Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-29.

^ "Military Service Act, Articles 10-14". Korean Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-29.

^ Lent, Jesse (2016-04-01). "'Descendants Of The Sun' Star Song Joong Ki Discusses His Time In The South Korean Army". Korea Portal. Retrieved 2017-12-30.

^ "Military Service Act, Article 18". Korea Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-30.

^ "Military Service Act, Articles 26-43". Korea Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-30.

^ "Conscription 'Should Be Phased Out Slowly'". Chosun Ilbo. 2010-07-06. Retrieved 2017-12-30.

^ Kim, Christine (2010-12-22). "Plan to cut compulsory military service scrapped". Korea JoongAng Daily. Retrieved 2017-12-30.

^ "제68조의11(예술ㆍ체육요원의 추천 등) [Article 68-11: Recommendation of arts and sports personnel, etc.]". 병역법 시행령 [Military Service Act Implementation Rules]. South Korea: Ministry of Government Legislation. 29 November 2016. Retrieved 6 April 2018. 법 제33조의7제1항 전단에서 "대통령령으로 정하는 예술·체육 분야의 특기를 가진 사람"이란 다음 각 호의 어느 하나에 해당하는 사람을 말한다. ... 4. 올림픽대회에서 3위 이상으로 입상한 사람(단체경기종목의 경우에는 실제로 출전한 선수만 해당한다) 5. 아시아경기대회에서 1위로 입상한 사람(단체경기종목의 경우에는 실제로 출전한 선수만 해당한다). [In Article 33, Paragraph 7, Subparagraph 2 of the Act, 'a person having special talents in arts and athletics fields, as defined by presidential order' refers to persons to whom are applicable any one of the provisions of the following subparagraphs. ... 4. A person who received a prize for ranked third or above at the Olympics (in the case of team events, only applicable to athletes who actually participated). 5. A person who received a prize for ranking first at the Asian Games (in the case of team events, only applicable to athletes who actually participated).]

^ "리우에서도 떠오른 축구대표팀 '병역특례'".

^ "Footballer to Be Spared Military Service Despite IOC Probe". Chosun Ilbo. 14 August 2012. Retrieved 2 October 2012.

^ "Medal instead of military service". The Hankyoreh. 11 August 2012. Retrieved 25 February 2013.

^ "들쭉날쭉 병역특례기준 '형평성' 논란…병무청 '누적점수제' 추진" (in Korean). Yonhap News Agency. September 30, 2016.

^ "Park Tae-hwan Enters Army Boot Camp". Chosun Ilbo. 5 October 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2012.

^ "Star Swimmer Says Army Boot Camp Helped Him Grow". Chosun Ilbo. 1 November 2012. Retrieved 4 April 2013.

^ "Hyeon Chung Participates In Korean Military Training - ATP World Tour - Tennis - ATP World Tour - Tennis".

^ 공무원보수규정 '별표 13' 군인의 봉급표(제5조 및 별표 1 관련) . Korea Ministry of Government Legislation (in Korean). Retrieved 28 April 2015.

^ 조, 기호 (18 July 2012). "운동화 한 켤레 못 주는 군(軍)!". Seoul Broadcasting System. Retrieved 4 August 2012.

^ "[보도자료] 예산 없다던 국방부, 사관생도에게는 고가 외국브랜드 운동화 지급". Retrieved 4 August 2012.[dead link]

^ "FAQs-Dual Citizens | U.S. Embassy & Consulate in Korea". U.S. Embassy & Consulate in Korea. Retrieved 2017-10-12.

^ "South Korean singer Rain reports for military service". BBC News. 11 October 2011. Retrieved 2011-10-14.

^ Park, Eun-jee (16 January 2013). "Military service mischief a losing battle". Joongang Daily. Archived from the original on 29 June 2013. Retrieved 4 April 2013.

^ Seo, Ji-eun "Steve Yoo isn’t coming back to Korea" Archived 6 January 2013 at the Wayback Machine. Joongang Daily. 20 October 2011. retrieved 2011-11-08

^ (in Korean) "최지우, '승헌이에게 말 걸어볼까?"[permanent dead link] SSTV. 30 June 2009. Retrieved 2011-11-06

^ "Song Seung-heon, Jang Hyeok Discharged from Military" HanCinema. 16 November 2011. Retrieved 2011-10-14

^ (in Korean) "Song Seung-heon discharged from the army"Yahoo News Korea, 2006-11-18. Archived 14 June 2011 at the Wayback Machine.

^ "Rapper Gets Suspended Jail Term for Draft Dodging" Chosun Ilbo. 12 April 2011. Retrieved 2011-10-14

^ "KBS, MBC release list of 36 banned entertainers" Dong-A Ilbo. 28 September 2011. 2011-10-14

^ Sunwoo, Carla (22 June 2012). "Actor Kim Moo-yul was poor enough to dodge military service". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 27 January 2013. Retrieved 6 October 2012.

^ Lee, In-kyung (21 June 2012). "Kim Moo Yul Involved in Military Scandal after Avoiding Duties". enewsWorld. Retrieved 2012-10-06.

^ "High-Paid Actor Exempted from Draft for Poverty". The Chosun Ilbo. 22 June 2012. Retrieved 2012-10-06.

^ Moon, Gwang-lip (25 June 2012). "Agent says Kim Moo-yul's family situation was 'nearly impossible'". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 11 August 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2012.

^ Sunwoo, Carla (10 July 2012). "Kim Moo-yul kicked off movie set". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 26 January 2013. Retrieved 6 October 2012.

^ Sunwoo, Carla (11 July 2012). "Choi Daniel to replace Kim Moo-yul". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 5 August 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2012.

^ Lee, Hye-ji (5 October 2012). "Kim Moo-yeol to Enter Army, Cleaning out Exemption Rumors". 10Asia. Retrieved 2012-11-18.

^ Sunwoo, Carla (11 October 2011). "Kim Moo-yul enlists after rumors". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 26 October 2012. Retrieved 18 November 2012.

^ "BIGBANG's T.O.P confirms military enlistment date". Yibada. November 22, 2016.

^ "The Full Story Behind T.O.P's Drug Scandal, And The Mysterious Trainee Woman". June 2, 2017. Retrieved June 8, 2017.

^ Jun, R. "BIGBANG's T.O.P To Be Dismissed From Duty For Duration of Prosecution". Soompi. Retrieved 8 June 2017.

^ "Medical expert comments on T.O.P's benzodiazepine overdose | allkpop.com". allkpop. Retrieved 2017-06-09.

^ "BIGBANG's T.O.P hospitalized for drug overdose". YonhapNews. June 6, 2017. Retrieved June 6, 2017.

^ "K-pop superstar T.O.P. in intensive care after overdose". BBC. June 8, 2017. Retrieved June 28, 2017.

^ Kim Jung-kyoon (June 30, 2017). "T.O.P admits to all charges at first hearing". Korea JoongAng Daily. Retrieved July 19, 2017.

^ "Big Bang's T.O.P pleads guilty to pot charges". The Jakarta Post. June 30, 2017. Retrieved 2017-07-19.

^ Park Hyeong-taek (June 29, 2017). "[SC현장] 탑, 대마초 4회 흡연 시인…"공소사실 모두 인정"" [[SC scene] Top, smoking four po ... "All the facts of the charges"]. Sports Chosun (in Korean). Retrieved July 19, 2017.

^ Riddhiman Mukhopadhyay (July 20, 2017). "Rapper T.O.P sentenced at final trial: Apologizes to fans for his actions". International Business Times. Retrieved July 21, 2017.

^ "(LEAD) BIGBANG's T.O.P. gets suspended sentence for marijuana use". Yonhap News Agency. July 20, 2017. Retrieved July 20, 2017.

^ "빅뱅 탑, 재복무심사에서 부적합 결론… 의경신분 박탈" [Big Bang tower is inadequate in re-examination ... Deprivation of state]. Sports Chosun (in Korean). July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.

^ "BIGBANG's T.O.P to lose police post after drug conviction". Yonhap News Agency. July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.

^ "탑, 의경 신분 박탈 '재복무 심사서 부적합 판정'" [Top, disqualification of state of rehabilitation]. Starin E-Daily (in Korean). July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.

^ "BigBang rapper T.O.P cannot continue serving military duty as a policeman". Starits Times. July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.

^ Lee Young-jae (August 28, 2017). "'대마초 흡연' 빅뱅 탑, 의경에서 사회복무 요원 됐다". Korea JoongAng Daily (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.

^ Kim Ji-heon (August 28, 2017). "'대마초' 빅뱅 탑, 오늘 의경 전역…사회복무요원으로 근무". Yonhap News Agency (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.

^ Kim Yoo-jin (August 28, 2017). "'대마초 논란' 탑, 보충역 통보받고 오늘 전역…사회복무요원으로 전환". Herald Economy (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.

^ Hae Kyung Heon (August 28, 2017). "대마초 집유판결 탑 결국 사회복무요원으로, 누리꾼 반응 '냉랭'". Sports Khan (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.

^ "Country report and updates: Korea, South - War Resisters' International". www.wri-irg.org.

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Conscription in South Korea

Conscription in South Korea has existed since 1957 and requires male citizens between the ages of 18 and 35 to perform about two years of compulsory military service.[1][2] Women are not required to perform military service, but may voluntarily enlist.[3]

Establishment Edit

The basis for military conscription in South Korea is the Constitution of the Republic of Korea, which was promulgated on July 17, 1948. The constitution states in Article 39, "All citizens shall have the duty of national defense under the conditions as prescribed by Act."[4][5] The Military Service Act of 1949, which was implemented in 1957, specified that compulsory military service is required for men ages 18 or older.[6][2] Conscription is managed by the Military Manpower Administration, which was created in 1948.[7]

Requirements Edit

Enlistment and physical exam Edit

By law, when a Korean man turns 18 years old, he is enlisted for "first citizen service," meaning he is liable for military duty, but is not yet required to serve.[6][8] When he turns 19 years old (or, in some instances, 20 years old), he is required to undergo a physical exam to determine whether he is suitable for military service. The table below shows the physical exam's possible grades and their outcomes, according to the Military Service Act.[9]

Grade Description Outcome

1, 2, 3, 4 "Those whose physical and psychological constitution is healthy enough to perform active or supplemental service." "To be enlisted for active duty service, supplemental service or the second citizen service, based on their qualifications, such as educational background and age."

5 "Those incapable of entering active or supplemental service, but capable of entering the second citizen service." "To be enlisted for the second citizen service."

6 "Those incapable of performing military service due to any disease or mental or physical incompetence." "To be exempted from military service."

7 "Those unable to be graded...due to any disease or mental or physical incompetence." "To undergo a follow-up physical examination" within two years.

Service types and length Edit

The length of compulsory military service in South Korea varies based on military branch.[10] Active duty soldiers serve 21 months in the Army or Marine Corps, 23 months in the Navy, and 24 months in the Air Force.[11] After conscripts finish their military service, they are automatically placed on the reserve roster and are obligated to attend a few days of annual military training for 6 years.[citation needed]

Non-active duty personnel, or "supplemental service" personnel serve for various lengths: 24 months for social work personnel or international cooperation service personnel; 34 months for arts and sports personnel or industrial technical personnel; and 36 months for public health doctors, lawyers, veterinarians, or expert researchers.[12]

South Korea currently has among the longest military service periods in the world, ranked behind Israel, Singapore, and North Korea.[citation needed] In 2010, there was growing public pressure to either shorten the length of conscription or to switch to voluntary military service, and calls from experts for a gradual phasing out of conscription rather than complete abolition.[13] However, in December 2010, after taking into consideration of the 2010 ROKS Cheonan sinking and Bombardment of Yeonpyeong incidents, the South Korean government said it would not reduce service periods.[14]

Exemptions for Olympic medalists Edit

Current conscription regulations stipulate that athletes who win medals in the Olympic Games or gold medals in the Asian Games are granted exemptions from military service and are placed in Grade 4.[15] They are required to do four weeks of basic military training and engage in sports field for 34 months. After that, they are automatically placed on the reserve roster, and are obligated to attend a few days of annual military training for six years. In practice, after athletes finish their four weeks of basic military training, they are able to continue their own sports career during the 34 months of duty.[16]

Notable athletes who have been granted exemptions from military service are the bronze medal-winning football team at the 2012 Summer Olympics,[17][18] 2008 Olympic gold medalists badminton player Lee Yong-dae[19] and swimmer Park Tae-hwan[20][21] and 2014 Asian Games gold medalist tennis player Hyeon Chung.[22]

Compensation Edit

The following data is from 'Regulation on Public Servant Compensation', implemented on 1 January 2017.[23] Exchange rate as of 2 May 2018 (₩1077 to $1.00USD)

Private (이등병) Private first class (일등병) Corporal (상등병) Sergeant (병장)

₩163,000

$151.35 (approx) per month ₩176,400

$163.79 (approx) per month ₩195,000

$181.06 (approx) per month ₩216,000

$200.56 (approx) per month

Equipment Edit

The Ministry of National Defense has revealed that it has failed to provide sneakers to 7,411 recruits who joined the military from 22 May to 4 June 2012, after the budget was insufficient for need. The Defense ministry originally projected the cost of each pair of sneakers to be 11,000 KRW. However, the actual cost turned out to be 15,000 KRW.[24]

The office of National Assembly member Kim Kwang-jin of Democratic United Party revealed that cadets in Korea Military Academy were provided with sneakers worth 60,000 KRW and tennis shoes. Cadets in Korea Army Academy at Yeongcheon were provided with sneakers worth 64,250 KRW, in addition to running shoes and soccer shoes.[25]

Dual citizens Edit

For dual citizens, or those with multiple citizenships, male South Koreans must choose their citizenship by the time they turn 18, before March 31 of that year. If these males choose to revoke their South Korean citizenship, they will not be required to complete their mandatory military service. However, if they fail to choose their citizenship by their 18th year, they will be subjected to fulfill their mandatory military service.[26] If males choose to renounce their citizenship by their 18th year, they are ineligible to gain a Korean work visa (F series) until after they turn 40 years of age. It may still be possible to gain an E series visa.

Controversies Edit

The South Korean public is sensitive towards the country's mandatory military service, but also has a low tolerance towards those who attempt to dodge or receive special treatment, especially after scandals of wealthy families caught trying to avoid their national duty. Those found or accused of draft dodging and negligence of duty often face harsh penalties and public backlash. According to Ha Jae-keun, a South Korean pop columnist, "The mood against draft-dodgers and negligence of duty is so hostile that nowadays entertainers feel it's better to get it over and done with".[27][28]

Steve Yoo Edit

In 2002, right before Korean American pop singer Steve Yoo was due to be drafted for his military service, he gave up his Korean nationality and became a naturalized U.S. citizen. He was born in Seoul and migrated to the United States at the age of 13. The South Korean government considered it an act of desertion and deported him, banning him from entering the country permanently.[29]

Song Seung-heon Edit

In late 2004, it was revealed that actor Song Seung-heon had avoided his draft by taking medication to fail the military physical examination. Song had previously been exempted by claiming to have severe diabetes and high blood pressure, but that was found by the South Korean government to be false.[30] Amidst press coverage and public outcry, Song publicly apologized and agreed to immediately serve his two-year term in the military. Song was discharged on 15 November 2006 with the rank of Corporal.[31][32]

MC Mong Edit

On 11 April 2011, rapper MC Mong was cleared of intentionally pulling out healthy teeth to be exempted from military duty but was sentenced to a suspended jail term of 6 months, probation for one year, and 120 hours of community service, for deliberately delaying enlistment on false grounds.[33] The court acknowledged that there was a delay in his military enlistment; however, they were unable to determine whether he was guilty of extracting teeth for the purpose of avoiding his military draft. In September 2011, it was reported that Mong has been banned by Korean Broadcasting System (KBS) and Munhwa Broadcasting Corporation (MBC) from appearing in its TV shows, for draft dodging.[34]

Kim Mu-yeol Edit

In June 2012 Kim Mu-yeol came under growing public criticism over allegations he dodged his compulsory military service. In a report released by the Korean Board of Audit and Inspection (BAI), Kim was deemed fit to serve in active duty as a level two recruit after a March 2001 physical examination. However, throughout 2007 to 2009, Kim was granted postponement on the grounds that he was taking civil service examinations or had been admitted to a work training facility, neither of which took place. During this time he reportedly earned approximately ₩300 million from films, musicals and television work. In December 2009, he received his final notice for enlistment, having used up the 730 days allowed for postponement. He submitted a request to change his military status in January 2010 because of a knee injury, which was rejected. Finally, a valid exemption was granted on the grounds that he was a "low-income individual" and the sole provider for his family. BAI's contention was that Kim's income is substantially higher than the standard for disqualification due to poverty; thus, the Military Manpower Administration was negligent in their duties by granting the exemption.[35][36][37]

Kim's agency Prain TPC defended him, stating that Kim had been supporting his family by working as a security guard, construction worker and at a mobile phone factory since his late teens. When his father collapsed from a cerebral hemorrhage and was diagnosed with cancer in 2008, the treatments incurred a lot of debt for the family. Their worsening financial condition caused them to become totally dependent on Kim, resulting in his said filing for an exemption in 2010.[38] Given the publicity, a reinvestigation into the case was launched and Kim was asked by the production company to leave the film 11 A.M. (he was replaced by Choi Daniel).[39][40] On 4 October 2012, Kim released a statement that though there was no wrongdoing on his part, he had decided to voluntarily enter the army "to recover his honor damaged by the rumors."[41][42]

T.O.P Edit

T.O.P began his two-year mandatory military service on February 9, 2017 as a conscripted police officer, where he was set to be discharged on November 8, 2018 after completing the requirements.[43] However, it was announced in June that he would be prosecuted without detention for use of marijuana.[44] He was subsequently transferred to a different police division to await notice of prosecution, and was suspended from police duty pending verdict on his case.[45] A few days after the announcement, T.O.P was found unconscious in police barracks due to a suspected anti-anxiety medicine overdose of prescribed benzodiazepine,[46] and was hospitalized.[47] On June 8, T.O.P's mother confirmed that her son had opened his eyes and was recovering.[48]

On June 29, T.O.P faced his first trial for the marijuana usage charges at the Seoul Central District Court.[49] He pleaded guilty to the charges against him and admitted that he did smoke marijuana on two out of the four instances.[50] T.O.P received two years of probation, with a possibility of ten months' jail time if he violates any terms.[51] At the second court hearing the following month, T.O.P was sentenced to 10 months in prison suspended for two years for illegal marijuana use.[52] He acknowledged all guilty charges. After undergoing a disciplinary review by the police to decide if T.O.P could return as a conscripted policeman or will complete his service as a public service officer,[53] the Seoul Metropolitan Police Agency reviewed T.O.P's current condition and decided T.O.P is unfit to resume service in his previous position.[54][55] A request was made to Army headquarters for a new position for T.O.P to determine either to serve as a public service worker of a full-time reserve soldier to complete his mandatory service.[56][57] T.O.P was eventually assigned reservist status by the Ministry of National Defense and transferred from police department.[58] He will complete his mandatory service as a public service worker.[59] The time T.O.P had been dismissed from duty during his prosecution will not count towards his total service.[60][61]

Conscientious objection Edit

The right to conscientious objection is not recognised in South Korea.[62] Usually, over 400 people are imprisoned at any one time for refusing military service, for political or religious reasons. This is contrary to international human rights standards and the government of Korea have been repeatedly criticised for not allowing those whose conscience prevents them from joining the military to undertake some kind of substitute service, rather than imprisoning them.

See also Edit

Republic of Korea Armed Forces

Republic of Korea Army

Republic of Korea Marine Corps

Republic of Korea Navy

Republic of Korea Air Force

References Edit

^ "병역이행안내 - 개요(총괄)" [Military Service Implementation Guide - General Overview]. Military Manpower Organization (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-12-28.

^ a b Lee, Namhee (2007). The Making of Minjung: Democracy and the Politics of Representation in South Korea. Cornell University Press. p. 91. ISBN 0801445663.

^ "S. Korea to expand women's role in military". Yonhap News Agency. 2017-12-20. Retrieved 2017-12-28.

^ "Constitution of the Republic of Korea" (PDF). 1987. p. 12. Retrieved 2017-12-27.

^ Kim, Jongcheol (2012). "Constitutional Law". Introduction to Korean Law. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 78. ISBN 3642316891.

^ a b "Military Service Act, Article 8". Korean Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-29.

^ "History". Military Manpower Administration. Retrieved 2017-12-29.

^ "Military Service Act, Article 5". Korean Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-29.

^ "Military Service Act, Articles 10-14". Korean Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-29.

^ Lent, Jesse (2016-04-01). "'Descendants Of The Sun' Star Song Joong Ki Discusses His Time In The South Korean Army". Korea Portal. Retrieved 2017-12-30.

^ "Military Service Act, Article 18". Korea Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-30.

^ "Military Service Act, Articles 26-43". Korea Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-30.

^ "Conscription 'Should Be Phased Out Slowly'". Chosun Ilbo. 2010-07-06. Retrieved 2017-12-30.

^ Kim, Christine (2010-12-22). "Plan to cut compulsory military service scrapped". Korea JoongAng Daily. Retrieved 2017-12-30.

^ "제68조의11(예술ㆍ체육요원의 추천 등) [Article 68-11: Recommendation of arts and sports personnel, etc.]". 병역법 시행령 [Military Service Act Implementation Rules]. South Korea: Ministry of Government Legislation. 29 November 2016. Retrieved 6 April 2018. 법 제33조의7제1항 전단에서 "대통령령으로 정하는 예술·체육 분야의 특기를 가진 사람"이란 다음 각 호의 어느 하나에 해당하는 사람을 말한다. ... 4. 올림픽대회에서 3위 이상으로 입상한 사람(단체경기종목의 경우에는 실제로 출전한 선수만 해당한다) 5. 아시아경기대회에서 1위로 입상한 사람(단체경기종목의 경우에는 실제로 출전한 선수만 해당한다). [In Article 33, Paragraph 7, Subparagraph 2 of the Act, 'a person having special talents in arts and athletics fields, as defined by presidential order' refers to persons to whom are applicable any one of the provisions of the following subparagraphs. ... 4. A person who received a prize for ranked third or above at the Olympics (in the case of team events, only applicable to athletes who actually participated). 5. A person who received a prize for ranking first at the Asian Games (in the case of team events, only applicable to athletes who actually participated).]

^ "리우에서도 떠오른 축구대표팀 '병역특례'".

^ "Footballer to Be Spared Military Service Despite IOC Probe". Chosun Ilbo. 14 August 2012. Retrieved 2 October 2012.

^ "Medal instead of military service". The Hankyoreh. 11 August 2012. Retrieved 25 February 2013.

^ "들쭉날쭉 병역특례기준 '형평성' 논란…병무청 '누적점수제' 추진" (in Korean). Yonhap News Agency. September 30, 2016.

^ "Park Tae-hwan Enters Army Boot Camp". Chosun Ilbo. 5 October 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2012.

^ "Star Swimmer Says Army Boot Camp Helped Him Grow". Chosun Ilbo. 1 November 2012. Retrieved 4 April 2013.

^ "Hyeon Chung Participates In Korean Military Training - ATP World Tour - Tennis - ATP World Tour - Tennis".

^ 공무원보수규정 '별표 13' 군인의 봉급표(제5조 및 별표 1 관련) . Korea Ministry of Government Legislation (in Korean). Retrieved 28 April 2015.

^ 조, 기호 (18 July 2012). "운동화 한 켤레 못 주는 군(軍)!". Seoul Broadcasting System. Retrieved 4 August 2012.

^ "[보도자료] 예산 없다던 국방부, 사관생도에게는 고가 외국브랜드 운동화 지급". Retrieved 4 August 2012.[dead link]

^ "FAQs-Dual Citizens | U.S. Embassy & Consulate in Korea". U.S. Embassy & Consulate in Korea. Retrieved 2017-10-12.

^ "South Korean singer Rain reports for military service". BBC News. 11 October 2011. Retrieved 2011-10-14.

^ Park, Eun-jee (16 January 2013). "Military service mischief a losing battle". Joongang Daily. Archived from the original on 29 June 2013. Retrieved 4 April 2013.

^ Seo, Ji-eun "Steve Yoo isn’t coming back to Korea" Archived 6 January 2013 at the Wayback Machine. Joongang Daily. 20 October 2011. retrieved 2011-11-08

^ (in Korean) "최지우, '승헌이에게 말 걸어볼까?"[permanent dead link] SSTV. 30 June 2009. Retrieved 2011-11-06

^ "Song Seung-heon, Jang Hyeok Discharged from Military" HanCinema. 16 November 2011. Retrieved 2011-10-14

^ (in Korean) "Song Seung-heon discharged from the army"Yahoo News Korea, 2006-11-18. Archived 14 June 2011 at the Wayback Machine.

^ "Rapper Gets Suspended Jail Term for Draft Dodging" Chosun Ilbo. 12 April 2011. Retrieved 2011-10-14

^ "KBS, MBC release list of 36 banned entertainers" Dong-A Ilbo. 28 September 2011. 2011-10-14

^ Sunwoo, Carla (22 June 2012). "Actor Kim Moo-yul was poor enough to dodge military service". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 27 January 2013. Retrieved 6 October 2012.

^ Lee, In-kyung (21 June 2012). "Kim Moo Yul Involved in Military Scandal after Avoiding Duties". enewsWorld. Retrieved 2012-10-06.

^ "High-Paid Actor Exempted from Draft for Poverty". The Chosun Ilbo. 22 June 2012. Retrieved 2012-10-06.

^ Moon, Gwang-lip (25 June 2012). "Agent says Kim Moo-yul's family situation was 'nearly impossible'". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 11 August 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2012.

^ Sunwoo, Carla (10 July 2012). "Kim Moo-yul kicked off movie set". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 26 January 2013. Retrieved 6 October 2012.

^ Sunwoo, Carla (11 July 2012). "Choi Daniel to replace Kim Moo-yul". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 5 August 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2012.

^ Lee, Hye-ji (5 October 2012). "Kim Moo-yeol to Enter Army, Cleaning out Exemption Rumors". 10Asia. Retrieved 2012-11-18.

^ Sunwoo, Carla (11 October 2011). "Kim Moo-yul enlists after rumors". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 26 October 2012. Retrieved 18 November 2012.

^ "BIGBANG's T.O.P confirms military enlistment date". Yibada. November 22, 2016.

^ "The Full Story Behind T.O.P's Drug Scandal, And The Mysterious Trainee Woman". June 2, 2017. Retrieved June 8, 2017.

^ Jun, R. "BIGBANG's T.O.P To Be Dismissed From Duty For Duration of Prosecution". Soompi. Retrieved 8 June 2017.

^ "Medical expert comments on T.O.P's benzodiazepine overdose | allkpop.com". allkpop. Retrieved 2017-06-09.

^ "BIGBANG's T.O.P hospitalized for drug overdose". YonhapNews. June 6, 2017. Retrieved June 6, 2017.

^ "K-pop superstar T.O.P. in intensive care after overdose". BBC. June 8, 2017. Retrieved June 28, 2017.

^ Kim Jung-kyoon (June 30, 2017). "T.O.P admits to all charges at first hearing". Korea JoongAng Daily. Retrieved July 19, 2017.

^ "Big Bang's T.O.P pleads guilty to pot charges". The Jakarta Post. June 30, 2017. Retrieved 2017-07-19.

^ Park Hyeong-taek (June 29, 2017). "[SC현장] 탑, 대마초 4회 흡연 시인…"공소사실 모두 인정"" [[SC scene] Top, smoking four po ... "All the facts of the charges"]. Sports Chosun (in Korean). Retrieved July 19, 2017.

^ Riddhiman Mukhopadhyay (July 20, 2017). "Rapper T.O.P sentenced at final trial: Apologizes to fans for his actions". International Business Times. Retrieved July 21, 2017.

^ "(LEAD) BIGBANG's T.O.P. gets suspended sentence for marijuana use". Yonhap News Agency. July 20, 2017. Retrieved July 20, 2017.

^ "빅뱅 탑, 재복무심사에서 부적합 결론… 의경신분 박탈" [Big Bang tower is inadequate in re-examination ... Deprivation of state]. Sports Chosun (in Korean). July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.

^ "BIGBANG's T.O.P to lose police post after drug conviction". Yonhap News Agency. July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.

^ "탑, 의경 신분 박탈 '재복무 심사서 부적합 판정'" [Top, disqualification of state of rehabilitation]. Starin E-Daily (in Korean). July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.

^ "BigBang rapper T.O.P cannot continue serving military duty as a policeman". Starits Times. July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.

^ Lee Young-jae (August 28, 2017). "'대마초 흡연' 빅뱅 탑, 의경에서 사회복무 요원 됐다". Korea JoongAng Daily (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.

^ Kim Ji-heon (August 28, 2017). "'대마초' 빅뱅 탑, 오늘 의경 전역…사회복무요원으로 근무". Yonhap News Agency (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.

^ Kim Yoo-jin (August 28, 2017). "'대마초 논란' 탑, 보충역 통보받고 오늘 전역…사회복무요원으로 전환". Herald Economy (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.

^ Hae Kyung Heon (August 28, 2017). "대마초 집유판결 탑 결국 사회복무요원으로, 누리꾼 반응 '냉랭'". Sports Khan (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.

^ "Country report and updates: Korea, South - War Resisters' International". www.wri-irg.org.

Exter

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Author: nyuug (Sucka FREE)

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Date: May 28th, 2018 11:44 PM
Author: The Sheer Entitled Caucasity

Wikipedia Search

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Conscription in South Korea

Conscription in South Korea has existed since 1957 and requires male citizens between the ages of 18 and 35 to perform about two years of compulsory military service.[1][2] Women are not required to perform military service, but may voluntarily enlist.[3]

Establishment Edit

The basis for military conscription in South Korea is the Constitution of the Republic of Korea, which was promulgated on July 17, 1948. The constitution states in Article 39, "All citizens shall have the duty of national defense under the conditions as prescribed by Act."[4][5] The Military Service Act of 1949, which was implemented in 1957, specified that compulsory military service is required for men ages 18 or older.[6][2] Conscription is managed by the Military Manpower Administration, which was created in 1948.[7]

Requirements Edit

Enlistment and physical exam Edit

By law, when a Korean man turns 18 years old, he is enlisted for "first citizen service," meaning he is liable for military duty, but is not yet required to serve.[6][8] When he turns 19 years old (or, in some instances, 20 years old), he is required to undergo a physical exam to determine whether he is suitable for military service. The table below shows the physical exam's possible grades and their outcomes, according to the Military Service Act.[9]

Grade Description Outcome

1, 2, 3, 4 "Those whose physical and psychological constitution is healthy enough to perform active or supplemental service." "To be enlisted for active duty service, supplemental service or the second citizen service, based on their qualifications, such as educational background and age."

5 "Those incapable of entering active or supplemental service, but capable of entering the second citizen service." "To be enlisted for the second citizen service."

6 "Those incapable of performing military service due to any disease or mental or physical incompetence." "To be exempted from military service."

7 "Those unable to be graded...due to any disease or mental or physical incompetence." "To undergo a follow-up physical examination" within two years.

Service types and length Edit

The length of compulsory military service in South Korea varies based on military branch.[10] Active duty soldiers serve 21 months in the Army or Marine Corps, 23 months in the Navy, and 24 months in the Air Force.[11] After conscripts finish their military service, they are automatically placed on the reserve roster and are obligated to attend a few days of annual military training for 6 years.[citation needed]

Non-active duty personnel, or "supplemental service" personnel serve for various lengths: 24 months for social work personnel or international cooperation service personnel; 34 months for arts and sports personnel or industrial technical personnel; and 36 months for public health doctors, lawyers, veterinarians, or expert researchers.[12]

South Korea currently has among the longest military service periods in the world, ranked behind Israel, Singapore, and North Korea.[citation needed] In 2010, there was growing public pressure to either shorten the length of conscription or to switch to voluntary military service, and calls from experts for a gradual phasing out of conscription rather than complete abolition.[13] However, in December 2010, after taking into consideration of the 2010 ROKS Cheonan sinking and Bombardment of Yeonpyeong incidents, the South Korean government said it would not reduce service periods.[14]

Exemptions for Olympic medalists Edit

Current conscription regulations stipulate that athletes who win medals in the Olympic Games or gold medals in the Asian Games are granted exemptions from military service and are placed in Grade 4.[15] They are required to do four weeks of basic military training and engage in sports field for 34 months. After that, they are automatically placed on the reserve roster, and are obligated to attend a few days of annual military training for six years. In practice, after athletes finish their four weeks of basic military training, they are able to continue their own sports career during the 34 months of duty.[16]

Notable athletes who have been granted exemptions from military service are the bronze medal-winning football team at the 2012 Summer Olympics,[17][18] 2008 Olympic gold medalists badminton player Lee Yong-dae[19] and swimmer Park Tae-hwan[20][21] and 2014 Asian Games gold medalist tennis player Hyeon Chung.[22]

Compensation Edit

The following data is from 'Regulation on Public Servant Compensation', implemented on 1 January 2017.[23] Exchange rate as of 2 May 2018 (₩1077 to $1.00USD)

Private (이등병) Private first class (일등병) Corporal (상등병) Sergeant (병장)

₩163,000

$151.35 (approx) per month ₩176,400

$163.79 (approx) per month ₩195,000

$181.06 (approx) per month ₩216,000

$200.56 (approx) per month

Equipment Edit

The Ministry of National Defense has revealed that it has failed to provide sneakers to 7,411 recruits who joined the military from 22 May to 4 June 2012, after the budget was insufficient for need. The Defense ministry originally projected the cost of each pair of sneakers to be 11,000 KRW. However, the actual cost turned out to be 15,000 KRW.[24]

The office of National Assembly member Kim Kwang-jin of Democratic United Party revealed that cadets in Korea Military Academy were provided with sneakers worth 60,000 KRW and tennis shoes. Cadets in Korea Army Academy at Yeongcheon were provided with sneakers worth 64,250 KRW, in addition to running shoes and soccer shoes.[25]

Dual citizens Edit

For dual citizens, or those with multiple citizenships, male South Koreans must choose their citizenship by the time they turn 18, before March 31 of that year. If these males choose to revoke their South Korean citizenship, they will not be required to complete their mandatory military service. However, if they fail to choose their citizenship by their 18th year, they will be subjected to fulfill their mandatory military service.[26] If males choose to renounce their citizenship by their 18th year, they are ineligible to gain a Korean work visa (F series) until after they turn 40 years of age. It may still be possible to gain an E series visa.

Controversies Edit

The South Korean public is sensitive towards the country's mandatory military service, but also has a low tolerance towards those who attempt to dodge or receive special treatment, especially after scandals of wealthy families caught trying to avoid their national duty. Those found or accused of draft dodging and negligence of duty often face harsh penalties and public backlash. According to Ha Jae-keun, a South Korean pop columnist, "The mood against draft-dodgers and negligence of duty is so hostile that nowadays entertainers feel it's better to get it over and done with".[27][28]

Steve Yoo Edit

In 2002, right before Korean American pop singer Steve Yoo was due to be drafted for his military service, he gave up his Korean nationality and became a naturalized U.S. citizen. He was born in Seoul and migrated to the United States at the age of 13. The South Korean government considered it an act of desertion and deported him, banning him from entering the country permanently.[29]

Song Seung-heon Edit

In late 2004, it was revealed that actor Song Seung-heon had avoided his draft by taking medication to fail the military physical examination. Song had previously been exempted by claiming to have severe diabetes and high blood pressure, but that was found by the South Korean government to be false.[30] Amidst press coverage and public outcry, Song publicly apologized and agreed to immediately serve his two-year term in the military. Song was discharged on 15 November 2006 with the rank of Corporal.[31][32]

MC Mong Edit

On 11 April 2011, rapper MC Mong was cleared of intentionally pulling out healthy teeth to be exempted from military duty but was sentenced to a suspended jail term of 6 months, probation for one year, and 120 hours of community service, for deliberately delaying enlistment on false grounds.[33] The court acknowledged that there was a delay in his military enlistment; however, they were unable to determine whether he was guilty of extracting teeth for the purpose of avoiding his military draft. In September 2011, it was reported that Mong has been banned by Korean Broadcasting System (KBS) and Munhwa Broadcasting Corporation (MBC) from appearing in its TV shows, for draft dodging.[34]

Kim Mu-yeol Edit

In June 2012 Kim Mu-yeol came under growing public criticism over allegations he dodged his compulsory military service. In a report released by the Korean Board of Audit and Inspection (BAI), Kim was deemed fit to serve in active duty as a level two recruit after a March 2001 physical examination. However, throughout 2007 to 2009, Kim was granted postponement on the grounds that he was taking civil service examinations or had been admitted to a work training facility, neither of which took place. During this time he reportedly earned approximately ₩300 million from films, musicals and television work. In December 2009, he received his final notice for enlistment, having used up the 730 days allowed for postponement. He submitted a request to change his military status in January 2010 because of a knee injury, which was rejected. Finally, a valid exemption was granted on the grounds that he was a "low-income individual" and the sole provider for his family. BAI's contention was that Kim's income is substantially higher than the standard for disqualification due to poverty; thus, the Military Manpower Administration was negligent in their duties by granting the exemption.[35][36][37]

Kim's agency Prain TPC defended him, stating that Kim had been supporting his family by working as a security guard, construction worker and at a mobile phone factory since his late teens. When his father collapsed from a cerebral hemorrhage and was diagnosed with cancer in 2008, the treatments incurred a lot of debt for the family. Their worsening financial condition caused them to become totally dependent on Kim, resulting in his said filing for an exemption in 2010.[38] Given the publicity, a reinvestigation into the case was launched and Kim was asked by the production company to leave the film 11 A.M. (he was replaced by Choi Daniel).[39][40] On 4 October 2012, Kim released a statement that though there was no wrongdoing on his part, he had decided to voluntarily enter the army "to recover his honor damaged by the rumors."[41][42]

T.O.P Edit

T.O.P began his two-year mandatory military service on February 9, 2017 as a conscripted police officer, where he was set to be discharged on November 8, 2018 after completing the requirements.[43] However, it was announced in June that he would be prosecuted without detention for use of marijuana.[44] He was subsequently transferred to a different police division to await notice of prosecution, and was suspended from police duty pending verdict on his case.[45] A few days after the announcement, T.O.P was found unconscious in police barracks due to a suspected anti-anxiety medicine overdose of prescribed benzodiazepine,[46] and was hospitalized.[47] On June 8, T.O.P's mother confirmed that her son had opened his eyes and was recovering.[48]

On June 29, T.O.P faced his first trial for the marijuana usage charges at the Seoul Central District Court.[49] He pleaded guilty to the charges against him and admitted that he did smoke marijuana on two out of the four instances.[50] T.O.P received two years of probation, with a possibility of ten months' jail time if he violates any terms.[51] At the second court hearing the following month, T.O.P was sentenced to 10 months in prison suspended for two years for illegal marijuana use.[52] He acknowledged all guilty charges. After undergoing a disciplinary review by the police to decide if T.O.P could return as a conscripted policeman or will complete his service as a public service officer,[53] the Seoul Metropolitan Police Agency reviewed T.O.P's current condition and decided T.O.P is unfit to resume service in his previous position.[54][55] A request was made to Army headquarters for a new position for T.O.P to determine either to serve as a public service worker of a full-time reserve soldier to complete his mandatory service.[56][57] T.O.P was eventually assigned reservist status by the Ministry of National Defense and transferred from police department.[58] He will complete his mandatory service as a public service worker.[59] The time T.O.P had been dismissed from duty during his prosecution will not count towards his total service.[60][61]

Conscientious objection Edit

The right to conscientious objection is not recognised in South Korea.[62] Usually, over 400 people are imprisoned at any one time for refusing military service, for political or religious reasons. This is contrary to international human rights standards and the government of Korea have been repeatedly criticised for not allowing those whose conscience prevents them from joining the military to undertake some kind of substitute service, rather than imprisoning them.

See also Edit

Republic of Korea Armed Forces

Republic of Korea Army

Republic of Korea Marine Corps

Republic of Korea Navy

Republic of Korea Air Force

References Edit

^ "병역이행안내 - 개요(총괄)" [Military Service Implementation Guide - General Overview]. Military Manpower Organization (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-12-28.

^ a b Lee, Namhee (2007). The Making of Minjung: Democracy and the Politics of Representation in South Korea. Cornell University Press. p. 91. ISBN 0801445663.

^ "S. Korea to expand women's role in military". Yonhap News Agency. 2017-12-20. Retrieved 2017-12-28.

^ "Constitution of the Republic of Korea" (PDF). 1987. p. 12. Retrieved 2017-12-27.

^ Kim, Jongcheol (2012). "Constitutional Law". Introduction to Korean Law. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 78. ISBN 3642316891.

^ a b "Military Service Act, Article 8". Korean Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-29.

^ "History". Military Manpower Administration. Retrieved 2017-12-29.

^ "Military Service Act, Article 5". Korean Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-29.

^ "Military Service Act, Articles 10-14". Korean Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-29.

^ Lent, Jesse (2016-04-01). "'Descendants Of The Sun' Star Song Joong Ki Discusses His Time In The South Korean Army". Korea Portal. Retrieved 2017-12-30.

^ "Military Service Act, Article 18". Korea Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-30.

^ "Military Service Act, Articles 26-43". Korea Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-30.

^ "Conscription 'Should Be Phased Out Slowly'". Chosun Ilbo. 2010-07-06. Retrieved 2017-12-30.

^ Kim, Christine (2010-12-22). "Plan to cut compulsory military service scrapped". Korea JoongAng Daily. Retrieved 2017-12-30.

^ "제68조의11(예술ㆍ체육요원의 추천 등) [Article 68-11: Recommendation of arts and sports personnel, etc.]". 병역법 시행령 [Military Service Act Implementation Rules]. South Korea: Ministry of Government Legislation. 29 November 2016. Retrieved 6 April 2018. 법 제33조의7제1항 전단에서 "대통령령으로 정하는 예술·체육 분야의 특기를 가진 사람"이란 다음 각 호의 어느 하나에 해당하는 사람을 말한다. ... 4. 올림픽대회에서 3위 이상으로 입상한 사람(단체경기종목의 경우에는 실제로 출전한 선수만 해당한다) 5. 아시아경기대회에서 1위로 입상한 사람(단체경기종목의 경우에는 실제로 출전한 선수만 해당한다). [In Article 33, Paragraph 7, Subparagraph 2 of the Act, 'a person having special talents in arts and athletics fields, as defined by presidential order' refers to persons to whom are applicable any one of the provisions of the following subparagraphs. ... 4. A person who received a prize for ranked third or above at the Olympics (in the case of team events, only applicable to athletes who actually participated). 5. A person who received a prize for ranking first at the Asian Games (in the case of team events, only applicable to athletes who actually participated).]

^ "리우에서도 떠오른 축구대표팀 '병역특례'".

^ "Footballer to Be Spared Military Service Despite IOC Probe". Chosun Ilbo. 14 August 2012. Retrieved 2 October 2012.

^ "Medal instead of military service". The Hankyoreh. 11 August 2012. Retrieved 25 February 2013.

^ "들쭉날쭉 병역특례기준 '형평성' 논란…병무청 '누적점수제' 추진" (in Korean). Yonhap News Agency. September 30, 2016.

^ "Park Tae-hwan Enters Army Boot Camp". Chosun Ilbo. 5 October 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2012.

^ "Star Swimmer Says Army Boot Camp Helped Him Grow". Chosun Ilbo. 1 November 2012. Retrieved 4 April 2013.

^ "Hyeon Chung Participates In Korean Military Training - ATP World Tour - Tennis - ATP World Tour - Tennis".

^ 공무원보수규정 '별표 13' 군인의 봉급표(제5조 및 별표 1 관련) . Korea Ministry of Government Legislation (in Korean). Retrieved 28 April 2015.

^ 조, 기호 (18 July 2012). "운동화 한 켤레 못 주는 군(軍)!". Seoul Broadcasting System. Retrieved 4 August 2012.

^ "[보도자료] 예산 없다던 국방부, 사관생도에게는 고가 외국브랜드 운동화 지급". Retrieved 4 August 2012.[dead link]

^ "FAQs-Dual Citizens | U.S. Embassy & Consulate in Korea". U.S. Embassy & Consulate in Korea. Retrieved 2017-10-12.

^ "South Korean singer Rain reports for military service". BBC News. 11 October 2011. Retrieved 2011-10-14.

^ Park, Eun-jee (16 January 2013). "Military service mischief a losing battle". Joongang Daily. Archived from the original on 29 June 2013. Retrieved 4 April 2013.

^ Seo, Ji-eun "Steve Yoo isn’t coming back to Korea" Archived 6 January 2013 at the Wayback Machine. Joongang Daily. 20 October 2011. retrieved 2011-11-08

^ (in Korean) "최지우, '승헌이에게 말 걸어볼까?"[permanent dead link] SSTV. 30 June 2009. Retrieved 2011-11-06

^ "Song Seung-heon, Jang Hyeok Discharged from Military" HanCinema. 16 November 2011. Retrieved 2011-10-14

^ (in Korean) "Song Seung-heon discharged from the army"Yahoo News Korea, 2006-11-18. Archived 14 June 2011 at the Wayback Machine.

^ "Rapper Gets Suspended Jail Term for Draft Dodging" Chosun Ilbo. 12 April 2011. Retrieved 2011-10-14

^ "KBS, MBC release list of 36 banned entertainers" Dong-A Ilbo. 28 September 2011. 2011-10-14

^ Sunwoo, Carla (22 June 2012). "Actor Kim Moo-yul was poor enough to dodge military service". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 27 January 2013. Retrieved 6 October 2012.

^ Lee, In-kyung (21 June 2012). "Kim Moo Yul Involved in Military Scandal after Avoiding Duties". enewsWorld. Retrieved 2012-10-06.

^ "High-Paid Actor Exempted from Draft for Poverty". The Chosun Ilbo. 22 June 2012. Retrieved 2012-10-06.

^ Moon, Gwang-lip (25 June 2012). "Agent says Kim Moo-yul's family situation was 'nearly impossible'". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 11 August 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2012.

^ Sunwoo, Carla (10 July 2012). "Kim Moo-yul kicked off movie set". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 26 January 2013. Retrieved 6 October 2012.

^ Sunwoo, Carla (11 July 2012). "Choi Daniel to replace Kim Moo-yul". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 5 August 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2012.

^ Lee, Hye-ji (5 October 2012). "Kim Moo-yeol to Enter Army, Cleaning out Exemption Rumors". 10Asia. Retrieved 2012-11-18.

^ Sunwoo, Carla (11 October 2011). "Kim Moo-yul enlists after rumors". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 26 October 2012. Retrieved 18 November 2012.

^ "BIGBANG's T.O.P confirms military enlistment date". Yibada. November 22, 2016.

^ "The Full Story Behind T.O.P's Drug Scandal, And The Mysterious Trainee Woman". June 2, 2017. Retrieved June 8, 2017.

^ Jun, R. "BIGBANG's T.O.P To Be Dismissed From Duty For Duration of Prosecution". Soompi. Retrieved 8 June 2017.

^ "Medical expert comments on T.O.P's benzodiazepine overdose | allkpop.com". allkpop. Retrieved 2017-06-09.

^ "BIGBANG's T.O.P hospitalized for drug overdose". YonhapNews. June 6, 2017. Retrieved June 6, 2017.

^ "K-pop superstar T.O.P. in intensive care after overdose". BBC. June 8, 2017. Retrieved June 28, 2017.

^ Kim Jung-kyoon (June 30, 2017). "T.O.P admits to all charges at first hearing". Korea JoongAng Daily. Retrieved July 19, 2017.

^ "Big Bang's T.O.P pleads guilty to pot charges". The Jakarta Post. June 30, 2017. Retrieved 2017-07-19.

^ Park Hyeong-taek (June 29, 2017). "[SC현장] 탑, 대마초 4회 흡연 시인…"공소사실 모두 인정"" [[SC scene] Top, smoking four po ... "All the facts of the charges"]. Sports Chosun (in Korean). Retrieved July 19, 2017.

^ Riddhiman Mukhopadhyay (July 20, 2017). "Rapper T.O.P sentenced at final trial: Apologizes to fans for his actions". International Business Times. Retrieved July 21, 2017.

^ "(LEAD) BIGBANG's T.O.P. gets suspended sentence for marijuana use". Yonhap News Agency. July 20, 2017. Retrieved July 20, 2017.

^ "빅뱅 탑, 재복무심사에서 부적합 결론… 의경신분 박탈" [Big Bang tower is inadequate in re-examination ... Deprivation of state]. Sports Chosun (in Korean). July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.

^ "BIGBANG's T.O.P to lose police post after drug conviction". Yonhap News Agency. July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.

^ "탑, 의경 신분 박탈 '재복무 심사서 부적합 판정'" [Top, disqualification of state of rehabilitation]. Starin E-Daily (in Korean). July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.

^ "BigBang rapper T.O.P cannot continue serving military duty as a policeman". Starits Times. July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.

^ Lee Young-jae (August 28, 2017). "'대마초 흡연' 빅뱅 탑, 의경에서 사회복무 요원 됐다". Korea JoongAng Daily (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.

^ Kim Ji-heon (August 28, 2017). "'대마초' 빅뱅 탑, 오늘 의경 전역…사회복무요원으로 근무". Yonhap News Agency (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.

^ Kim Yoo-jin (August 28, 2017). "'대마초 논란' 탑, 보충역 통보받고 오늘 전역…사회복무요원으로 전환". Herald Economy (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.

^ Hae Kyung Heon (August 28, 2017). "대마초 집유판결 탑 결국 사회복무요원으로, 누리꾼 반응 '냉랭'". Sports Khan (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.

^ "Country report and updates: Korea, South - War Resisters' International". www.wri-irg.org.

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Conscription in South Korea

Conscription in South Korea has existed since 1957 and requires male citizens between the ages of 18 and 35 to perform about two years of compulsory military service.[1][2] Women are not required to perform military service, but may voluntarily enlist.[3]

Establishment Edit

The basis for military conscription in South Korea is the Constitution of the Republic of Korea, which was promulgated on July 17, 1948. The constitution states in Article 39, "All citizens shall have the duty of national defense under the conditions as prescribed by Act."[4][5] The Military Service Act of 1949, which was implemented in 1957, specified that compulsory military service is required for men ages 18 or older.[6][2] Conscription is managed by the Military Manpower Administration, which was created in 1948.[7]

Requirements Edit

Enlistment and physical exam Edit

By law, when a Korean man turns 18 years old, he is enlisted for "first citizen service," meaning he is liable for military duty, but is not yet required to serve.[6][8] When he turns 19 years old (or, in some instances, 20 years old), he is required to undergo a physical exam to determine whether he is suitable for military service. The table below shows the physical exam's possible grades and their outcomes, according to the Military Service Act.[9]

Grade Description Outcome

1, 2, 3, 4 "Those whose physical and psychological constitution is healthy enough to perform active or supplemental service." "To be enlisted for active duty service, supplemental service or the second citizen service, based on their qualifications, such as educational background and age."

5 "Those incapable of entering active or supplemental service, but capable of entering the second citizen service." "To be enlisted for the second citizen service."

6 "Those incapable of performing military service due to any disease or mental or physical incompetence." "To be exempted from military service."

7 "Those unable to be graded...due to any disease or mental or physical incompetence." "To undergo a follow-up physical examination" within two years.

Service types and length Edit

The length of compulsory military service in South Korea varies based on military branch.[10] Active duty soldiers serve 21 months in the Army or Marine Corps, 23 months in the Navy, and 24 months in the Air Force.[11] After conscripts finish their military service, they are automatically placed on the reserve roster and are obligated to attend a few days of annual military training for 6 years.[citation needed]

Non-active duty personnel, or "supplemental service" personnel serve for various lengths: 24 months for social work personnel or international cooperation service personnel; 34 months for arts and sports personnel or industrial technical personnel; and 36 months for public health doctors, lawyers, veterinarians, or expert researchers.[12]

South Korea currently has among the longest military service periods in the world, ranked behind Israel, Singapore, and North Korea.[citation needed] In 2010, there was growing public pressure to either shorten the length of conscription or to switch to voluntary military service, and calls from experts for a gradual phasing out of conscription rather than complete abolition.[13] However, in December 2010, after taking into consideration of the 2010 ROKS Cheonan sinking and Bombardment of Yeonpyeong incidents, the South Korean government said it would not reduce service periods.[14]

Exemptions for Olympic medalists Edit

Current conscription regulations stipulate that athletes who win medals in the Olympic Games or gold medals in the Asian Games are granted exemptions from military service and are placed in Grade 4.[15] They are required to do four weeks of basic military training and engage in sports field for 34 months. After that, they are automatically placed on the reserve roster, and are obligated to attend a few days of annual military training for six years. In practice, after athletes finish their four weeks of basic military training, they are able to continue their own sports career during the 34 months of duty.[16]

Notable athletes who have been granted exemptions from military service are the bronze medal-winning football team at the 2012 Summer Olympics,[17][18] 2008 Olympic gold medalists badminton player Lee Yong-dae[19] and swimmer Park Tae-hwan[20][21] and 2014 Asian Games gold medalist tennis player Hyeon Chung.[22]

Compensation Edit

The following data is from 'Regulation on Public Servant Compensation', implemented on 1 January 2017.[23] Exchange rate as of 2 May 2018 (₩1077 to $1.00USD)

Private (이등병) Private first class (일등병) Corporal (상등병) Sergeant (병장)

₩163,000

$151.35 (approx) per month ₩176,400

$163.79 (approx) per month ₩195,000

$181.06 (approx) per month ₩216,000

$200.56 (approx) per month

Equipment Edit

The Ministry of National Defense has revealed that it has failed to provide sneakers to 7,411 recruits who joined the military from 22 May to 4 June 2012, after the budget was insufficient for need. The Defense ministry originally projected the cost of each pair of sneakers to be 11,000 KRW. However, the actual cost turned out to be 15,000 KRW.[24]

The office of National Assembly member Kim Kwang-jin of Democratic United Party revealed that cadets in Korea Military Academy were provided with sneakers worth 60,000 KRW and tennis shoes. Cadets in Korea Army Academy at Yeongcheon were provided with sneakers worth 64,250 KRW, in addition to running shoes and soccer shoes.[25]

Dual citizens Edit

For dual citizens, or those with multiple citizenships, male South Koreans must choose their citizenship by the time they turn 18, before March 31 of that year. If these males choose to revoke their South Korean citizenship, they will not be required to complete their mandatory military service. However, if they fail to choose their citizenship by their 18th year, they will be subjected to fulfill their mandatory military service.[26] If males choose to renounce their citizenship by their 18th year, they are ineligible to gain a Korean work visa (F series) until after they turn 40 years of age. It may still be possible to gain an E series visa.

Controversies Edit

The South Korean public is sensitive towards the country's mandatory military service, but also has a low tolerance towards those who attempt to dodge or receive special treatment, especially after scandals of wealthy families caught trying to avoid their national duty. Those found or accused of draft dodging and negligence of duty often face harsh penalties and public backlash. According to Ha Jae-keun, a South Korean pop columnist, "The mood against draft-dodgers and negligence of duty is so hostile that nowadays entertainers feel it's better to get it over and done with".[27][28]

Steve Yoo Edit

In 2002, right before Korean American pop singer Steve Yoo was due to be drafted for his military service, he gave up his Korean nationality and became a naturalized U.S. citizen. He was born in Seoul and migrated to the United States at the age of 13. The South Korean government considered it an act of desertion and deported him, banning him from entering the country permanently.[29]

Song Seung-heon Edit

In late 2004, it was revealed that actor Song Seung-heon had avoided his draft by taking medication to fail the military physical examination. Song had previously been exempted by claiming to have severe diabetes and high blood pressure, but that was found by the South Korean government to be false.[30] Amidst press coverage and public outcry, Song publicly apologized and agreed to immediately serve his two-year term in the military. Song was discharged on 15 November 2006 with the rank of Corporal.[31][32]

MC Mong Edit

On 11 April 2011, rapper MC Mong was cleared of intentionally pulling out healthy teeth to be exempted from military duty but was sentenced to a suspended jail term of 6 months, probation for one year, and 120 hours of community service, for deliberately delaying enlistment on false grounds.[33] The court acknowledged that there was a delay in his military enlistment; however, they were unable to determine whether he was guilty of extracting teeth for the purpose of avoiding his military draft. In September 2011, it was reported that Mong has been banned by Korean Broadcasting System (KBS) and Munhwa Broadcasting Corporation (MBC) from appearing in its TV shows, for draft dodging.[34]

Kim Mu-yeol Edit

In June 2012 Kim Mu-yeol came under growing public criticism over allegations he dodged his compulsory military service. In a report released by the Korean Board of Audit and Inspection (BAI), Kim was deemed fit to serve in active duty as a level two recruit after a March 2001 physical examination. However, throughout 2007 to 2009, Kim was granted postponement on the grounds that he was taking civil service examinations or had been admitted to a work training facility, neither of which took place. During this time he reportedly earned approximately ₩300 million from films, musicals and television work. In December 2009, he received his final notice for enlistment, having used up the 730 days allowed for postponement. He submitted a request to change his military status in January 2010 because of a knee injury, which was rejected. Finally, a valid exemption was granted on the grounds that he was a "low-income individual" and the sole provider for his family. BAI's contention was that Kim's income is substantially higher than the standard for disqualification due to poverty; thus, the Military Manpower Administration was negligent in their duties by granting the exemption.[35][36][37]

Kim's agency Prain TPC defended him, stating that Kim had been supporting his family by working as a security guard, construction worker and at a mobile phone factory since his late teens. When his father collapsed from a cerebral hemorrhage and was diagnosed with cancer in 2008, the treatments incurred a lot of debt for the family. Their worsening financial condition caused them to become totally dependent on Kim, resulting in his said filing for an exemption in 2010.[38] Given the publicity, a reinvestigation into the case was launched and Kim was asked by the production company to leave the film 11 A.M. (he was replaced by Choi Daniel).[39][40] On 4 October 2012, Kim released a statement that though there was no wrongdoing on his part, he had decided to voluntarily enter the army "to recover his honor damaged by the rumors."[41][42]

T.O.P Edit

T.O.P began his two-year mandatory military service on February 9, 2017 as a conscripted police officer, where he was set to be discharged on November 8, 2018 after completing the requirements.[43] However, it was announced in June that he would be prosecuted without detention for use of marijuana.[44] He was subsequently transferred to a different police division to await notice of prosecution, and was suspended from police duty pending verdict on his case.[45] A few days after the announcement, T.O.P was found unconscious in police barracks due to a suspected anti-anxiety medicine overdose of prescribed benzodiazepine,[46] and was hospitalized.[47] On June 8, T.O.P's mother confirmed that her son had opened his eyes and was recovering.[48]

On June 29, T.O.P faced his first trial for the marijuana usage charges at the Seoul Central District Court.[49] He pleaded guilty to the charges against him and admitted that he did smoke marijuana on two out of the four instances.[50] T.O.P received two years of probation, with a possibility of ten months' jail time if he violates any terms.[51] At the second court hearing the following month, T.O.P was sentenced to 10 months in prison suspended for two years for illegal marijuana use.[52] He acknowledged all guilty charges. After undergoing a disciplinary review by the police to decide if T.O.P could return as a conscripted policeman or will complete his service as a public service officer,[53] the Seoul Metropolitan Police Agency reviewed T.O.P's current condition and decided T.O.P is unfit to resume service in his previous position.[54][55] A request was made to Army headquarters for a new position for T.O.P to determine either to serve as a public service worker of a full-time reserve soldier to complete his mandatory service.[56][57] T.O.P was eventually assigned reservist status by the Ministry of National Defense and transferred from police department.[58] He will complete his mandatory service as a public service worker.[59] The time T.O.P had been dismissed from duty during his prosecution will not count towards his total service.[60][61]

Conscientious objection Edit

The right to conscientious objection is not recognised in South Korea.[62] Usually, over 400 people are imprisoned at any one time for refusing military service, for political or religious reasons. This is contrary to international human rights standards and the government of Korea have been repeatedly criticised for not allowing those whose conscience prevents them from joining the military to undertake some kind of substitute service, rather than imprisoning them.

See also Edit

Republic of Korea Armed Forces

Republic of Korea Army

Republic of Korea Marine Corps

Republic of Korea Navy

Republic of Korea Air Force

References Edit

^ "병역이행안내 - 개요(총괄)" [Military Service Implementation Guide - General Overview]. Military Manpower Organization (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-12-28.

^ a b Lee, Namhee (2007). The Making of Minjung: Democracy and the Politics of Representation in South Korea. Cornell University Press. p. 91. ISBN 0801445663.

^ "S. Korea to expand women's role in military". Yonhap News Agency. 2017-12-20. Retrieved 2017-12-28.

^ "Constitution of the Republic of Korea" (PDF). 1987. p. 12. Retrieved 2017-12-27.

^ Kim, Jongcheol (2012). "Constitutional Law". Introduction to Korean Law. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 78. ISBN 3642316891.

^ a b "Military Service Act, Article 8". Korean Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-29.

^ "History". Military Manpower Administration. Retrieved 2017-12-29.

^ "Military Service Act, Article 5". Korean Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-29.

^ "Military Service Act, Articles 10-14". Korean Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-29.

^ Lent, Jesse (2016-04-01). "'Descendants Of The Sun' Star Song Joong Ki Discusses His Time In The South Korean Army". Korea Portal. Retrieved 2017-12-30.

^ "Military Service Act, Article 18". Korea Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-30.

^ "Military Service Act, Articles 26-43". Korea Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-30.

^ "Conscription 'Should Be Phased Out Slowly'". Chosun Ilbo. 2010-07-06. Retrieved 2017-12-30.

^ Kim, Christine (2010-12-22). "Plan to cut compulsory military service scrapped". Korea JoongAng Daily. Retrieved 2017-12-30.

^ "제68조의11(예술ㆍ체육요원의 추천 등) [Article 68-11: Recommendation of arts and sports personnel, etc.]". 병역법 시행령 [Military Service Act Implementation Rules]. South Korea: Ministry of Government Legislation. 29 November 2016. Retrieved 6 April 2018. 법 제33조의7제1항 전단에서 "대통령령으로 정하는 예술·체육 분야의 특기를 가진 사람"이란 다음 각 호의 어느 하나에 해당하는 사람을 말한다. ... 4. 올림픽대회에서 3위 이상으로 입상한 사람(단체경기종목의 경우에는 실제로 출전한 선수만 해당한다) 5. 아시아경기대회에서 1위로 입상한 사람(단체경기종목의 경우에는 실제로 출전한 선수만 해당한다). [In Article 33, Paragraph 7, Subparagraph 2 of the Act, 'a person having special talents in arts and athletics fields, as defined by presidential order' refers to persons to whom are applicable any one of the provisions of the following subparagraphs. ... 4. A person who received a prize for ranked third or above at the Olympics (in the case of team events, only applicable to athletes who actually participated). 5. A person who received a prize for ranking first at the Asian Games (in the case of team events, only applicable to athletes who actually participated).]

^ "리우에서도 떠오른 축구대표팀 '병역특례'".

^ "Footballer to Be Spared Military Service Despite IOC Probe". Chosun Ilbo. 14 August 2012. Retrieved 2 October 2012.

^ "Medal instead of military service". The Hankyoreh. 11 August 2012. Retrieved 25 February 2013.

^ "들쭉날쭉 병역특례기준 '형평성' 논란…병무청 '누적점수제' 추진" (in Korean). Yonhap News Agency. September 30, 2016.

^ "Park Tae-hwan Enters Army Boot Camp". Chosun Ilbo. 5 October 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2012.

^ "Star Swimmer Says Army Boot Camp Helped Him Grow". Chosun Ilbo. 1 November 2012. Retrieved 4 April 2013.

^ "Hyeon Chung Participates In Korean Military Training - ATP World Tour - Tennis - ATP World Tour - Tennis".

^ 공무원보수규정 '별표 13' 군인의 봉급표(제5조 및 별표 1 관련) . Korea Ministry of Government Legislation (in Korean). Retrieved 28 April 2015.

^ 조, 기호 (18 July 2012). "운동화 한 켤레 못 주는 군(軍)!". Seoul Broadcasting System. Retrieved 4 August 2012.

^ "[보도자료] 예산 없다던 국방부, 사관생도에게는 고가 외국브랜드 운동화 지급". Retrieved 4 August 2012.[dead link]

^ "FAQs-Dual Citizens | U.S. Embassy & Consulate in Korea". U.S. Embassy & Consulate in Korea. Retrieved 2017-10-12.

^ "South Korean singer Rain reports for military service". BBC News. 11 October 2011. Retrieved 2011-10-14.

^ Park, Eun-jee (16 January 2013). "Military service mischief a losing battle". Joongang Daily. Archived from the original on 29 June 2013. Retrieved 4 April 2013.

^ Seo, Ji-eun "Steve Yoo isn’t coming back to Korea" Archived 6 January 2013 at the Wayback Machine. Joongang Daily. 20 October 2011. retrieved 2011-11-08

^ (in Korean) "최지우, '승헌이에게 말 걸어볼까?"[permanent dead link] SSTV. 30 June 2009. Retrieved 2011-11-06

^ "Song Seung-heon, Jang Hyeok Discharged from Military" HanCinema. 16 November 2011. Retrieved 2011-10-14

^ (in Korean) "Song Seung-heon discharged from the army"Yahoo News Korea, 2006-11-18. Archived 14 June 2011 at the Wayback Machine.

^ "Rapper Gets Suspended Jail Term for Draft Dodging" Chosun Ilbo. 12 April 2011. Retrieved 2011-10-14

^ "KBS, MBC release list of 36 banned entertainers" Dong-A Ilbo. 28 September 2011. 2011-10-14

^ Sunwoo, Carla (22 June 2012). "Actor Kim Moo-yul was poor enough to dodge military service". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 27 January 2013. Retrieved 6 October 2012.

^ Lee, In-kyung (21 June 2012). "Kim Moo Yul Involved in Military Scandal after Avoiding Duties". enewsWorld. Retrieved 2012-10-06.

^ "High-Paid Actor Exempted from Draft for Poverty". The Chosun Ilbo. 22 June 2012. Retrieved 2012-10-06.

^ Moon, Gwang-lip (25 June 2012). "Agent says Kim Moo-yul's family situation was 'nearly impossible'". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 11 August 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2012.

^ Sunwoo, Carla (10 July 2012). "Kim Moo-yul kicked off movie set". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 26 January 2013. Retrieved 6 October 2012.

^ Sunwoo, Carla (11 July 2012). "Choi Daniel to replace Kim Moo-yul". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 5 August 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2012.

^ Lee, Hye-ji (5 October 2012). "Kim Moo-yeol to Enter Army, Cleaning out Exemption Rumors". 10Asia. Retrieved 2012-11-18.

^ Sunwoo, Carla (11 October 2011). "Kim Moo-yul enlists after rumors". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 26 October 2012. Retrieved 18 November 2012.

^ "BIGBANG's T.O.P confirms military enlistment date". Yibada. November 22, 2016.

^ "The Full Story Behind T.O.P's Drug Scandal, And The Mysterious Trainee Woman". June 2, 2017. Retrieved June 8, 2017.

^ Jun, R. "BIGBANG's T.O.P To Be Dismissed From Duty For Duration of Prosecution". Soompi. Retrieved 8 June 2017.

^ "Medical expert comments on T.O.P's benzodiazepine overdose | allkpop.com". allkpop. Retrieved 2017-06-09.

^ "BIGBANG's T.O.P hospitalized for drug overdose". YonhapNews. June 6, 2017. Retrieved June 6, 2017.

^ "K-pop superstar T.O.P. in intensive care after overdose". BBC. June 8, 2017. Retrieved June 28, 2017.

^ Kim Jung-kyoon (June 30, 2017). "T.O.P admits to all charges at first hearing". Korea JoongAng Daily. Retrieved July 19, 2017.

^ "Big Bang's T.O.P pleads guilty to pot charges". The Jakarta Post. June 30, 2017. Retrieved 2017-07-19.

^ Park Hyeong-taek (June 29, 2017). "[SC현장] 탑, 대마초 4회 흡연 시인…"공소사실 모두 인정"" [[SC scene] Top, smoking four po ... "All the facts of the charges"]. Sports Chosun (in Korean). Retrieved July 19, 2017.

^ Riddhiman Mukhopadhyay (July 20, 2017). "Rapper T.O.P sentenced at final trial: Apologizes to fans for his actions". International Business Times. Retrieved July 21, 2017.

^ "(LEAD) BIGBANG's T.O.P. gets suspended sentence for marijuana use". Yonhap News Agency. July 20, 2017. Retrieved July 20, 2017.

^ "빅뱅 탑, 재복무심사에서 부적합 결론… 의경신분 박탈" [Big Bang tower is inadequate in re-examination ... Deprivation of state]. Sports Chosun (in Korean). July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.

^ "BIGBANG's T.O.P to lose police post after drug conviction". Yonhap News Agency. July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.

^ "탑, 의경 신분 박탈 '재복무 심사서 부적합 판정'" [Top, disqualification of state of rehabilitation]. Starin E-Daily (in Korean). July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.

^ "BigBang rapper T.O.P cannot continue serving military duty as a policeman". Starits Times. July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.

^ Lee Young-jae (August 28, 2017). "'대마초 흡연' 빅뱅 탑, 의경에서 사회복무 요원 됐다". Korea JoongAng Daily (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.

^ Kim Ji-heon (August 28, 2017). "'대마초' 빅뱅 탑, 오늘 의경 전역…사회복무요원으로 근무". Yonhap News Agency (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.

^ Kim Yoo-jin (August 28, 2017). "'대마초 논란' 탑, 보충역 통보받고 오늘 전역…사회복무요원으로 전환". Herald Economy (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.

^ Hae Kyung Heon (August 28, 2017). "대마초 집유판결 탑 결국 사회복무요원으로, 누리꾼 반응 '냉랭'". Sports Khan (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.

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Exter

(http://www.autoadmit.com/thread.php?thread_id=3345436&forum_id=2#36142782)



Reply Favorite

Date: September 14th, 2018 1:19 AM
Author: nyuug (I fuck white girls in my MUSTANG. You? Post on Xoxo.)

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(http://www.autoadmit.com/thread.php?thread_id=3345436&forum_id=2#36805881)



Reply Favorite

Date: November 26th, 2018 10:56 PM
Author: nyuug (אני אוהבΧͺ אΧͺ Χ”Χ–Χ™ΧŸ הקוריאני שלך - u mad?)



(http://www.autoadmit.com/thread.php?thread_id=3345436&forum_id=2#37306375)



Reply Favorite

Date: November 27th, 2018 12:00 AM
Author: nyuug (אני אוהבΧͺ אΧͺ Χ”Χ–Χ™ΧŸ הקוריאני שלך - u mad?)



(http://www.autoadmit.com/thread.php?thread_id=3345436&forum_id=2#37306823)



Reply Favorite

Date: November 29th, 2018 11:22 PM
Author: nyuug (אני אוהבΧͺ אΧͺ Χ”Χ–Χ™ΧŸ הקוריאני שלך - u mad?)



(http://www.autoadmit.com/thread.php?thread_id=3345436&forum_id=2#37324784)



Reply Favorite

Date: November 29th, 2018 11:41 PM
Author: "'''"''"

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(http://www.autoadmit.com/thread.php?thread_id=3345436&forum_id=2#37324951)



Reply Favorite

Date: November 29th, 2018 11:49 PM
Author: nyuug (אני אוהבΧͺ אΧͺ Χ”Χ–Χ™ΧŸ הקוריאני שלך - u mad?)

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(http://www.autoadmit.com/thread.php?thread_id=3345436&forum_id=2#37325008)



Reply Favorite

Date: January 21st, 2019 6:17 PM
Author: nyuug (Fuck EVERY DAY ALL DAY)



(http://www.autoadmit.com/thread.php?thread_id=3345436&forum_id=2#37635406)



Reply Favorite

Date: June 13th, 2019 1:45 AM
Author: nyuug (900+ females fucked and counting. 1000 baby!)



(http://www.autoadmit.com/thread.php?thread_id=3345436&forum_id=2#38382091)



Reply Favorite

Date: July 11th, 2019 11:03 PM
Author: nyuug (I fuck 17 yr old spinners. You? Post on Xoxo.)

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(http://www.autoadmit.com/thread.php?thread_id=3345436&forum_id=2#38518508)



Reply Favorite

Date: July 18th, 2019 4:27 AM
Author: nyuug (I fuck 17 yr old spinners. You? Post on Xoxo.)

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(http://www.autoadmit.com/thread.php?thread_id=3345436&forum_id=2#38549749)



Reply Favorite

Date: November 29th, 2019 12:33 AM
Author: nyuug (1000 girls. GG.)



(http://www.autoadmit.com/thread.php?thread_id=3345436&forum_id=2#39188484)



Reply Favorite

Date: January 14th, 2020 3:01 AM
Author: nyuug (10,000 Year Korea. WGWAG!)

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(http://www.autoadmit.com/thread.php?thread_id=3345436&forum_id=2#39427952)